The word "cherry" is associated with the hot southern sun, the Black Sea and the ancient Greek town of Kerasund. It was there several millennia ago this plant was seen by the Romans and given it the name Cerasus avium.
Traditional regions of sweet cherry cultivation lie in warm regions. Until recently, it was difficult to imagine that this culture can be grown in the cold climate of Central Russia. But, as Napoleon said, "a genius consists in the ability to distinguish between the hard and the impossible." The breeders took up the matter, and the cherry Iput was born.
Table of contents
- How the southern woman became a northern woman
- Cherry Iput: description of the variety
- Proper care
- 3 facts about pollination of sweet cherry
- Diseases and pests
- Harvesting and storage of crops
How the southern woman became a northern woman
It all started with the Lupine Institute in the Bryansk region. There, in the fruit growing department, for more than forty years unique geneticist Mayina Vladimirovna Kanshin has been working. All her talent and all her life she devoted to the deducing of cold-resistant varieties of sweet cherry.
Grade Iput - "daughter" of breeding forms under numbers 3-36 and 8-14. After their crossing, many years of nurturing and rigid selection of hybrid seedlings followed. In 1993, a new variety of sweet cherry was added to the register of breeding achievements and recommended for cultivation in the Central and Central Black Earth region of Russia.Mayina Vladimirovna gave her name to the child from the name of the river Iput, flowing through the Bryansk region.
Cherry Iput: description of the variety
Practical gardeners, thinking about buying a new "tenant" in your garden, are guided by several parameters: the size of an adult tree, early maturity, precocity, resistance to weather and other conditions, productivity.All the characteristics of the cherry Iput for convenience are collected in the table:
|External Features||Middle-aged plant. The height of an adult tree is about, meters. The crown is broad-pyramidal, thick-leafed. Vegetative buds are conical, flower - round, ovate. The leaves are large, dark green, without pubescence.|
|Bloom||Blooms in May. Each generative kidney produces a bunch of 3-4 large white flowers on long pedicels.|
|Fruiting||Begins to bear fruit at the age of four or five. Harvest forms on bouquet branches. The variety is declared as early, but according to the reviews of gardeners in the suburbs it ripens not earlier than the end of June.
The color of fruits Iputi - from red to almost black, depending on the degree of maturity. Average weight gram. The largest specimens reach 9 grams. From the peduncle go easily. In rainy weather, they can crack.
The pulp is very juicy, medium-dense, crimson, of excellent sweet taste. The juice is red. A tasting score is, points.
Bone separates badly.
|Demanding to the soil||Neutral, loosely lumpy, not overwetted soils.|
|Sustainability||Good winter hardiness, high resistance to fungal damage.|
|Productivity||From 25 to 50 kg from each tree, depending on the conditions and farming techniques.|
|Appointment of fruit||Universal.|
|Demand for pollinators||A samostery variety. Bryansk varieties of Revna, Bryansk pink, Tyutchevka are well suited for pollination.|
|Transportability and longevity||Whole undressed fruits well tolerate transportation. Freshly stored for a short time, but not worse than other varieties.|
Thus, the merits of the variety Iput include:
- winter hardiness;
- resistance to diseases;
- compactness of the tree;
- high productivity and large-fruited;
- excellent taste of fruits and their universal purpose;
- good transportability and good for cherries longevity;
- early maturity.
A few disadvantages:
- tendency to crack the fruit;
- exacting to the ground.
The crop begins with a seedling, like a theater with a hanger. Therefore, to choose a seedling for your site should be very meticulous.
- Cherries are usually planted at the age of 2 years.The seedling-two-year-old should have 3-4 well-developed lateral shoots.
- If you get a seedling with an open root system, you need to inspect it. Roots should not be rotten, dry, the healthy root on the cut is cream colored.
- The thickness of the trunk of a good cherry tree is about 2 cm.
- The wrinkling of the cortex is a sign that the plant has been overdried. Also on the trunk there should be no growths, cracks, swellings.
- It is important to clarify on which root the cherry is grafted.Practice shows that on cherry stock the sweet cherry has a weak anchorage, and already an adult tree can break down in the place of adhesion. The best variants of the rootstocks are the Tserapadus Izmailovsky and Moskovia (hybrids of cherry and cherry), VC-13 and VC-52 (hybrid of cherry and cerapadus).
Selecting the "pet you must immediately wrap its roots with a moistened rag, put it in a bag and tie it. In this condition, the seedling can be transported to the site without fear that the root system will dry up.
Cherry is a light-demanding culture, and a place for it must be chosen solar, protected from the wind. Drafts are fatal, even for zoned "North".The soil on the site must be breathable and well drained.For a sweet cherry marshy or clayey dense soils, lowlands with stagnations of spring thawed waters are not suitable. The horizon of subsoil waters should lie at a depth of at least 2 meters.
In cold regions, the cherry can only be planted in the spring. Hence, the preparation of the seat should be taken care of in the fall:
- dig a pit 1 meter in diameter and 80 cm deep;
- fill it with four buckets of humus, pouring it with a mound.
The purchased seedling can be held for a while without landing on a permanent place, if you lay it down and sprinkle the roots of the earth.And yet it's better not to pull for a long time, but immediately put it in the landing pit.
Cherry, like most fruit crops, is very convenient to plant "on a cone." The algorithm is as follows:
- On a mound of humus (cone), poured on the bottom of the landing pit, establish a support stake.
- Seedling set on the top of the mound and straighten the roots so that they evenly descend along its slopes.
- Fill the pit with good soil in a mixture with humus and a little pound the hole.
- Check the position of the neck. It should be just above the surface.
