Sitting near a private house or cottage in the summer heat, you probably imagined how cool it would be to plunge into the cool water of your own pool. You probably drove away the thought of his device, but she persistently returned and literally pursued on hot days. Maybe you should not abandon such an excellent idea?
After all, you can build a simple pool with your own hands, investing a minimum of funds in the construction. And in this we are happy to provide you with effective assistance by providing full-fledged information support. Here you will learn about the varieties of artificial reservoirs and features of choosing a place for the location of the bowl.
We have collected for you popular design options and technologies for their construction. Detailed description supplemented by explanatory diagrams, step-by-step photo instructions and video.
The content of the article:
- Design planning and selection
Installation of a concrete pool
- Ditch and sand and gravel pad
- Concreting the bottom of the pool
- Formwork and wall casting
- Waterproofing and finishing
The construction of the pool with a bowl on the surface
- Stage # 1 - Base and Frame
- Stage # 2 - frame waterproofing
- Stage # 3 - Connecting Communications
- Stage # 4 - the arrangement of important details
- Alternative options for the construction of the bowl
- Useful can be seen on the topic
Design planning and selection
To begin, of course, with the project. First you need to assess the condition of the site, determine the place where the pool will be located, choose the size of the container, the configuration of the bowl, etc.
The important point is the level of occurrence of the groundwater horizon first from the surface. If this indicator is less than one meter, i.e. ground waters run high, it is not recommended to build a stationary pool in the pit.
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The type of pool arranged at the dacha is determined only by the preferences of the owners and the size of the free area on the site. A permanent plastic pavilion or temporary awning can be erected over the structure.
One of the simplest options for a pool device is to purchase a frame construction, for installation of which you only need to protect the bottom from breaks.
If there is a paved area in the landscaped area or there is an opportunity to pour a concrete base, an inflatable bowl of an artificial reservoir will do.
An uncomplicated installation process will be with buyers of a solid or plastic plastic bowl, but there may be complications with transporting a pleasant purchase.
A more costly, but already more solid option - building a bowl of lumber or brick on the surface. Minus all surface structures - insufficient depth
Fiberglass bowl factory performance can be partially buried in the ground, and for convenience to build a pedestal
The most expensive and long-term way to get a swimming pool in the country - pour concrete into the formwork for the bottom with walls and bring communications
In contrast to temporary structures, a stationary pool with a concrete bowl can be equipped with special effects: waterfalls, backflows, jacuzzi-type nozzles
Option pool facilities in the country
Easy-to-install frame construction
Inflatable pool on the paved area
Assembling a pool of plastic modules
Device hard frame on the surface
Construction of a pool with a concrete bowl
Special effects stationary pool
Alternatively, you can consider installing a portable frame or inflatable model.
Choosing a place for own pool facilitiesThe following recommendations of specialists should be taken into account:
- The pool should be located at a sufficient distance from a residential building and other buildings, since the close proximity of these structures can have a destructive effect on the integrity of the foundation of the building.
- It is undesirable to have a pool in close proximity to trees or to plant them subsequently, so that the root system, attracted by a large amount of moisture, does not grow and does not destroy the frame structures.
- The presence of a large number of trees near the pool also increases the intensity of its pollution with foreign debris and stimulates the growth of algae.
- Best of all, clay soils are suitable for the construction of a pool, which serve as an additional barrier to ground moisture; if there is a choice, just such a site should be allocated for the pool.
- Digging a large pit manually - the task is extremely labor-intensive, it is better to choose a place to which construction equipment can be brought: an excavator, a concrete mixer, perhaps a crane, etc.
When the place is chosen, you need to take a piece of paper and draw on it the future construction. You should choose the configuration of the bowl and its depth, as well as designate the location of all communications: place of water supply, ladder for descent, place of installation of the filter, overflow, lighting, external lighting and etc.
At the planning stage, it is necessary to consider the type of pumping and water purification. The diagram shows a skimmer type pool. The pumping of contaminated water is performed from the surface by a skimmer, and after cleaning it is heated, it is fed through opposite nozzles (+)
In addition to the main place for draining, it is recommended to provide an emergency water discharge system. Electrical wires must be laid in the corrugation.
At this stage it is necessary to take into account the predominant wind direction on the site. Trash that falls on the surface of the water by wind will be demolished to a specific side of the pool.
