A private pool on the site is a source of inexhaustible joy and good mood, as well as a place to relax after a busy day at work. But in order for it to remain clean, you should be extremely careful with its arrangement. Agree that late water purification and its disinfection can turn the pool into a source of serious danger to the health of swimmers.
To avoid this, you need to take full responsibility for the choice of equipment for water purification. Properly selected filter for the pool will not only significantly improve the quality of water, but also save money for disinfection works. We will talk about how to purify water and what equipment is used for this purpose.
Useful recommendations on the choice of filtering equipment, as well as the advice of experienced professionals are presented in our article. And the above photographs and videos will help to better understand how to independently carry out water purification in the pool.
The content of the article:
Water filtration options
- Option # 1 - filtering water in the overflow pool
- Option # 2 - filtering water in the skimmer pool
- Option # 3 - cleaning with a filter unit
- What to look at when choosing a filter?
Pool Filter Types
- No. 1 - mechanical filters for the pool
- No. 2 - chemical water purification
- No. 3 - electrophysical cleaning filters
- No. 4 - combined water filtration systems
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Water filtration options
Circulation of water and the use of filtering plants - a guarantee of quality work of any pool. According to the method of water intake, there are skimmer and overflow pools. In each of them a selection of water for cleaning is made from the bottom and from the top.
In this case, the fence from the bottom is the same for each type of pool, and the fence from the surface is somewhat different.
Option # 1 - filtering water in the overflow pool
The water spilling outside the bowl of the overflow pool flows into special drains that direct it first to the tank, and only then to the filtration.
The feature of the pool is that the water surface is flush with the side. The lion's share of pollution is initially located in the upper layer, so the dirtiest water enters the drain.
With a large accumulation of swimmers in the pool, maximum movement of the water is achieved and its intensive splashing over the side with the lion's share of pollution is ensured.
If there is no movement in the pool, then there is no water flow into the drain. In this regard, this cleaning scheme is ideal for stationary structures. It is not applicable for pools of frame and inflatable types.
Option # 2 - filtering water in the skimmer pool
The suction holes of the stationary skimmer pools are located on the upper part of the walls. In frame and inflatable pools, skimmers are immersed to a shallow depth, hanging directly on the rim.
The surface of the water with this method of intake is located 0.2-0.3 m below the top of the side. The main disadvantage of such a selection of water is that due to the low location of the nozzles, surface contaminants are poorly removed.
The recessed location of the suction nozzles in skimmer pools often causes ineffective removal of surface contaminants located on the surface of a water mirror.
No matter how effectively surface cleaners work, some of the contamination will fall to the bottom in the form of sediment. To remove settled contaminants, it is necessary to ensure the removal of water from below and its supply to the filter.
The problem is solved by the construction of bottom ladders through which water is transported to the filtering devices.
The number of water intake wall and bottom holes depends on the volume of water in the pool, the degree of contamination and the intensity of operation. In this case, the rule should be observed: 3 parts of water are supplied to the filter from the top, and 1 part from the bottom.
Bottom holes perform another important function - provide full or partial discharge of water. This procedure is necessary for disinfection, mechanical cleaning of walls, capital works or conservation of the pool.
Option # 3 - cleaning with a filter unit
The water collected through the skimmers and bottom holes is supplied to prefilter, then under the action circulation pump moves for finer cleaning to the filter station.
The system can also have a bacterial cleaning agent (ozonizer, chlorine generator, etc.), a device for heating water. After passing through all the stages, the purified and heated water is supplied to the pool basin.
Filtration is a great way to purify water from impurities, therefore the availability of a high-quality filtration unit is an integral part of any pool.
The input area of purified water is determined by the type of pool. In the overflow varieties, the injection zones are located on the bottom, and in the skimmers, on the side opposite to the skimmers. Such placement of injection zones ensures better circulation of water and its uniform cleaning.
What to look at when choosing a filter?
The main criterion that should be followed when choosing a filter for a pool is throughput. This value is calculated in liters or cubic meters of water, cleaned by the system per hour of work.
With the help of modern filters for swimming pools, even microscopic inclusions can be eliminated, not to mention large particles. The degree of purification is determined by the filtration rate and the type of filter used.
At a lower speed, the maximum degree of water purification is ensured. In this case, the basic rule must be observed: the entire volume of water must pass through the filtration unit at least three times.