- Tie the seedling to the pedestal.
- Along the rim of the landing hole make a groove and pour well on this furrow seedling.
- Silence the near-range circle of organic mulch.
If the seedling was purchased in a container, the disembarkation process is simplified. The pit is 20 cm wider and deeper than the container. In it, the plant is placed together with an earthen lump and covered with a mixture of soil with humus...
After the trunk, care will be required throughout the life of the plant. It should be moistened, loosened, free of weeds and clouded. On the circumference it is good to plant marigolds. These flowers attract ladybirds - natural enemies of aphids, who like to sit on young cherry shoots.
Immediately after the planting, the cherry must begin to form.The first thing is to look at the crown.If there is no obvious "leader" among the shoots, it must be "appointed choose a good upper one, pull it up to the support, give it an upright position, and tie it up. The remaining shoots are the future skeletal branches of the sweet cherry. They should be shortened to the lower kidney to a length of 25 cm.
In the first year after planting, the young cherry must only be watered. In autumn, for the best preparation of the plant for wintering, you can ask for top-dressing from superphosphate (2 tablespoons per 1 square. m crown projection). Grade Iput well tolerates frosts, but at a young age it is better to arrange for him additional protection.
In this capacity, nonwoven concealed materials show themselves well. Before frost, a frame is installed around the seedling and is covered with several layers of agropan or spunbond 60 g / sq. m.
In the second year cherry will require spring nitrogen fertilizing. It is better to use a good manure humus, then there is no risk of "overfeeding" the plant.
You also need to continue shaping the crown.As for pruning cherries, there are different opinions. For example, the famous pomologist Lev Platonovich Simirenko believed that this crop is contraindicated. The sweet cherry has a low shoot-forming ability, and its crown itself is formed sparse. Even in adult trees, it is often possible to do sanitary pruning and mere chasing shoots directed inside the crown.
Nevertheless, to stimulate entry into fruiting and better yield, it is necessary to accustom the young skeleton branches of cherry to the right position. Here the rule is: the more the angle between the shoot and the barrel, the better the harvest. To ensure this condition, in the old days on the branches of young seedlings they hanged bast shoes.Now you can apply the method of deflection of shoots:
- In spring, on the side branch, closer to the top, a loose loop of twine is attached.
- The second end of the twine is tied to the peg in the ground so that the branch forms with a straight trunk or even an obtuse angle.
- In this "crucified" position the plant spends the whole summer. In autumn, the loop can be cut.
In the middle of summer on the cherry tree inspects the age-old growths. Cherry is capable for a season to expel them in length to 60 sm and more. This is not too good - long gains do not have time to ripen until winter. Therefore, they should be pinched. Among other things, this procedure stimulates branching of the sweet cherry.
To the tree was compact, you need to follow the height of the central conductor.A three-meter-high leader will be enough.When he grows up to this mark, he is cut off with a transfer to the nearest skeletal branch..
3 facts about pollination of sweet cherry
Cherry is a cross-pollinated plant. Even in partially self-fertilized varieties, the yield of crops is greatly increased if other sweet cherries are planted nearby. But this does not mean at all that you need to turn your whole plot into a cherry orchard. You can do with minimal costs.
- Cherries are pollinated perfectly by their "sister" cherries.Due to this property, hybrids of these cultures appeared - Dyuki. Therefore, if there is already a cherry tree in the garden with an early maturation period, you can not put another cherry tree next to Iputu. As a pollinator, for her, for example, cherry Turgenevskaya can be useful.
- Option for even more economical use of garden space- Inoculation of the donor material of the pollinating variety into the cherry tree of Iput. Thus, you can get two different varieties on one stem, which will pollinate each other.
- If in the next garden there is a suitable cherry or sweet cherry,you can do without your own pollinator.The main thing is to take into account two points:
- plant their cherries at a distance no further than 30 meters from the neighbor's tree;
- make sure that between them did not grow a pear or apple tree, which can interfere with dusting.
Diseases and pests
Scourge of stone fruit - fungal infection. Fortunately, Iput almost does not suffer from either moniliosis or coccomicosis.If the infection does occur, the following should be done:
- As soon as possible remove and burn the affected shoots.
- To treat a sick plant with the drug "Horus". This is a fungicide of the extended spectrum of action. For better adhesion to the surface, you can dissolve it not in plain water, but with the addition of household or tar soap.
About the aphids, which often attack the sweet cherry, it was already said. You can fight it with chemical preparations like Iskra, but you have to remember: insecticides kill not only pests, but also useful insects - bees, ladybirds, golden-eyed. Having noticed the aphids on their tree, it is better to cope with it with a simple ash-soap solution.
Harvesting and storage of crops
During the pouring of fruits, the cherry must be protected from starlings. These wonderful friends of gardeners can for some time become brisk competitors, and in order not to remain without harvest, it is better to throw a protective net on the tree in time.
Mass harvesting of the sweet cherry Iput can be started when the fruits acquire a dark red color.It is important to monitor the condition of the pedicels: if they begin to dry out, time is lost and the cherry overripe. These fruits will have to be processed immediately or eaten.
Remove cherry from the branches carefully. Do not throw, and put the fruit in a container. Damaged, with a broken skin peel off separately.
For a long time to keep Iput fresh it will not work - like any sweet cherry, it quickly loses its taste and becomes watery. For 5 days you can keep it in the refrigerator, but then it's better to freeze or make blanks for the winter. A jar of fragrant jam on a winter evening will remind you of a beautiful wanderer who has come a long way from "Greeks" to "Varangians".
And finally a small video, which describes the sweet cherry, including Drozdovsky variety: