The best solution for processing sewage in suburban conditions is to install a local treatment plant - septic or biological treatment plant.
As components that accelerate the decomposition of organic waste, septic tanks to serve bacteria - beneficial microorganisms that cause no harm to the environment. Agree to find the right composition and dose bioactivators, you need to understand how they work and know the rules of their application.
These issues are detailed in the article. The information will help the owners of a local sewage system to improve the functioning of the septic tank and to facilitate maintenance.
The content of the article:
- Environmental processing of sewage
Basic principles of anaerobic purification
- Where did anaerobes
- Conditions for the existence of bacteria
- How does anaerobic treatment
- Scheme VOCs using anaerobic bacteria
Especially aerobic treatment
- Advantages and disadvantages of aerobes
- Scheme VOC aerobic purification
- Rules applying bioactivators
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Environmental processing of sewage
Information about aerobes and anaerobes interest those who decided buy septic tank for the suburban area, or want to "upgrade" an existing cesspool.
To find the right types of bacteria and determining dosage (according to the manual), you can improve the performance of the simplest storage-type structures or to adjust the operation of more complex devices - two-three-chamber septic tank.
Biological treatment of organic matter - a natural process that has long been used by man for economic purposes.
Protozoa, eating of human activity waste in a short time turning them into a solid mineral precipitate and the clarified liquid fat floats to the surface and film-forming.
All objects to mark the autonomous sewerage systems need to use for their work biological agents
Regardless of the centralized sewer network reset different types of waste: gray, coming from the baths, kitchens and showers, and mixed, originating from sorted and listed objects
To activate the processes of wastewater pumping stations in the mass needed as anaerobic as aerobic bacteria
Complex means including spores aerobic bacteria, are loaded into the sewer system with aeration tanks, because this type of micro-organisms need oxygen
The volatile septic tanks, waste water processing by settling and separation, using anaerobic bacterial species that do not require oxygen supply to their lives
Aerobic bacteria are loaded not only in the sewer plant, producing a deep cleaning, but also in the soil after-treatment system
Drugs with aerobes are loaded into wells collector distributing drains through drain pipes or filter field Infiltrator
Means with colonies of aerobic bacteria prepared for the absorption is introduced into the wells, thereby improving the processing speeds and
Separate bathroom area
Shower and bath facilities
Complex formulations for stations
Living conditions for aerobic
Anaerobic bacteria for septic tanks
filtration field as a post-treatment method
The use of bacteria in the household and sanitary purposes it is advisable for the following reasons:
- Natural microorganisms, developing and living according to the laws of nature, do not harm the flora and fauna. This fact must be considered the owners of private plots that free territory is used for the cultivation of garden and vegetable crops, lawns and flower beds.
- Removing the need to purchase aggressive chemicals, in contrast to the natural elements, a negative effect on soil and plants.
- The smell is characteristic of industrial and household waste, it feels much weaker or even disappears.
- Bioactivators cost is small compared to the benefit that they bring.
Due to soil contamination and water environmental problem affected country houses, villages and territory rustic buildings - a cottage settlement. Due to the action of bacteria-techs its part can be solved.
two types of bacteria are involved in the sewerage system: anaerobic and aerobic. More information about the two types of microorganisms features help you to understand the action of septic tanks and reservoirs, in principle, as well as the nuances of maintenance treatment structures.
Especially for maintenance of septic tanks and reservoirs launched production of household bioactivators that are different low cost and simple method for preparing (+)
Basic principles of anaerobic purification
Microorganisms capable of functioning in anoxic space are called anaerobes or anaerobic bacteria. We will try to understand the place they occupy in the wastewater treatment system.
Where did anaerobes
It should be understood that strains of anaerobic bacteria for domestic septic tanks have not been specifically derived by artificial means (although it is now established and the production of new, more active strains), they have always been part of nature.
Microorganisms can exist without oxygen, are developing in a swampy and just damp soil, silt in the soil at a great depth. Some species are actively involved in the formation of humus and humus formed by the digestion of dead plants and dead animals.
Microorganisms which function in the soil and in the water (in ponds, sewers, lakes), produce cleansing liquid separating minerals and gases. This ability is useful when the device and the sewer and septic tanks sumps
Processing of anaerobic type occurs drain water in sealed containers. An example of such capacity in the country is a street toilets- "birdhouse" with cesspool. The fermentation process is carried out by anaerobic bacteria which secrete during their life methane and heat.
Anaerobic purification principle is also used in household devices (drives, septic tanks), and industrial plants (digesters). Anaerobic fermentation is actively used in breeding farms and poultry farms.
Conditions for the existence of bacteria
For the existence of microorganisms special conditions are needed, including:
- sequestering - the absence of oxygen, with the exception of facultative anaerobes;
- temperature conditions - 9ºS from + to + 37 ° C, the optimal value - + 28 ° C;
- pH value - the pH level of 6 to 8;
- Regular cleaning - collection of the solid precipitate.
Because the fermentation process part of the substances is lowered onto the bottom and rot, another rises upward. The liquid remains turbid, often has a black color. When injected into the reservoir a large amount of oxygen the bacteria may be killed.
Negative temperature also is the primary threat, so cesspools recommend insulate.
Anaerobic bacteria are effective biological product to accelerate the fermentation process in the storage cesspools. An example of the drive is a summer-type cottage toilet
Anaerobes for normal life need liquid medium that is at least 2/3 of the container should be filled with water. If time does not cause scavengers, the amount of solid precipitate reaches a critical point and the bacteria start to die.
If storage volume is not equal to the number of tenants will have the capacity to empty quite often - 2-3 times a month. Therefore, the choice of a septic tank must be taken carefully evaluate the options and compare them with the upcoming operating conditions.
Learn more about choosing the sewage treatment plant, see the this article.
How does anaerobic treatment
The collapse of the organics in the storage pits occurs in two stages. First, one can observe the sour fermentation, accompanied by a large number of bad smell.
This process slowly flowing during which primary sludge is formed marsh or gray, also emits a pungent smell. Occasionally sludge pieces come off from the wall and move upward together with gas bubbles.
Over time, gases are caused zakisaniya fill the entire volume of the container, displace oxygen and create an environment ideal for the development of anaerobic bacteria. From that moment, the collapse of an alkaline sewage - methane fermentation.
It has a completely different nature and, accordingly, different results. For example, the peculiar smell vanishes completely and yl becomes very dark, almost black.
Scheme VOCs using aerobes and anaerobes: two-chamber construction, the calculated 95 percent purification of effluents with additional purification on drainage field (+)
If a small part of the sludge with alkaline anaerobes placed in a drive or a host cell septic tank, the decomposition process will be more efficient, and will take place during the oxidation is much faster.
In the absence of live sludge must purchase appropriate composition bioactivator - solution or dry substance in the form of tablet or powder, which is a complex of "sleeping" anaerobic bacteria septic tank.
Due anaerobes waste biomass in the sump quickly decays into a solid precipitate and liquid gases, and two-chamber septic tank cleaned about 65-70%.
Initiate and accelerate the processing of waste in cesspools and septic tanks, bulk storage means, consisting mainly of dry spores of anaerobic bacteria
Anaerobes live and processed waste water in sealed containers, do not need oxygen. With their help, the oxidation process is carried out, then the fermentation
Means with anaerobes supplied in dry powder form and a liquid solute embodiments. Origin cheaper, can be introduced into the sewer in powder form but without the prior dissolution decreases the effectiveness of the
Anaerobic bacteria destroying odors, process wastewater, facilitating their razlozheniyayu water and the insoluble precipitate, which is for evacuating twice a year call requires scavengers
For cesspools and septic tanks
Basics of anaerobic bacteria
The format of delivery tools with bacteria
The result of anaerobic bacteria
Advantages of anaerobic treatment:
- a small amount of bacterial biomass;
- effective mineralization of organic matter;
- aeration absence hence saving on additional equipment;
- the use of methane (in large quantities).
Disadvantages include strict adherence to conditions for the existence: certain temperature indicator pH, regular removal of the solid precipitate. Unlike activated sludge precipitated mineralized substance, it is not a nutrient medium for plants and used as fertilizer.
Scheme VOCs using anaerobic bacteria
A simple device, which can live and reproduce anaerobic bacteria, is the drain hole. Modern cesspool - a concrete or Plastic airtight containersSet in the ground below the frost.
Products made of HDPE can be purchased from specialized companies or on the sites of manufacturers of concrete - build out w / w rings independently, using or under the supervision of specialists.
