Siberia is the largest territorial region of the Russian Federation. In the severe sharp-continental climate of this region, it is not easy to grow fruit orchards that bear fruit. Not every fruit tree will pass the test of Siberia and will please with juicy tasty fruits.
Recently, pear has been very popular among Siberian gardeners. It turned out that she was very well established in cold Siberia. The main thing is to choose the right varieties for planting. For today it is not difficult to do this, since Russian breeders have advanced far in this direction and have brought out a number of varieties of pears with high winter hardiness. Optimum fit for the Siberian latitudes: Perun, Lel, Severyanka, Siberian, Taiga, and other frost-resistant varieties, with a description and characteristics which can be found below..
Table of contents
- Varieties of pear varieties in Siberia: description and description
- Variety of pears Taiga
- Autumn dream
- Care and cultivation of winter hardy pear varieties
- Preparation of Siberian pears for winter
Varieties of pear varieties in Siberia: description and description
The autumn variety of pear Perun was taken to the Scientific Research Institute of Horticulture in Siberia. Barnaul in 1994 by young breeders by pollination of hybrid forms.In 1998, the first varieties planted in the West Siberian and East Siberian regions, where they safely got accustomed and fertilized.
Perun is a pear of late ripening maturity.Fruits can be removed from the middle of October and before the onset of frost. Unripe fruit, having lain some time after removal, become juicy, do not lose taste qualities.
The tree is not high with spreading crowns, blossoms in later terms (hence the ripening of fruits). Fruits of medium and large sizes are golden yellow.The average weight of one pear is 150-200 grams. The taste of the fruit is sweet and sour, but not very juicy. Fruits are consumed fresh, dried to make dried fruits.
The main advantage of pear varieties "Perun" is high resistance to scab and other fungal diseases.
Timing of planting in the ground of seedlingsdifferent, depending on the climatic conditions of the area. For low-snow areas, a spring planting is recommended in order to avoid the freezing of the seedlings. Before planting, the pear is recommended to soak for two days in water, then planted. Fruit-bearing tree begins 4-5 years after planting.
The disadvantages of this class includelow level of winter hardiness. Therefore, it is desirable to grow this variety in the southern regions of Siberia.
Early ripening, years of proven pear variety, loved by gardeners. Derived in 1967 by crossing the French variety BereBosk and Ussuri pear. He settled down in the Altai and Krasnoyarsk regions.
Yield of varietyaverage, fruiting ungrowing (19-20 kg from a tree). Trees of medium height with a dense crown. After planting, bear fruit for 4 years. Fruits ripen by the middle of September, stored at room temperature for up to three weeks. In cold rooms storage time increases until January.Fruits are small in weight 75-77 grams. Color green, when stored in room conditions turns yellow. The taste is sweet and sour, the fruits are juicy and tender. They are used fresh and processed.
Lack of variety- frequent damage to the pear fletcher - a butterfly family of leaf rollers, with which gardeners successfully struggle: they clean the dead bark, use traps, etc.
Dignity of Svarog:high consumer values due to excellent taste qualities and high frost resistance of wood.
Lel-grade pear of summer ripening, deduced in the Institute of Horticulture of Siberia. Has received wide recognition in Western and Eastern Siberia.
A tree of medium height, from 4 to 6 meters in height, fructifies annually.Productivity high(up to 45 kg from a tree). Fruits are yellow-green in color, medium size.Fetal weight 100-110grams. Harvest is collected at the end of August. At room temperature pears are kept for two three days. The taste of the fruit is sweet and sour, juicy, tender, so consumers are in high demand.
Seedlings are planted in spring and autumn. It is important that they are not "snatched" by frost. After planting, the variety "Lel" loves copious watering. Capriciously refers to the quality of the soil, it grows better on loam. Fruits for 4 years after disembarkation. Good frost resistance.
The only drawback of this variety- low transportability, due to short storage times.
Severyanka is a reliable, for years tested grade of pears for the Siberian severe climate. The history of obtaining this variety extends since 1959, at the Michurin Institute a grade for cold winters was brought to light by the Svetlanka, which turned after improvement and completion into the present Severyanka.Its main advantage: a strong frost resistance and the ability to recover quickly after severe winters.
Today, Severyanka is hardly used in production, as modern, higher-yielding varieties have appeared. But amateur gardeners appreciate this variety for its reliability and winter hardiness, therefore, in private gardens of Siberians its popularity has not fallen. There were cases when the seedlings did not die at 50 degrees below zero.
Early ripening variety of pears. Fruits in the second year of life. The tree is low.Fruits are average: 80-100 grams. Productivity is high. In the hot summer, up to 100 kg of pears can be removed from the tree. Harvesting takes place from the beginning to the end of August. During the harvesting period, the fruits are greenish-yellow, then gradually turn yellow. The taste is sweet and sour, the consistency is dense, the pulp is juicy.
"Severyanka" likes abundant regular watering, lack of moisture adversely affects the development of the fetus: the taste is deteriorating, the fruits are small..