The water that has passed through the filter unit is devoid of small inclusions of various kinds of garbage. Moreover, the purified water is safe for swimming not only adults, but also the younger generation
With pump selection need to focus on the volume of the pool. It should be borne in mind that an increase in the rate of water passing through the filler leads to a drop in the quality of cleaning. Obviously, for a powerful pump you need to choose a filler with a large capacity.
Modern cleaning plants and filters are sold in the kit, so there is no need to pick up the tank to the pump or vice versa. Determining the filter performance is quite simple. To do this, the total amount of water in the pool must be multiplied by 2.5 and divided by 10.
For example, take the pool size 10x4x2, which holds 80 tons of water. We calculate: 80x2.5 / 10 = 20 cubic meters / hour. Filtration unit for the pool should be selected on the basis of the calculated power.
Pool Filter Types
Depending on the material used for filtering, the following pool filters are distinguished:
Each of the presented filters can only partially solve the problem of water purification. That is why filtration systems consisting of several different-type filters have maximum efficiency.
No. 1 - mechanical filters for the pool
The following materials can be used as the filtering element of a mechanical filter:
- woven or non-woven membrane;
- Activated carbon.
The principle of operation of a mechanical filter is quite simple - the membrane, layers of coal or sand, passing water through it, retain the lion's share of pollution. The output is purified water, which has lost almost all impurities.
All filters for pools, operating on the principle of mechanical cleaning, can be classified as follows:
This cleaning option is suitable for small pools up to 10 cubic meters. In large pools in addition to mechanical cleaning will have to use chemical.
Sand filter cleaning
Sand filters are the most affordable and simple cleaning systems. As a rule, the filter consists of a closed plastic container with two openings, designed for the entry and exit of water.
Most often, the tank is filled with quartz sand, which performs the function of filter material.
Sand pumps-filters of factory production are used for cleaning and recycling of purified water in inflatable and frame prefabricated pools. Change the sand in the unit every five years
Organic impurities and mineral salts are easily trapped in the filter layer of quartz sand. The same thing happens with chemical compounds that are formed as a result of the disinfection of the pool.
The disadvantage of this filter is the ability to trap particles not exceeding a size of 20 microns. Service life - no more than 3 years.
To increase the service life of a sand filter up to 5-6 years and to increase the degree of water purification is possible by replacing quartz sand with glass. Combined backfilling with a heterogeneous composition, in which alternating layers of rubble, gravel and sand are sequentially located, has proved even better.
The sand filter for the pool is easy to maintain, cleaning is performed by flushing with a backward-directed pump.
Another advantage - the sand filter is easy to make with your own hands. The process of assembling homemade detail considered in this article.
It is possible to get rid of lime deposits with the help of special tools introduced into the filter for several hours with the pump off. At the end you need to carry out a standard washing procedure
It is possible to achieve a higher degree of purification using a sand filter by arranging successive layers of pebbles, rubble and sand
The low cost and ease of maintenance of the sand filter make it the most versatile and widely used pool owner. However, he has significant drawbacks - a lot of weight, impressive dimensions.
As an example, consider a sand filter with a pump brand Bestway, engaged in the production of swimming pools.
A photo of
A filter with a pump, filled with sand as a filtering material, consists of 2 main parts and a hose system
All hoses are attached using plastic fittings. Tightening and dismantling are done manually, without using tools.
Any sand can not be used, only a variety designed for swimming pools. Sand is poured to the upper edge, but so that it does not accidentally fall into the central tube.
To adjust the operation of the ozonizer, a timer is provided that is controlled by a plastic handle.
The top of the device is a control valve. water inlet and outlet hoses are attached to it
The control valve is controlled by a large plastic handle, which is rearranged, depending on the selected mode, in different positions
The gauge should be monitored for as long as the pump is running. When the arrow reaches the critical point, backwash should be performed.
It is easy to attach the hose to the pool: it is necessary to insert the end of the hose into the outlet of the pool and tighten the union nut. Inside the pool there is a stopper that prevents premature discharge.
Sand filter design
Hose mounting methods
Sand for filling the filter
Ozonator control system
Filter control valve
How to operate the adjusting valve
Fastening the hose to the pool
Models of the same manufacturer may differ in design and functions, so before installing it is necessary to study the instructions.
