The first mention of the cultivation of mulberries dates back to 1960 in France. Mulard is a hybrid of the meat direction, obtained as a result of crossing the sponges of musk ducks (indots) and ducks of Peking breed.
The hybrid was created to improve the qualities of parent breeds in order to obtain a new improved individual. Mulards can not be found in the wild, they do not reproduce themselves on their own and are grown only at home by human initiative..
Table of contents
- Bird Species Description
- Conditions of maintenance and care
- Characteristics of adults: the weight of drakes and ducks
- Feeding and breeding
- Fattening mullahs on foie gras
- Diseases of ducks during cultivation
- Plucking feathers
- Advantages and disadvantages of the breed
- Reviews of the domestic breed of ducks and videos
Bird Species Description
Mulards are bigbirds of white color with a black spot on the head, it is thanks to this feature that the hybrid can be easily distinguished from other ducks. Adult individuals in size exceed their parents (Peking and musk ducks).
Mulards do not give offspring, so do not use these ducks for breeding. Sometimes drakes manifest sexual activity, and ducks carry eggs, but because they are not fertilized offspring can not be obtained, this fact is proved by a lot of research and experiments. Hybrids are valued for excellent, low-fat (a percentage of fat is only 3%) meat, like in Indotka, without specific smell, and fatty large liver used to make a delicious meat dish foie gras. In comparison with the Peking ducks, the mulards are calm, not so noisy and clean..
Conditions of maintenance and care
Mulards are suitable for industrial and home maintenance.In industrial conditionsthe hybrid is grown in special poultry houses, equipped with all the necessary machinery and technologies. For meat fattening, ducks are mainly used, and drakes are used to get the liver. The enterprises use floor and cellular maintenance of a bird.
Growing in household plotsmullards does not differ from the content of ducks of other breeds and crosses. In summer, it is economically advantageous to keep the poultry on the ramp, equipped with special feeding troughs and drinking bowls. At night, the ducks are driven into the barn and closed. Mulards are rarely left for the winter, as for the breeding business they are unsuitable, and for the season of the duckling you can get a ready-to-slaughter duck. Due to this way of growing, there is no need for capital and well-insulated buildings.For the correct content of mulberriesa simple room with good floors and without holes, through which rats and other predators can penetrate. In the shed there should be no drafts. On the southern side of the poultry house, a hole is made, the hole above the floor should be 5-8 cm and close tightly with the door. The bird house should be built on the basis of the number of ducks, per 1 sq. Km. m 3 head.On the walkthe bird should feel free, so 1 head is allocated to 1 head. m area. For feeding, special feeders with a length of 110 cm and a width of 23 cm are used for the adult bird, and for the young, 100x14.5. cm. A partition is made from above the feeding troughs so that the birds do not scatter food. For water it is better to use nipple drinkers.
Temperature in the houseshould be 16-18 ° C, with a humidity of 60-70%. As a floor covering, a litter of sawdust, shavings or straw is used. The bird must be regularly cleaned and ventilated..
Characteristics of adults: the weight of drakes and ducks
Weight mullards- 4-7 kg. Differences in mass between drakes and ducks only 500 g. For 3 months the bird collects 4 kg. With prolonged cultivation, the mass reaches 7 kg, almost like the weight of a goose.Liver weightmullards 500-550 g.Feed consumptionper day 340 g.
To obtain mulards you can cross different breeds. Ducks of musk ducks cross with Peking ducks, Rouen, Orppingtons and al. Due to such crossings ducklings are obtained in different colors and shades..
Feeding and breeding
Since mullardsare not able to give offspring, then musk and Peking ducks are used for obtaining ducks. To obtain mullards, families are created from 1 musk deer and 4-6 Peking ducks. The best age for mating is 7-10 months. Ducks beginlay eggsbut in 180-210 days. Approximately 15-20 eggs are placed under the hen.
Despite the fact that the breed is unpretentious and early ripening during breeding, certain conditions must be taken into account. When the ducklings begin to appear, they are prepared for themhabitat. Depending on the number of chicks, this can be a box or a whole room. The floor is laid with litter made of straw or hay. In natural conditions ducklings receive heat from mothers, while in artificial conditions additional sources are established. ATthe first days of lifethe poultry house must be provided with heat,temperaturein a room 28-30 ° C, after a few days it is reduced to 23 ° C.Lightingplays an important role in the early days and helps to adapt the ducklings to external conditions. The first few days of lighting should be round the clock. After the little ones grow up, the lighting is reduced to 15-17 hours a day.
On the first day after the birth, ducklings can not eat on their own, for their feeding they usespecial sets, sold in veterinary pharmacies. Feed themselves mulberries begin on day 2-3. After the ducklings hatched and dried, they are solderedweak solution of potassium permanganate. The first food is a hard-boiled and finely chopped egg. From 10 pm, a well-ground grain is added to the diet.From 10 days of agemulberries are fed 2 times a day. From 2 weeks it is necessary to give duckweed. An important element in feeding ducklings is meat-and-bone meal and bran. For normalization in the body of calcium in the diet add crushed shell. Ducklings are necessaryto feed and mineral mixtures:chalk, limestone and shellfish. To improve digestive processes, ducks are given gravel. Ducklings should always have clean water. If possible, as an additive, it is allowed to give cottage cheese at a rate of 1 gram per head.