Variety of pears Taiga
This is the result of the crossing of varieties Tenderness and Hanging, a recently introduced variety.Pear - summer ripening, high yield.The tree is a medium-sized tree, begins to bear fruit for 4 years of life. Valuable: care-free in use. Productivity is high, regular.The fruits are poured by the end of August, a small size of up to 90 grams. Strongly hold on the branches, do not crumble. The color of ripe pears is green, without shades. The taste of the fruit is sweet dessert, the consistency of the pulp is oily, white. Universal in production: used fresh, juices, compotes, wines.
The variety is winter-hardy, drought-resistant, not afraid of pests, resistant to scab and gall mite.
There are no obvious shortcomings in this grade,except that the fruit is stored no more than a month.
Variety of pears, bred by Khabarovsk breeder A.M. Lukashev.Wild Ussuri pear has been crossed with different cultivars to improve frost resistance. This strong variety of pears has found recognition in all areas of Siberia.
The height of the trees reaches 5 meters.Unusually high yields:it is possible to collect more than 200 kg from a tree. Fruit in a year. Fruits of a variety of shapes, from elongated to cubic. The size of the fetus is large, 100-200grams. But their quality leaves much to be desired.Unsuccessful fruits are sour and tart, it is worth a little overzealge, juiciness disappears, the fruit softens and falls apart. Therefore, this variety of pears is not in demand among consumers as a useful tasty fruit, but has become indispensable for conservation. From unripe fruits make jam and compotes. Jam of them - a delicious filling for baking. Dried fruits from this variety are stored for a long time and do not lose taste and useful properties.
Lukashovka does not like strong moisture.Can grow and bear fruit on any soil. The variety can not pollinate itself, so pollination must occur by the pollen of another nearby tree.
Dekabrinka, a relatively young variety of pears, the "brainchild" of the South Ural Research Institute. He gained great popularity in Western Siberia.
Pear of the period of autumn ripening. The tree grows to five meters in height. Ripe fruit appears by the end of September.Crop yield is high enough. The fruits are small, shiny, dark green in medium size (up to 120grams). The flesh of the fruit is juicy, white, tastes sweet and sour with a light, delicate aroma. At room temperature, the fruit is stored for one to three months.Well tolerate long-term transportation. It is desirable for fresh consumption, not for processing.
Dekabrinka is very frost-resistant. Confirmation: in the severe Siberian winter of 1979, 98% of seedlings survived. The variety does not "take" the scab and the gall mite. Drought tolerance is medium.
A variety with a late flowering period, not self-pollinating. Therefore, it is recommended to plant trees - pollinators. The optimal sort of pear - donor - Uralochka, Larinskaya.
Lack of this variety- late onset of fruiting, comes on 7 year after planting.
Unfortunately, the name does not correspond to reality, becausethe variety was not widely spread due to small fruits.
The tree is low, sparse, the yield is high, but the marketable appearance of the fruit leaves much to be desired. The ripening period comes to the end of August, beginning of September.Fruit of sweet and sour taste of medium density with a long shelf life. At a temperature of up to 5 - 10 degrees keep the presentation and taste qualities up to six months. The variety is more suitable for processing than for consumption in raw form. Compotes, jam, juices - are ideal from this variety of pears.
The variety is resistant to scab and other pests..
Care and cultivation of winter hardy pear varieties
Many years of experience of gardeners shows that growing pears in Siberia is not only possible, but if certain rules are observed, it is fruitful.
Important to remember:
- pear - a plant that loves warmth, then it must be planted in light, protected from external factors, places;
- northern pear varietiesneed additional watering in the first half of summer, while the fetus is forming;
- great importancesoil composition: black earth is desirable;
- planted seedlings preferably in spring in the period from the end of April and until mid-May, pre-feeding the soil with mineral fertilizers;
- every springYou need to cut through the crowns and remove excess shootsin order to increase the yield;
- for protection against insectsIt is desirable to apply lime mortar to the barrel every spring.
Preparation of Siberian pears for winter
To the pear safely suffered a frosty Siberian wintery, we must carefully prepare for it. For this:
- remove old fruits on branches, the fallow and the fallen leaves to be carried off the site, as they are the source of infectious diseases for plants;
- pruning, the release of the cortex from the dead growths - a mandatory procedure before wintering;
- importantto process a crown and a trunk from a scab, for this, it is safer to use a 5% urea solution, and not pesticides;
- to increase frost resistanceit is necessary to feed the tree with potassium or phosphorus fertilizers;
- mandatory rule -to bore a tree with earth, and after precipitation, snow, to retain heat in the root system. In the case of a little snowy winter, it is recommended to wrap the trunk of the tree with roofing felt or roofing felt. These materials will also protect the tree from a terrible enemy - rodents.
In this way,the cultivation of pears in Siberia, a grateful business, bringing not only a good harvest to the growers, but also giving scope for creativity. With good care, observance of norms and rules of cultivation, the pear can give an excellent harvest and an occasion for pride to its breeders..