Current prices for sand filters:
Cartridge filters for the pool
The role of the working element of this cleaning system is performed by the thinnest membranes of propylene plates.
They successfully trap organic particles as small as 10 microns, mechanical salts and salts of mineral origin. The efficiency of water purification using a cartridge filter is almost twice as high as water purification with a sand filter.
The main advantage of the cartridge filter is that it can be easily removed from the flask and rinsed, and, if necessary, replaced.
A cartridge filter is a box or flask with a hinged or removable cap, inside which a cartridge is installed. Also in the flask there is a small plastic bag designed to store the filtered debris.
The main advantages of the cartridge filter:
- High degree of water purification;
- Duration of operation;
- No backwash function.
After contamination, remove the cartridge from the flask and rinse. Depending on the volume of the pool, the life of the cartridge varies from 3 to 12 months. For effective operation of the cleaning system you need to have a stock of several interchangeable cartridges.
Often, modern cartridge filters are mounted in one case of a portable cleaning system, hence another name for cleaning equipment - filter pumps.
Despite the high degree of cleaning and ease of maintenance, cartridge filters are less popular sand filters, due to their higher cost.
Current prices for cartridge filters:
Diatomaceous cleaning filters
Diatomaceous (diatomaceous) filter is the most expensive among mechanical cleaning filters.
The role of the filter element is diatomite, ground into powder - a siliceous sedimentary rock consisting of weakly pressed or slightly cemented hollow shells of the most ancient microorganisms and decomposition products similar in age seaweed
Diatomite powder undergoes heat treatment before use - it is calcined in a furnace at a temperature of 1200 degrees for at least a day. Such processing allows not only to eliminate all traces of organic matter, but also to obtain an excellent finely dispersed filter mixture of uniform composition.
With the help of a diatom filter, not only is the maximum purification of water in the pool, but also its enrichment silicon, due to the special processing conditions of prehistoric organics, whose age is calculated millions of years
Diatom filters are performed in two versions. In the first case, the device filter is similar to the device sand unit. The only difference is that instead of quartz or glass sand, diatom powder is used.
In the second case, the filter installation is a system of cartridges sequentially arranged in the same housing through which water is pumped. Such a device allows the maximum purification of water, removing pollution from it, the dimensions of which are only 1-2 microns.
Diatomite (diatomaceous earth, rock flour, infusorial earth) is a loose or slightly cemented sedimentary rock, passing through which water is not only purified, but also enriched with silicon
Due to the ability of diatomaceous powder to enrich water with silicon, its use for cleaning allows a 75-80% reduction in the use of chemical cleaning products.
As you know, silicon water has high healing and rejuvenating qualities. That is why such expensive diatom filters effectively compete with cheap sand cleaning systems.
Current prices for diatomite filters:
No. 2 - chemical water purification
When chemical filtration water is purified by exposure to reagents. Depending on the filter model, one to several cleaning operations can be performed.
Chemical water treatment helps to neutralize microbes and bacteria, it can be used to make water more useful by saturating with oxygen
The highest efficiency can be achieved with complex chemical filtration of water:
Pool owners as a bacterial protection most often use chlorine - the cheapest and most effective disinfectant.
The main disadvantages of chlorine:
- unpleasant smell;
- causes allergies;
- does not destroy spore-forming microorganisms;
- able to create toxic compounds (chloramines and chloroform).
Despite a number of drawbacks, chlorine remains the most popular chemical means of water purification. It quickly disappears, so within a few hours there is no trace of it in the pool basin, which means that an unpleasant smell and allergy disappear. Poisonous compounds are easily removed during complex cleaning.
Bromine is not inferior to chlorine in terms of its purification efficiency. True, its cost is much higher, but there is no smell. With proper dosing, water bromination is absolutely safe for humans.
During the bromine purification process, unpleasant odors are removed, bacteria, fungi and viruses are destroyed, water hardness remains unchanged, A high purification efficiency is achieved when the pH value of Ph is deviated towards a higher acid content or, on the contrary, alkali.
A separate category of water purification chemicals is special flocculant preparations. Their main task is to consolidate small pollutants and fat residues to the size at which they can be easily captured by mechanical cleaning filters.
When a turbid suspension appears in the pool, flocculants are used to eliminate it. They glue fine particles of pollution and contribute to their precipitation.