Driving device simple septic tank consisting of two parts: the first combination is produced (mechanical and anaerobic) cleaning, in the second - to a greater degree anaerobic (+)
Performance facilities increased with the advent of additional functional cameras. The most common designs have 2-3 compartments, the first of which acts as a sump, and the next - the tanks for the cleaning and refining.
To create a favorable environment for the vital activity of microorganisms on the bottom of the container was placed porous material, such as crushed stone.
Afterpurification clarified liquid takes place in the filter sump or at leach fieldThrough which the water enters the soil. For suitable type of apparatus requires soil (loam, sand, sandy loam), and low levels of groundwater.
EXAMPLE Fitting treatment plant comprising a septic tank and an anaerobic filter well, in which the post-treatment of effluents; filter performs the role of sand and crushed stone layer (+)
To keep the balance in the cells, requires regular care. It is to remove the solid residue from the settling tank, the pumping of excess activated sludge from the second a first chamber, adding bioakivatorov (in case of death or if insufficient anaerobes).
Especially aerobic treatment
Aerobes, anaerobes in contrast, can not exist without oxygen. In the biological waste water treatment system, they occupy a no less important niche.
The conditions created for the development of anaerobic bacteria, absolutely not suitable for the life of another species of bacteria - aerobic. They can not in the closed space devoid of air, to form spores and grow, hence, to process sewage.
To aerobic system reach its full potential, the air vent is not enough, you must force the supply of oxygen.
aerotank air supply system consists of several parts. Basic function (air injection) performs a compressor for septic. Usually it is installed in a warm room in the house, near the exit sewer communications. The duct connects the compressor with septic and extends in the same trench with pipes laid in the ground.
Scheme deep biological treatment station with three two aeration tanks and cesspools capacity of 1.5 m³ / day. The treated effluent participate anaerobic and aerobic bacteria (+)
Effluent oxygen saturation occurs via lowered into the water perforated tubes - aerators. Air flow can be adjusted or completely block the vents located near the hatch.
The air exits from the holes and when moving upwards in the form of small bubbles, oxygen enriched effluent. Aerators from time to time need to be cleaned to the oxygen supply process is not stopped.
When the device first VOC problem of gradual washout septic tank for aerobic bacteria. It decided by loading a container of accessories - textile and plastic shields "brushes".
Fabric with pile and fine bristles made of polymeric material prevent leaching of the activated sludge and provide the basis for its proliferation.
To download bio-component in a deep sewage treatment plant requires aerobic bacteria need oxygen constant supply for their own livelihoods
Injection kislovroda in sewage stations are installed aerators and compressors that are connected to the power supply
In sewage stations drains processed at 93 - 98%. For the pumping of these scavengers sludge cause every two years
Dedicated as a result of processing of waste water subjected to purification, clarification and obezzarazhavanie may be discharged into the ground, into the drainage pond or ditch
Bacteria for treatment plants
The highest degree of processing
Resetting of purified water into the gutter
With the accumulation of excess sludge is removed and its use as a fertilizer for growing vegetables for a time by placing a compost heap.
The main enemies of biological treatment are chemical detergents and antibiotics, dissolved in sewage effluent. They are harmful to various kinds of bacteria, however aggressive chemicals (e.g., chlorine and solutions with its contents) is prohibited drain into the septic tank.
Advantages and disadvantages of aerobes
Almost all existing deep biological treatment plant are composed of aerobic chamber, as "oxygen" bacteria have several advantages over anaerobes.
They destroy dissolved in water impurities remaining after mechanical and anaerobic purification. The solid precipitate is not formed, and it is possible to manually remove plaque.
One embodiment of the installation deep cleaning station with positive drain into the gutter: for the compressor and the drain pump requires electrical connection (+)
Activated sludge resulting from aerobic life activity, environmentally safe and, unlike chemicals beneficial growing on site vegetation. Instead odor characteristic sour waste in cesspools, carbon dioxide will escape.
But the main advantage is the quality of water purification - up to 95-98%. The disadvantage is the volatility of the system.
In the absence of electrical power supply oxygen compressor stops and with a long idle without aeration bacteria may die. Both types of bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes are sensitive to household chemicals, so when using biological treatment is necessary to monitor the composition of wastewater.
Scheme VOC aerobic purification
Clarification sewage using aerobes is carried out in the deep biological treatment stations. As a rule, such a station consists of 3-4 cameras.
The first compartment is sump, in which the division of waste into various substances, the second is the for anaerobic purification, and in 3 (in some models and 4) produced compartment aerobic clarification of the liquid.