The overflow type of artificial reservoirs assumes outflow of the polluted water through the overflow trench in the capacity tank with the same name. After cleaning and heating, it is returned to the pool through the nozzles located in the bottom area.
In the building stores you can find sets of equipment for swimming pools, including everything you need for installation.
Such a set may include:
- waterproofing materials;
- materials for the walls of the pool;
- flanges and nozzles;
- filter, pump, skimmer;
- PVC film for finishing, etc.
The basic set can be supplemented with other elements, depending on the features of the project of the future pool.
The easiest way to set up a pool for the summer season is to purchase a prefabricated version with accessories and equipment included in the package
When choosing the dimensions of the structure, it should be remembered that for one adult person, a depth of 1.5 m is considered suitable for swimming, and the recommended the length of the pool is about 5 m. If you intend to install a springboard for jumping or a tower, then you should build a pool 2.5 m deep or more.
The deeper the pool, the larger the volume of its bowl, the thicker the pool walls should be made, respectively, the more materials will be needed to perform the work.
We should also discuss the configuration of the future basin. Here, the following principle should be remembered: the more complicated the outlines of the bowl, the more effort will be needed to implement the project and the subsequent maintenance of the basin.
The easiest way is to build a pool with a rectangular, round or oval outline of the bowl. If all these points are taken into account in advance, and the project is made correctly, much less problems will arise during construction.
For example, if there is no clear project, at the end of the pot pouring, it is necessary to drill additional concrete in order to make holes for communications.
When choosing a pool of incorrect configuration, it should be borne in mind that the difficulties during its installation and maintenance can increase significantly.
Installation of a concrete pool
Since working with a concrete mix is well known to most builders, a swimming pool cast from this material is considered the most affordable option for independent production. But you can't call it simple and easy.
Ditch and sand and gravel pad
As mentioned earlier, it is best to attract an excavator to dig a hole. If there is no such possibility, for example, there are no access roads for such cumbersome machinery, you can perform these works manually, although this will require much more time.
To prevent the walls of the pit from crumbling during excavation, they should be given a slight bias. The bottom should have a slope towards the drain
So that the walls of the pit do not crumble, in the process of excavation they are given a small bias. In the center of the bottom of the bowl do additional deepening for the device of a separate drainage well. The bottom of the pit should also have a small slope (5-7%), directed to the place of water flow.
Backfilling starts from the drainage well. It is simply filled with rubble and tamped flush with the surface of the bottom of the pit. After that, the bottom is covered with a layer of sand and gravel. At the same stage it is necessary to think over the features of installation of drainage structures, etc.
First, a layer of sand about 20-30 cm thick is put on the bottom, which is carefully and evenly tamped. Then a 10 cm gravel pad is laid on top, which should also be tamped.
Regardless of the shape of the bowl and the material from which it is made, the pit is constructed in a certain sequence. First, choose the soil, then pave the communication, strengthen the bottom and walls, in the end set the bowl (+)
Concreting the bottom of the pool
After installing the communications, you can start pouring the bottom with concrete.
The mixture can be prepared independently according to the following recipe:
- 625 kg of sand;
- 325 kg of cement;
- 1250 kg of crushed stone;
- 170 liters of water.
Since it will take a lot of concrete, it makes sense to buy, rent or even make a concrete mixer with your own hands. To calculate the required amount of the mixture and its components, you can use an online calculator. Such services are on many sites of suppliers of cement and building materials.
It makes sense also to consider the possibility of purchasing ready-mixed concrete from industrial production, especially if special equipment can be fitted directly to the construction site. In the recommendations on how to make a pool of concrete with your own hands, there are two options for concreting the bottom of the pit.
In the first case, the concrete screed layer is 5 cm thick at first. Then a reinforcement layer is mounted on top, which is poured with another layer of screed.
Some masters recommend reducing time and effort using the second fill option. In this case, first assemble the reinforcement, which is installed at some distance from the sand and gravel pad with the help of props (pieces of brick will do).
Before pouring the bottom of the pit for the pool with a concrete tie, fittings made of metal rods 6-8 mm thick are placed on it
Then the concrete solution is poured to the bottom so that it covers the bottom of the pit and all reinforcement. For the preparation of concrete solution is recommended to use cement grade M 400 or higher. The reinforcing mesh can be made of metal wire 6-8 mm.