No. 3 - electrophysical cleaning filters
Electrophysical filters for cleaning pools began to be used very recently.
The main methods of electrophysical water purification in pools:
- ultraviolet radiation;
- silver ionization;
- copper ionization.
Ozonation is considered one of the most progressive and environmentally friendly methods of water purification in the pool. Ozone has powerful oxidizing properties. When it passes through the water, almost all bacteria are destroyed, while the composition of the water remains unchanged.
The main advantages of ozonation:
- the destruction of bacteria and microorganisms;
- elimination of unpleasant smell;
- water saturation with oxygen.
The disadvantages of the cleaning system include the need for a special installation and its high cost. When ozonating water, the ozone concentration should not exceed 0.03 mg / cubic meter, an overdose can harm a person.
Since the effect of ozone on the human body is not fully understood, water ozonization is prohibited in a number of countries.
Ultraviolet radiation is another way to effectively purify water, allowing you to completely abandon chemistry. When buying and installing an ultraviolet lamp, you need to consider that it works effectively only in purified water.
For effective operation of the ultraviolet lamp, it is necessary to clean the water as much as possible, therefore it is recommended to install the lamp directly behind the mechanical cleaning filter
When processing by ultraviolet rays, water retains all its useful qualities, but the effect is short-lived.
The method of ultraviolet cleaning is recommended to be combined with another reagent, since after the cessation of radiation, microorganisms entering the water multiply rapidly.
Today, water ionization is the most progressive method of purification. Copper and silver ions are released into the water under the action of electrodes, to which a weak current is applied. Copper ions inhibit algae growth, and silver ions completely destroy viruses and bacteria.
In the process of ionization under the action of a weak current, microscopic particles of copper and silver are split off, ensuring effective water purification from impurities, algae, viruses and bacteria
Water ionization has the following advantages:
- copper and silver ions remain active for a long time;
- when sharing ionizer and ozonizer, you can refuse chlorination;
- after ionization, the water meets the drinking standard;
- no allergic reactions and odor.
In addition, copper ions contribute to the gluing of the smallest particles (perform coagulant role).
Disadvantages of water treatment by ionization:
- poor combination with other methods of disinfection;
- the inability to completely abandon chlorination in large pools;
- today, the effect of metal ions on the human body is not fully understood.
The combination of ionization with chlorination is most common in large pools. It is possible to refuse a chlorinator by replacing it with an ozonizer, but the combination “ozonation - ionization” it is used quite rarely due to the high cost of equipment and significant expenditure electricity.
No. 4 - combined water filtration systems
Combined cleaning relies on the installation of a whole system of filters and fixtures. When selecting combinations, consideration should be given to the effect of cleaning methods on each other, reducing and increasing their effectiveness.
For example, the combination of ultraviolet radiation with the introduction of sodium hypochlorite solution, hydrogen peroxide or ozone works well.
The main steps to implement a complex cleaning system for large pools:
- selection of primary and secondary pumps;
- installation of mechanical and chemical filters;
- installation of ionization, ozonation, UV;
- selection of heat exchanger;
- preparation of premises for pumping equipment;
- complete set and system assembly.
It is important that when designing a complex filtration system to do all the work before installing the pool. Otherwise, work on laying communications and connection will become much more complicated.
It is also important not to forget to pay attention to the organization when designing. pool ventilation.
The combined filter system requires a large area and large financial investments, but at the same time provides maximum water purification in the pool
Sophisticated combined water filtration systems are used in large public stationary pools. Only such systems can avoid the periodic discharge of water and mechanical cleaning of the bottom and walls the pool.
You may also be interested in information on how to choose pool heat pump or how to pick best robot vacuum cleaner for automatic pool cleaning.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Overview of sand filter modes:
Disinfection of the pool with submersible-type UV lamps:
An effective way to keep the pool water clean:
The choice of the filtration system must be approached very carefully, as the health of those bathing in the pool depends on the quality of the water.
If the issue of water purification in a small domestic pool can be solved by a good mechanical filter pump, then for large structures a whole system of filters and fixtures will be required.
Have you equipped a home pool on your site? Tell us what filter you use to clean the water and whether you are satisfied with the result. Maybe you noticed inaccuracies or inconsistencies in this article? Write us about them in the comments block.