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The workshop for working with wooden products uses a variety of tools, machines and installations. Some woodwork machines for the home workshop are used very often, while others are designed to perform only some specific highly specialized work. It should be noted that working with wood at home is very different from working in a woodworking or carpentry shop.
This article will give an overview of some of the popular machines for the woodworking workshop, and also tells about their purpose.
Grinding machines are used to impart to a wooden product, or rather its surface, an ideal smoothness. On which machines can not only be processed new products. The grinding machine on a tree allows to carry out repeated processing already ready or even used in the life of wooden parts that deteriorated during operation or lost their smoothness surface.
Depending on the functional purpose and design features, such apparatuses are divided into:
- tape type;
- disc-type (orbital);
Although all these machines have different structures and work out the material in different ways, they all have the same function - to give the surface of the wooden product a perfectly smooth appearance. It is worth noting that industrial wood processing machines have many more varieties than those used at home. Moreover, the functionality of industrial devices is much wider, and their capabilities far exceed the capabilities of devices that can be used in home workshops.
At home, mini-machines for grinding wood are most often used. When processing small parts of their functional is sufficient.
Sawing equipment is a machine that allows you to cut wooden products or parts in a straight line. In self-made wood processing workshops, machines with a disk cutting element are most often chosen.However, depending on the particular operation of the main cutting element, the sawing equipment is divided into the following types:
- Disk. This equipment, which has a smooth working surface and a disk saw. During operation, the wooden element is fed to the disc in the direction along the bed. The disk cuts the material so thinly and smoothly that it does not have any chips, stratification, and so on.
- Strip. In this apparatus, the cutting process is performed by a strip saw. However, in home workshops use such woodworking machines very rarely, because they are very bulky and bulky. They are more often used in industrial sawmills.
- With a flexible saw. Such equipment can have a different saw (tape, rope or chain). In industrial conditions, use only tape, but for work in the home you can choose any of the above. The device of this type cuts material fast enough, quietly, and the speed of work on this device exceeds the speed of work on the disk.
Working on such a machine, you must adhere to all safety rules, because all cutting elements are very sharp and dangerous!
Circular saws have some similarities with sawing equipment. The functions of the circular woodworking machine are:
- Dissection of sawn timber both along and across.
- Manufacturing of wooden beams.
- Sawing of plywood.
- Manufacturing of glazing beads.
A circular saw is a wood machine that can be made by hand.
By type of construction circular saws can be divided into three categories:
- Desktop. Used in domestic conditions. The weight of such a machine varies up to 25 kg. You can install such a device on any working surface, for example, on a table.
- With stand. This machine is also portable, but equipped with a special stand, which allows you to handle boards of great length.
- Stationary. Most often, such woodworking machines are used in industrial production. It is stationarity, that is, the immobility and stability of the design allows you to perform work on this device very accurately and qualitatively.
For all of the above circular saws, you must select different cutting disks.
The main purpose of the thicknessing machine on wood is to smooth the surface of the wood element. In addition, such machines are used to calibrate all the same type of products to one size.
The design of the various plants allows cutting both along the wood and across.
The device has a working surface in the form of a table. It consists of 2 parts. One of them serves a wooden element, and the other takes it. Between these surfaces is a special shaft in the form of a knife, which produces cutting. After cutting, the wooden element enters the receiving table. In this part of the machine there are special rollers that support the bar.
When choosing such a device, you should pay attention to the way the lumber is fed into the working area. Some models only provide manual feed, in others it can happen automatically.
The planer is an equipment that is used to process wood blanks. Different jointing machines have different characteristics, but their main purpose is to pre-process the tree before it is processed on other machines.
These wood processing machines can be of 2 kinds:
One-sided work is performed only on one side of the wooden element, the two-sided have the possibility of simultaneous processing of two sides (contiguous).
In addition, such machines are divided by the type of feed billets:
A machine with an automatic feeder method uses a special conveyor mechanism or an integrated automatic document feeder.
Copying machines (often made in models "copy-milling" or "Turning-copying") are designed to create a copy of a sample of a wooden product, maximally close to the original. Such devices allow you to perform work quickly enough, sometimes making several copies of a part at the same time.In such machines, the template copy technique is used. This technology allows you to achieve the same shape of all elements of a particular part, as well as accurately copy this part one or more times. Thus, the possibility of a technological error is practically eliminated, since most of the processing steps of the sawn timber are made automatically.
It should be noted that copiers have a fairly compact size, but at the same time high strength even at frequent operation, they work long time without breakages and repair if in time to carry out service devices. Moreover, the copying and milling machines make it possible to produce elements with maximum accuracy similar to each other.
Planers are used to impart the desired shape to the wood blank. After processing a wooden product on such a machine, its surface is perfectly smooth and smooth, with no burrs, chips and delaminations.
The design of this device allows to carry out processing of a wooden part in any plane:
- inclined at any angle.
This possibility is achieved due to the fact that all planing machines for wood processing have a guide bar that adjusts the angle of inclination. Due to the fact that the whole structure is strong enough and stable, when working in different planes can achieve high precision processing of wood material, since the level of vibration is minimal.
The working surface of this unit is divided into two parts:
Between these parts is a moving knife shaft. Its main task is to cut a thin part of a wooden part. When the piece of wood moves along the worktable, the rollers hold the part.
The planer may have two or three knives. If there are three of them, the quality of timber processing significantly improves. To such a device there is a replaceable set of knives. Some are designed to work with soft lumber, others are harder.
The choice of knives depends on the tree from which the concrete bar is made.
Band Saw Machine
Band saws used for cutting a tree, have the main difference is that with their help it is possible to cut wood, giving it any shape. This device allows you to make cuts as a straight form, and curvilinear.
By the method of location such machines are classified into such varieties:
Depending on how automated the work in this design is, these machines are divided into:
- fully automatic (they are used mainly in industry);
- semi-automatic (used to make furniture, in such machines the work of cutting saw and vice is automated);
- manual (in these devices the material must be hand-fed, and the sawing process is also manually adjusted, such machines are considered household, used in private workshops).
Also, such apparatuses are classified according to the type of tape:
- with narrow saws (from 2 to 6 cm, most often used for making furniture);
- with wide saws (from 10 to 30 cm).
If we consider these machines depending on their power, they appear on:
In the home workshops are mostly machines of small dimensions and not very bulky, semi-automatic or manual.
Combined machines - a device that is often used to treat wood at home. This is very convenient, as it is often not possible to equip the home workshop with a variety of working installations.
A combined machine can perform many functions simultaneously, for example:
Industrial combined woodworking machines can be divided into two conditional categories:
The main differences of these two types are the dimensions, engine parameters, power supply voltage.
Moreover, some machines for wood of the combined type can be made homemade, and with the same success it is used in house conditions.
As can be seen from the material described in this article, for different types of wood processing there are special installations, each of which copes with its task. Some of them can partially interchangeability of the functional of each other. Some machines, for example, copying, are intended only for the performance of a certain work. A separate type of woodworking machines for domestic workshops - combined. Their functionality is wider, and the scope of application extends to many stages of wood processing. It is these devices are most often chosen for work at home.