The recommended cell size is 150-200 mm. The rods can be welded, but it will be easier to simply fix their position with a thin wire. Now you need to wait for the drying of the concrete screed. From time to time, the surface of the concrete is moistened with water in order to achieve uniform drying.
Formwork and wall casting
Now you need to make a formwork to make the walls of the pool bowl of concrete. for this you will need a 30 mm board. It should immediately be ensured that mounting holes are provided in which the pool equipment will be installed.
In order to improve the adhesion of the fresh mortar to an already laid concrete base, the foundation must be moistened before starting work. With the same purpose, aluminum powder is added to the solution for the first layer of the wall.
Formwork for pouring the walls of a concrete pool can be made of boards or plywood. To increase the strength of the structure, it is strengthened with a bar.
For formwork, it is not necessary to use new boards without fail, even old used structures will be suitable, for example, with traces of old paint, etc. The main thing is that they can withstand the weight of concrete. Moisture-proof plywood is also suitable for this purpose. It is bent, so it is more convenient than the board when creating a non-standard formwork.
Formwork should be further strengthened with ribs. They are made of timber 50x50 mm. The ribs are set approximately 500 mm apart. If the stationary ladder is made of concrete, the crate must be made separately for it.
They also make the reinforcement in advance, which is needed to give the concrete walls of the pool additional strength. Metal rods set immediately after the first layer was poured, until the concrete had time to harden.
After that, the concrete is poured in layers, the thickness of each is about 150 mm. After about four days, the concrete will be hard enough so that the formwork can be removed.
Waterproofing and finishing
After complete drying of the concrete work can continue. First perform waterproofing works. Some masters consider it necessary to isolate only the so-called cold seams, others advise laying a layer of waterproofing over the entire surface of the pool bowl.
The role of waterproofing is quite suitable roofing material, sheets of which are laid with an overlap of about 200 mm. You can also use liquid rubber, bitumen, PVC membrane or modern construction mixtures with hydrophobic properties. It is important to take into account the costs, since the area of the pool basin is usually large, and such building mixtures are quite expensive.
Liquid waterproofing on the surface of the bowl of the concrete basin is applied in two layers, between which it is necessary to install a reinforcing mesh
To improve the quality of waterproofing work, you must first align the walls by sanding. If you are using liquid waterproofing, which is sprayed on the walls, you need to apply two layers. At the same time between the first and second layer is recommended to lay a reinforcing mesh.
After the waterproofing is dry, you need to check its quality. For this pool is filled with water and left for 10-12 days. Measure the water level at the beginning and at the end of this period. A small difference between these figures is quite expected, since the water evaporates from the surface.
But if the water decreases too rapidly, then the waterproofing is done incorrectly, the work should be repeated. After that, the pool surface can be plastered with a suitable composition to prepare the base for further finishing. On the top of the pool make a decorative curb. It can be cast from concrete or laid out of brick.
It remains to install the remaining equipment, and then veneer the walls of the pool finishing material. Most often used for this ceramic tiles. Due to the pressure of the water layer, the walls of the bowl may be slightly deformed. This is not reflected in the state of the tile too well: it cracks or crumbles.
To prevent such an unpleasant phenomenon, you need to make a wide seam between the tiles, and for grouting use a composition with high elasticity. It is quite difficult to lay tiles on uneven surfaces. Owning swimming pools with a complex configuration is better to use not a tile, but a mosaic.
After finishing the finishing work, you need to wait a little more time for the glue to dry well. After that, you can fill the pool with water to check the quality of its manufacture and equipment operation.
Instead of coating and penetrating options for providing waterproofing of the pool walls, a polymer membrane can be used. It is recommended to lay in two layers, the seams of the material are welded with hot air (+)
The construction of the pool with a bowl on the surface
A completely acceptable at the price and cost of the construction option of the organization in the pool dacha is the construction of a frame from the board with the installation of a waterproofing shell inside it.
Stage # 1 - Base and Frame
To install a structure located completely on the day surface, you need to build a rigid, even base that can withstand the weight of water and bathing people in the bowl, and build a frame:
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Before the pool was filled up with sand, rammed and leveled the platform, steel supports were installed to stabilize future walls.
A reinforced polymer waterproofing material of high density was laid on the prepared base.
