Grow from the boneshealthy and fruitful plum is possible. This is a fascinating process, consisting of many details that predetermine the success of the event.
It is important to choose the right planting materialand properly prepare it for planting, as much as possible imitating the natural conditions of development..
Table of contents
- How to grow a sink at home: the necessary steps
- Selection of planting material
- How to germinate a bone: stratification
- Growing seedlings
- Transplanting the seedlings into the open ground
- Preparing a site for a future tree
- How to plant a seedling
- Aftercare at the cottage
How to grow a sink at home: the necessary steps
Selection of planting material
It is important to immediately determine for yourself, that having planted a bone of a liked plum and to grow a fruit tree with similar fruits it is difficult. This is possible only with vegetative reproduction.
The reason for this is cross-pollination by insects, during which there is mixing of pollen of different varieties. This changes the genetics of the fetus and the bones.
Often such planting materials give the most unexpected results. A gardener can grow a wild plum instead of a cultivated plant with sour and unappearable fruits. In some cases, fruiting is completely absent.
We bring to your attention the following publications:
- Description of plum variety Chinese fastfruit.
- Description of the plum Ural red.
- Planting and caring for a plum or thorn.
The varieties and hybrids of the plum species are necessary qualities:
If the purpose of planting a stone is the cultivation of a frost-resistant graftfor heat-loving crops, it is possible to plant a bone of any zoned plum variety.
Only when full ripening of fruits in the bone formed a full embryo, which determines the germination and strength of the plant in the future. thereforefor planting seeds of ripe fruits are selected, trees adapted to local climatic conditions.
It is better to take a few pips, so you can guarantee maximum germination and choose a strong seedling for planting in the open ground.
How to germinate a bone: stratification
An important stage in the reproduction of plums from the bone -stratification. This is the maintenance of the planting material in cold and humid conditions, which allows the germination of the bone, provokes the growth of the embryo and the subsequent rupture of the shell for its access to light.
As a substrate for stratification, you can choose:
- crushed moss;
- wood sawdust;
- large river sand;
- low peat.
After choosing a substrate, it is moistened and treated with a solutionfrom potassium permanganate and water (5 g / 1 l). Humidity inside the substrate should be at least 60%.
To check it, you can compress it in your hand. If everything is normal, a small amount of moisture will be released, and the substrate will retain its shape.
Before placing in the substrate, the bones are kept for 3 days in water, pouring them on half the height.
Soaking promotesswelling of membranes and washing out inhibitors - substances that delay the germination of embryos.
In the stratification vessel, it is necessary to make lateral openings for air exchange, this will prevent the appearance of fungal diseases. For the same purpose, the bones are located at a distance from each other. Surface covered with polyethylene or glass.
Correct stratification- maintaining a certain temperature by periods. These are the stages:
- Warming up. Bone extract in the substrate for 15 days at a temperature of + 15 ° - + 20 ° C. Optimal to put the tank on any warm place.
- Cooling. The temperature drops to + 1 ° - + 5 ° C. This period lasts 60-80 days. The container with bones is removed to the lower shelf of the refrigerator.
- Pre-sowing. The temperature is lowered to 0 ° -1 ° C for 20-35 days. Capacity can be removed to a cold basement. From the observance of this stage, the level of germination strongly depends.
In this periodit is necessary to control the moisture content. When mold appears, the substrate is sprayed with a 3% solution of potassium permanganate.
About the readiness of the stone to planting can be judgedon a cracked shell. It is important to put it as quickly as possible in a comfortable place for temporary development.
To plant seed on seedlings,prepare a convenient pot with a diameter of at least 20 cm. The containers are decontaminated with a 3% formalin solution.
At the bottom, a drainage layer of expanded clay or broken bricks is required 3-5 centimeters thick, a thin layer of coarse sand and charcoal is laid on top. Thus, excess moisture and aeration of the roots are provided.
Such properties have a substrate of components mixed in the same parts:
- leaf land or peat;
In the soil mixture is added, parts of calcined river sand or perlite.
The substrate is placed in a pot and watered abundantly.The stone is placed in the center of the container, having sunk on 5 cm. After that, the pot must be wrapped in polyethylene. This creates a soft greenhouse condition, and the sprout will appear within 45 days.
During this period, the capacity must be ventilated every day, raising the covering material. Humidification is performed by a spray gun every other day.
For the correct development of the seedling at home, it is necessary to maintain optimal conditions:.
- Lighting. The capacity is placed on a well-lit windowsill without direct sunlight reaching the seedling. Ideal option - south-west direction. In darkened rooms it is advisable to install fluorescent lamps or to strengthen the reflection of sun rays by side mirrors.
