Moniliosis is a disease that affects a huge number of fruit crops, and it is very difficult and long to struggle with it. But ifto carry out special preventive and therapeutic measures, you can save your harvest from spoiling. And why apples begin to rot on the tree and how to do preventive maintenance, we'll talk further..
Table of contents
- Why do the fruits rot on the branches of the apple tree?
- Causes of the appearance of fruit rot
- Symptoms of moniliasis
- What to do if rotting apples directly on the tree, how to deal with rot?
- Prevention of this disease in the spring and autumn: spraying and fertilizer
Why do the fruits rot on the branches of the apple tree?
This problem is faced by a huge number of gardeners. Get rid of it is not so simple. And if we are to talk, to forget forever, then in general it is unreal.
Particular activity of the disease is characterized in a hot and humid summer. Namely, these are the seasons in recent years.
The use of multiple spraying with fungicides significantly simplifies the whole process of controlling moniliasis. But we can not talk about a full solution to the problem.The main reason for this situation is the impossibility of simultaneous treatment of all nearby trees and plants with medicinal preparations. Plus, the development of spores can occur even in microfractures of the fetus or the bark of the tree. A variety of pests of another type can damage them. "Bad helpers" in this matter may be wasps, scab, powdery mildew and leafworm, which can create characteristic damages to activate moniliosis. And in a couple of days, the tree is already hit. It remains only to wait for the active signs and symptoms of the disease of fruit rot.
If you do not break all the infected fruits and do not burn them, the situation will repeat in the next year. That's just the number of infected apples will be much more. In the late autumn, rotten fruits and infected leaves are also worth destroying.
After carrying out preventive works to combat fruit rot and spraying trees with special compounds, you can be calm for your future harvest.
Causes of the appearance of fruit rot
A variety of species of fungi of the genus Monilia are able to get on the surface of pome and stone fruit trees, including ornamental plants, to cause the appearance of the disease. Itis called moniliolysis and damages fruits, shoots and leaves, actively spreading not only on the source, but also throughout the garden.
In the early spring, when the weather is very damp, the spores of the causative agent of fruit rot fall on the pistil of the inflorescence. Actively gaining strength, the fungus moves deep into the plant, contributing to the withering of the inflorescences and leaves, as well as the drying of the shoots. The affected parts of the tree are kindled with fire. This phenomenon is called monilial burn, which is considered a spring form of manifestation of the disease.
The fungus can easily overwinter in the form of mycelium in infected parts of the tree and in mummified apples and pears..
Symptoms of moniliasis
The moniliasis of apple trees is characterized by an incubation period. From the time of infection to the formation of the first signs of fruit rotting can take about five days. Whereas sporulation begins a little later, in ten days. It is from this time on that the tree begins to ache.
The main signs of fruit rot in trees are the following:.
- in the beginning, the firstworm-eaters;
- apple fleshbecomes soft and brown;
- putrefaction begins with a smallspeck of brown color;
- thisthe speck spreads over the surface of the appleuntil it has filled most of the apple with rot;
- on a rotting surfacethere are gray specks, which are considered the place of formation of conidia;
- an apple with timebegins to turn blackdirectly on the tree, then fall, it is from this moment that the infection begins near the located fruits;
- with the number of ripening fruitsincreases and the number of infected apples;
- if the infected fruit is not removed in time,the disease will shiftthrough the fruit stem to other fruits;
- this mushroom can overwinterand in the spring again to continue to infect the tree with renewed vigor;
- youngthe ligature will fade, and twigs spoil.
What to do if rotting apples directly on the tree, how to deal with rot?
Thanks to the implementation of competent agrotechnical measures, it is not always possible to avoid the spread of the disease. thereforemost often the use of fungicides must.
In early springgardeners recommend that all trees be treated with copper-containing agents (eg, 3% Bordeaux liquid) or Horus (according to the instructions).
Alreadybefore blossomingyou must process the trees again. That's just the Bordeaux liquid is already 1%. And if you have seen at least one fallow, manipulation is worth repeating again.
In autumn, in September or October, when the harvest of apples will be fully assembled, spraying of trees should be repeated. But already a solution of copper sulfate with calculation, kg of the preparation per 10 liters of water. And each tree must be carefully treated with at least three liters of a medicinal solution. Only in this way you can destroy the remains of the spores, affecting the root crop.
To the great regret,for today there are no varieties of apple trees that would have been resistant to monolysis. Practice shows that the least affected are Slavyanka, Pepin saffron and Parmen winter gold. And if for several years you can not get rid of this disease, what amazed your apple trees, it is better to give preference to these varieties..
Prevention of this disease in the spring and autumn: spraying and fertilizer
The most effective method of combating moniliasis is the prevention of the disease, which is recommended to be produced from autumn.It is not necessary to leave on the surface of the earth a single infected leaf or fetus. As with the advent of spring, the remaining disputes are activated and will begin their pernicious influence again. To completely destroy the infected elements, you must burn everything.
With the advent of the spring season, it is recommended to cut dry branches, whitewash lime trunk and skeletal branches. This will eliminate the controversy that could overwinter on the bark. Wells of trees should be carefully digested and add a few fertilizers to the soil, for example, phosphorus or potash mixtures. And since the formation of the first ovary, it is best to treat all the bone-bearing trees with a fungicidal drug. These manipulations are recommended to be performed three times per season. And the last spraying is advised to do for a couple of weeks before the collection of fruits.
Avoid overmoistening of the land near the trees. As this environment is ideal for the further development of the disease. Plus to everythingexcess moisture can cause cracks in the bark. And through these vulnerable areas, the pores can freely enter the tree.
The constant observance of such simple preventive measures will save the tree from further infection and save the harvest..
If your apple trees are affected by fruit rot,It is important not to miss the moment, and in time to take measures to save their plantations. Only a constant and timely struggle against the disease can guarantee the safety of the entire crop in the future. Therefore, you have strength and patience, gardeners and lovers..