From the tongue-and-groove board they collected the starting crown of the frame. For the construction of the pool the board was prepared in advance: chose the grooves for the connection
The connecting knot, formed by the hem, is reinforced with a galvanized screw on wood
Assembling the walls of the frame for the dacha pool is made on the principle of construction of the crowns of a log or log house
For convenience, pre-washed and fitted boards are laid out near the walls for which they are intended to be erected. It is better to number the elements in advance.
To obtain flawless tongue and groove joints, they are compacted by tapping through an auxiliary bar, so as not to damage the tongue.
In the course of laying control the horizontal of each board. Only after checking the level of screws screwed
Step 1: Installation of the base and installation of supports
Step 2: Laying the waterproofing on the base
Step 3: Assembling a frame from a grooved board
Step 4: Duplication with a cut-in screw
Step 5: Construction of the pool walls
Step 6: Erection of thick plank walls
Step 7: Rules for Rugging a Damming Board
Step 8: Screw the screws into the nodal connections
Stage # 2 - frame waterproofing
After the construction of the frame it should be equipped for connecting communications, pumping and control equipment, prepare for laying the internal waterproofing coating and for installing additional fixtures.
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At the height of the planned water edge, holes were cut in the walls for entering the pipe on the sand filter and for the skimmer
After the formation of technological holes, the horizontal position of the elements is once again checked, which could be disturbed when drilling
Before laying the foiled coating inside the pool frame, the walls are clean of burrs, the bottom is carefully vacuumed
In the prepared frame lay waterproofing reinforced coating, equipped with foil on the back side
In order to evenly distribute the waterproofing coating inside the frame, its edges are fixed with clamps on the side of the bowl in several places.
Trying not to damage the waterproofing, gently distribute the material inside the wooden bowl. Wrinkles on the coating should not be
After careful leveling and scrupulous smoothing of the waterproofing shell, its edge is nailed to the side with galvanized nails.
After attaching the waterproofing inner shell, it is fixed with a finishing plate around the bowl perimeter. However, this work is best done after the complete arrangement
Step 9: Forming Holes for the Filter and Skimmer
Step 10: Check the horizontal position after cutting the holes
Step 11: Preparing the inner surface for waterproofing.
Step 12: Laying the waterproofing coating in the frame
Step 13: Fixing the edge of the waterproofing for leveling
Step 14: Adjustment of waterproofing to real dimensions
Step 15: Fastening Lined Waterproofing
Step 16: Installation of the final pool perimeter plank
Stage # 3 - Connecting Communications
A pool is a hydraulic structure, for the normal operation of which and to provide bathing conditions, a number of technical systems are required: a pump, a group of filters, etc.
The technique requires weather protection, which will be performed by the box, confined to the narrow wall of the bowl.
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Selecting the narrow side of the pool, convenient for future use, install vertical guides in the board passes
To assemble the walls of the box, horizontal guides are set equal to the width of the box under the equipment
Following the same principles, according to which the walls of the frame were built, the walls of the box are assembled
As a support for the device of the roof of the box are installed bars, fixed with metal corners. Doors hang at the final stages
Before installing in the box sand filter assembled according to the manufacturer's instructions
The equipment in the constructed box must be installed so that the working parts and the loaded units are available for repairs and periodic maintenance.
A sand-filled filter is supplemented with a coarse filter installed in front of it. The system must be equipped with a pressure gauge for monitoring.
In order that the pool equipment does not suffer from rains, winds and the attendant impacts, a roof box with a blitz-control hatch is installed on the box
Step 17: Vertical Guide
Step 18: Installing the Horizontal Bar
Step 19: Assembling the walls of the room
Step 20: Installing the girders for the roof box
Step 21: Preparing pool equipment for connection
Step 22: Equipment arrangement rules
Step 23: Using a Pressure Gauge to Control Pressure
Step 24: Roof Boxing to Protect Equipment from Rain and Dust
Stage # 4 - the arrangement of important details
At the end, the swimming pool built on the summer cottage is equipped for ease of operation and maintenance.
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Built box must be closed by the door. It is possible to knock it out of the board, then hang it on belt or metal hinges.
If the area is well guarded, then a wooden wedge can serve as a lock for the door, which, during the long absence, will replace a padlock-type padlock
For comfortable use of the pool they build a ladder and fix it to the wall of the box.
In order to prevent injuries while swimming, arrange a fence with handrails
For the convenience of entering and exiting the pool inside a stainless steel alloy staircase is installed.