- Microclimate. The optimal temperature for the seedling is + 20- + 25 ° C. It is important to monitor the humidity of the air. In dry rooms, you need to spray the air around the pot more often.
- Watering. Abundant, but rare. It is enough to moisturize twice a week. The water should be at room temperature and always stand-by. Under the pot, you can put a tray of water, until the full saturation of the substrate with moisture.
- Additional fertilizing. Since the appearance of the first shoots and until the end of the growing season, it is necessary to make three fertilizing with nitrogenous fertilizers. To do this, you can use a solution of ammonium nitrate and water (30 g / 10 l). Approximate expenditure per plant 100 ml.
- Picks. In the period from the cotyledonus to the appearance of two real leaflets, one third of the length of the spine should be pricked. This activates the formation of a strong and branched root system. After this, the seedling is planted in a new nutrient substrate, abundantly watered and pritenyayut.
That the seedlings did not grow wild culture, it is transplanted into a new soil mixture and into a wider container every three months. A young tree can be transplanted into the open ground one year after planting the stone.
Pre-hardening. A week before planting, every day, keep a seedling in the fresh air for 3-5 hours..
Transplanting the seedlings into the open ground
To plant the plum is idealwell-lit area with a gentle slope, directed to the south or south-west direction. On this site, good aeration and stable soil heating.
In the lowland area, a hill formation of 50 cm high and a base width of 100 cm will be required.
Groundwater should lie below 3 m, otherwise anaerobic conditions are created for the roots, which lead to rot and impede full development.
Preparing a site for a future tree
If the transplantation of the seedlings is planned for the spring, the plot for the fruit tree is prepared in autumn.
When an autumn planting is done in the beginning of summer. During this time, the soil will settle, structured, and complex compounds of minerals will take easily digestible forms.
The site must be dug by 35 cm and fertilizer per 1 m2:
- manure or compost 6 kg;
- superphosphate 60 g;
- potassium salt 30 g.
The upper part of the soil taken from the pit is deposited separately, it will be needed to form a substrate. At a distance of 30 cm from the center of the pit, a stake is stuck, a seedling will be tied to it.
Soil mixture for filling the pit:
- manure 2 buckets;
- river sand 2 buckets;
- superphosphate 30 g;
- potassium sulfate 20 g.
The rest is complemented by deferred sod land. At high acidity 300 g of limestone are added to the soil.
How to plant a seedling
At the bottom of the landing pitform a hill of prepared soil mixture. During the placement of the seedlings, it is necessary to spread all the roots along the surface of the substrate. It is necessary to avoid bending in the upper direction.
By adjusting the height of the arrangement,It is necessary to focus on the root neck, it should be 5 cm above the soil level. This prevents its subsequent penetration under the influence of shrinkage.
During the fall of the roots of the plumit is important to prevent the formation of voids. To do this, periodically shake the stem of the seedling.
After planting, the soil surface is rammed,saplingand tied to the cola with soft material. The stalk is mulched with sawdust or peat.
Aftercare at the cottage
In the first two years of development of the young plum fertilizer is not needed. To fully nourish the tree, there are enough elements that are included in the planting pit. The spruce should be kept in a constantly loose state, removing all weedy grasses.
Especially painful are the young trees reacting to the damage to the bark. Therefore, one should not allow the trunk to rub against the cola.
It is important to monitor the appearance of the sproutat the level of the stem or from the roots. Extra springs take away a lot of nutrients and the ability of the seedling to develop fully, so they are immediately cut out.
If the damage to the seedlings is large, it is necessary to apply chemical preparations: "Carbophos "Actellik "Aktara".
The seedlings are necessaryensure regular moistening. Water should penetrate up to 40 cm deep. The frequency of irrigation should be adjusted based on climatic conditions. It is important not to allow a strong drying, to which the plum reacts very painfully.
Young plum should be carefully prepared for the first winter. A layer of mulch is laid at least 30 cm. All the branches of the seedlings are grouped and tightly fixed to the cola.
Until December, you need toWrap the stem of the plum with a warm and breathable material. This will prevent the appearance of frostbites - cracks, which appear under the influence of temperature changes. Additionally, the seedling will warm the snow.
Young trees are attractive to rodents, which are especially activated during the winter season in search of food. To protect the seedling, it is covered with lapnik from all sides. Additionally treated with a mixture of Mullein and clay (1: 1), a pungent odor which scares off pests.
Therefore it is important to comply with all the rules of care, periodically carry out preventive work and inspect the tree, the appearance of which always signals internal problems..