Installation diagram deep biological treatment station with infiltrators and the storage well, from which the discharge of purified water into the gutter (+)
After three four-treatment, the water used for household purposes (irrigation) or supplied to the advanced treatment in one of the treatment facilities:
- filter well;
- filter box;
But sometimes instead of one of the buildings arrange subterranean drainage, in which post-treatment takes place in vivo. In the sand, gravel and detrital soils tiniest remnants of organic processed aerobic.
Through clay, loam, sandy loam almost everything except sandy and heavily fractured version of the water can not seep into the underlying layers. Additional cleaning dirt clay rocks, too, do not produce because They have very low filtration properties.
If the geological section of the area is represented by clayey soils, dirt aftertreatment system (Fields filtration, absorption wells infiltrators) are not used.
An effective way of septic sewage aftertreatment - the filter box, which is a pit gravel backfill. Runoff comes from the distribution of the well drains, access of oxygen to provide risers
filtering field represents a branched system of perforated tubes (drains) extending from the dispensing well. Treated effluent is fed first into the well and then buried in the soil drains. Pipes provided with risers through which flows the oxygen required by aerobic bacteria.
Infiltrator - the finished product of the IPA, the last stage of VOCs for purification of the clarified effluent. It buried in the ground next to the septic tank, placed on a bed of gravel drainage. Infiltrator installation conditions are the same - light, water-permeable soil and a low level of groundwater.
Mounting Infiltrator groups primer: to allow processing of large fluid volumes and higher degree of purification, several products are used, connected by pipes
Filter well at first glance resembles a holding tank, but has one major difference - penetrates the bottom. The lower part is open, strewn to 1-1.2 m drainage layer (crushed stone, gravel, sand). Mandatory Ventilation availability and maintenance hatch.
If additional cleaning is required, purified to 95 - 98% waste water directly from the septic tank is displayed in a roadside ditch or gutter.
Rules applying bioactivators
To start or enhance the biological purification process, it is sometimes necessary supplements - bioactivators in the form of dry powders, tablets or solutions.
They replaced the bleach, which brought the environment more harm than good. For the production of bioactivators selected most active and resistant strains of bacteria living in the soil.
When choosing bioaktivatory should take into account such factors as the type of treatment plant, filling the place, the specific bacteria and enzymes that are part of the drug
Drugs to help speed up the process of decay of organic matter usually have a universal complex structure, sometimes - unidirectional. For example, there are start-species that help to "revive" the process of cleaning after winter storage or long periods of inactivity.
Narrowly focused views aimed at solving a particular problem, such as removing large amounts of fat from sewers or drains splitting concentrated soap.
Application bioactivators in VOCs and cesspools has several advantages.
Regular users say the following positive aspects:
- decrease in the volume of solid waste to 65-70%;
- destruction of pathogenic microorganisms;
- disappearance of a sharp smell of sewage;
- faster flow of the cleaning process;
- Prevention of fouling and sedimentation various parts sewer system.
For fast adaptation bacteria special conditions are necessary, e.g., a sufficient amount of liquid in the capacity, the presence of nutrient medium in the form of organic waste or comfort temperature (an average of from + 5 ° to + 45 ° C).
And do not forget that living bacteria for septic threatened chemicals, petroleum products, antibiotics.
Universal Type Sample - French Bioactivator "Atmosbio". It recommended for use in septic tanks, cesspools, suburban toilets. The cost of packing 300 gr. - 600 rubles.
deficit biologics market is not other than domestic brands are well represented and overseas. The most well-known brands - "Atmosbio ", "Dr. Robic", «BioExpert», "Vodograi", "Saneks", "Microzyme Sept Treat", "Biosept".
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Submitted videos contain useful material on the selection and application of biological products.
Practical experience bioactivators in the village:
Video Review bioaktivatory "Lavatory force":
Overview of biological product "Economy cottage":
As you can see, the use of live bacteria for cesspools or septic tanks helps to quickly and cost-effectively solve the problem of sewage treatment.
The microorganisms increase the efficiency of VOCs, without causing harm to the environment. To create the most comfortable conditions for the life of bacteria, follow the instructions and do not forget the time to serve the sewage treatment plant.
Got something to complement, or have any questions relating to the selection and application of bacteria for septic tanks - can leave comments to the publication. Contact form is in the lower block.