In order to protect the pool bath from dust and leaves during the “idle” period, an awning and fixtures are installed
Before closing the pool and the water in it from the external atmospheric negative, the metal ladder immersed in the bowl is removed
If the wooden frame overruns are not satisfied, they can be cut off, and the corners sewn up with metal slats.
Step 25: Hanging the door leaf
Step 26: Lock for room with appliances
Step 27: Assembling and Installing a Ladder
Step 28: Build Handrails Over Box
Step 29: Stainless Steel Ladder to Pool
Step 30: Awning for an open bowl of a country pool
Step 31: Tarpaulin Use Rules
Step 32: Strengthening the edges of the pool frame
Alternative options for the construction of the bowl
When figuring out how to build a concrete pool, you should not forget about alternative options for the construction of the bowl.
For its construction you can use:
- concrete blocks;
- expanded polystyrene blocks;
- steel sheet;
- finished fiberglass or plastic construction.
When using concrete blocks, the pool bottom is poured first, but the walls of the bowl are laid out of these very blocks. Every third row of masonry should be reinforced to give the structure additional strength. You can also make a stationary ladder out of blocks, instead of a ladder, which is not so convenient.
The walls of the pool can be laid out of concrete blocks. Every third row of masonry should be reinforced. The surface of the bowl must be treated with waterproofing, and then carry out finishing work.
Next, the bowl is processed in the same way as the monolithic structure: waterproofing and finishing works are being carried out. As a decorative coating, you can use a special PVC film.
It looks very attractive, it is much cheaper than ceramic tile, and it is much easier to lay it at times. But the life of this material is only 5-7 years, then the finish will have to be updated.
PVC film is a convenient material for swimming pools. It is easy to install and looks attractive, but serves only a few years.
Polystyrene foam blocks of a large format are also placed on a concrete base. They are connected using the grooves and ridges provided by the design.
The material is very easy to use, because it weighs a little. If necessary, the blocks are cut with a regular hacksaw.
Pool with walls of polystyrene blocks is not difficult to do. The structure should be reinforced, and then pour the concrete solution into special holes.
After masonry is finished, the pool equipment and fittings should be installed. It is placed inside the cavities available in the blocks.
The space between the pipes of communications and polystyrene foam is blown with foam. After that, liquid concrete is pumped into the cavity with reinforcement. When the design is dry, you can begin to finish the finished bowl.
The steel sheet pool can be made on a concrete base or on carefully compacted soil, although the latter is not as reliable as a screed. Since the steel sheet is supplied in a roll, it is most convenient to make a bowl in the form of a circle, oval or “figure eight”.
The steel sheet basin can be made round or oval. Such structures can be recessed into the ground or located on the surface.
The edges of the sheet are connected with a special profile, which allows to avoid welding. After installing the bowl, it is covered with PVC film and filled with water so that the finishing material is tightly pressed against the walls of the bowl. For fixing the film on the top of the side use mounting profile. After that install the technical equipment of the pool.
A finished bowl made of fiberglass, plastic or modern composite materials is an expensive pleasure, even if you choose a standard design, rather than a custom one.
For delivery and installation of the bowl will have to use a crane and other special equipment. First, dig a pit of suitable configuration. Then its bottom line, covered with a layer of rubble or gravel and rammed.
The ready pool bowl is not easy to deliver and install in the pit, but its further installation is relatively simple, since waterproofing and finishing is not needed
After that, you can lower the bowl to the bottom of the pit. The space between the walls of the pit and the bowl is filled with soil and tamped. Such structures usually do not need additional waterproofing and finishing. It remains to install the equipment and start operating the pool.
The weight of such pools is usually relatively low, so owners of sites with a high level of soil freezing should be careful. In winter, frozen groundwater can simply push the bowl to the surface.
Useful can be seen on the topic
The experience on pouring the bowl of a small rectangular pool made of concrete is clearly demonstrated here:
This video details the process of finishing the pool with PVC film:
Practical experience in the operation of the pool and an overview of possible errors, as well as ways to eliminate them, can be viewed in the following video:
Equipping your own pool on the site can be done even by a novice master. To do this, you need to properly design the structure, and then perform all the necessary work, exactly following the technology. With proper care, a homemade pool will serve for many years.
Want to get your own swimming pool, but have not decided which one is better to choose? Maybe there is already experience in the construction or have something to recommend to us and site visitors? Please write comments in the block below, give an opinion, ask questions, post a photo on the subject of the article.