Duck's dietmust contain up to 20% protein, per 1 kg of feed there are , 00 kcal of energy. After 3 weeks, a feeding scheme is chosen: intensive, extensive and semi-intensive..
Intensive technology is apellet feeding, which should contain at least 17% protein. Semi intensive technology is based on feeding granulated, wet and bulky feeds. In the extensive method, feed coarse fodder and grain with the use of food additives. From 5-6 weeks of birds let out on a pasture. Slaughter is carried out at 3-4 months, when the mullards reach the optimum live weight..
Fattening mullahs on foie gras
Fattening of drakesfor fatty liver consists of 3 stages. In the first 3 weeks of life the chicks are fed in the usual way. Then the bird is transplanted into narrow and small cells so that it can not move much. The next 4 weeks, ducklings are fed food with a high content of starch and protein, which contributes to very rapid growth of the bird. From 8-10 weeks of life, the stage of compulsory feeding begins. Food is pushed into the throat with a screw with a tube, in this way a bird a day receives 1.8 kg of grain.Forced fatteninglasts 12-21 days.
Diseases of ducks during cultivation
Mulards are very strong andresistant to hybrids. They are well tolerated by cold and temperature changes. With a normally balanced diet, the bird grows rapidly and does not suffer from avitaminosis. But, despite their good adaptive conditions, mullards are still susceptible to some diseases, the description of which is presented below.
The bird becomes infected with this disease by inhaling a saw, which contains a fungus that is bred in moldy straw and old forage. In 50% of cases, death occurs.Symptoms:lethargy, poor appetite, vomiting, rapid breathing, in the last stages there are discharge from the nose and paralysis of the legs and wings. To treat aspergillosis in water add not a very concentrated solution of copper sulfate, but in the diet nystatin.
One of the acute problems of mullards is the feathering of feathers. The disease occurs due to a significantlack of protein in the bodyor unfavorable conditions of detention. In a small, dirty and poorly ventilated room, feathers of a bird quickly become dirty, which causes ducks to be cleaned much more often. In order to prevent sowing, it is necessary to balance the rations for all macro and microelements and adhere to the sanitary and hygienic standards in the poultry house.
This disease occurs due to a lack of vitamins. On the cloaca of the duck, the mucous membrane appears, and on the progressing stage pus may appear.For treatment,in the first place, clean the cloaca, lubricate the mucosa with an iodine solution and apply zinc ointment. If the disease is identified in the first stage, the duck will not suffer and your farm will not be harmed.
Advantages and disadvantages of the breed
Cleanliness.Hybrid is characterized by its cleanliness and well-groomed appearance, thanks to this property their down is widely used in industry.
Calm temper.Unlike the Peking ducks, the mullards are not loud, calmly behave and do not annoy the breeders with a constant noise.
Early ripeness.Mulards very quickly gain weight with standard feeding, as with other ducks, and already in 3-4 months they go to slaughter.
High meat characteristics.For meat fattening, mainly females are used. Meat of mulberries is practically low-fat, because in the process of growth the bird accumulates only muscle mass. Meat does not have a specific smell, soft and tasty.
Foie gras.It is the liver of mulberries used to make a delicious dish of foie gras. To get foie gras, only drakes are used, during the fattening period the liver reaches 500-550 g.
Uncomplicated.Mulards do not require special care, their content is much cheaper than conventional ducks. Hybrids adapt well to cold and hot climates.
You can not get offspring.Because mulard hybrids, they can not be obtained from young animals, so for breeding it is necessary to cross the musk and Peking duck each time.
Poorly tolerate dampness.This is an uncritical drawback, but it is better to keep mullards in dry pens, to prevent various diseases.
Reviews of the domestic breed of ducks and videos
Raise Mulerat home is much easier, rather than the usual duck. You can buy eggs and put them in an incubator or buy ducklings right away. For a season it's easygrow a full duck, which in autumn can already be cut. The meat is plentiful and it is practically low-fat, it is better to cut it in 4 months, there is no more sense to keep, and the duck will be tough. Feed mulord consumes no more than a Peking duck, but grows much faster and the bird is larger.You do not need to build a capital shed for the winter: in the spring he bought ducklings, and in the autumn he stabbed and no trouble.A big plus isthe same weight of ducks and drakes, not that in other breeds the male is large, but in the female there is nothing to see. Mulard is ideal for home-grown: fast, inexpensive and tasty.
Mulards are, perhaps,the best duck hybrid.Everyone knows their meat qualities and quick weight gain in a short time. These ducks are very unpretentious and calmly behave in the courtyard. Ducks by weightdo not differ from drakes. This hybrid is used to produce a large liver of foie gras. They do not divorce themselves, but this is a small problem, you can always buy chicks or eggs for incubation. And if there is an opportunity and time, then in the subsidiary farms families from Beijing are created in the musk ducks and with their help every year one can receive the offspring-mullards.MulardsThis is an excellent option for those who want for a short time to receivehigh-quality and low-fat meat..