The apples of the Sinap variety have been valued since ancient times for their incredible taste, similar to something in the honey. In addition, they have a long shelf life and are able to lie throughout the winter. Therefore, they are considered an ideal option for harvesting in fresh form for the winter period.
If you still have not planted this variety in your own garden or country plot, then you should think about planting it for the next year in the spring. Especially apple tree Sinap has been cultivated in many regions of Russia for more than 100 years. About its properties, features of cultivation, care it is necessary to talk more in detail.
Table of contents
- Description of the apple tree Sinap Orlovsky
- Maturity and yield
- Description of apples
- Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Regions of natural growth
- Crown formation
- Rules for planting seedlings
- Care instructions
- Watering rules
- Features of top dressing
- Diseases and pests
Description of the apple tree Sinap Orlovsky
Synapse can be of two types - Northern and Orel.
The northern variety was bred by S. AND. Isaev at the biostation of young naturalists named after K. A. Timiryazev. It was obtained by pollination from the seeds of the Kandil-Kitaika variety in 1927.
Orlovsky variety is derived from the North variety, so it has the same taste and has a high yield. This variety was obtained in 1955 in the All-Russian Research Institute of Selection of Fruit Crops and All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Horticulture them. AND. AT. Michurin through the crossing of the Northern Sinap and the memory of Michurin.
Maturity and yield
North and Orel Sinap has a high yield. On average, one tree receives up to 200 kilograms of apples. Ripe fruits begin to be harvested already from the beginning of the first decade of October. The period of the first harvest can vary depending on the type of climate and the weather of the region in which the variety grows.
The period of full fruiting at the trees does not come too early. The first apples appear only on the fourth year of growing apple trees.
Over time, apple trees of this variety quickly increase the level of yield.Every year the number of ripe apples increases, if in the first year they collect 100 kg, then next year this figure will increase by 2 times. However, abundant fruiting can adversely affect the size of apples.
Description of apples
A variety of apples Sinap Orlovsky possess the following qualities:
- The size of ripe fruit is average, weight is 150 grams;
- Ripe fruits, ready to be removed from the tree, have a yellow-green tinge. And after storage, the fruits become golden yellow;
- If the tree is on the sunny side, then a ripe, pale pink blush appears on the ripe apples with a fuzzy;
- The rind has a dense structure;
- Mature apples are oily, they feel smooth to the touch.
The North Sinap apple variety has the following characteristics:
- Mature fruits have different forms, the mass of one fetus is 120 grams;
- The surface of the peel is smooth, there is an oiliness;
- The color of mature apples is yellow-green, sometimes there is a dark reddish blush;
- The flesh has a juicy, loose structure;
- The flesh has remarkable taste qualities, due to a harmonious combination of acid and sweetness, juiciness and tenderness.
The ripened fruit contains a reduced percentage of sugar. The level of total sugar content is,%. After a finite period of aging during the stalk, the level of the ratio of sugars and acids acquires a balance. During this period, apples have a rich flavor with a slight acidic aftertaste.Caloric content of 100 grams of apples does not exceed 50 kilocalories.
Mature apples Sinapa Severny and Orlovsky have high useful properties. They contain a high level of vitamins, microelements. When stored, they do not lose their useful properties.
Apple Sinap is a partially self-fertilized tree. Many gardeners are advised to improve the level of yield, grow pollinators nearby. For Northern Sinap, suitable options include Antonovka, Pepin saffron, Slavyanka.
For Sinap Orlovsky suitable are Antonovka and Welsey..
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Apples of Sinap Severny and Orlovski are grown in many regions of Russia. This is due to the positive properties of this variety. It is worth highlighting the most popular advantages of Sinap Severny and Orlovsky:
- This variety of appleshas fastness;
- High yield. From one tree at the age of 5 years, you can collect 4-5 bags of apples, this is 200 kilograms;
- Ripe fruits are to be stored. When resting, they rarely spoil, do not become moldy and retain a high level of nutrients;
- Withstand severe frost. Sinop Orlovsky is able to withstand frosts to degrees. When the temperature is lowered to minus, the mature fruit does not freeze, they retain all their external and internal qualities;
- Cangrow in regions of Russia with a harsh climate;
- Mature apples have excellent taste qualities. After harvesting, from the beginning of October to the end of November, apples are left to lie down, preferably for a month. After that, the fruits ripen, they acquire an excellent taste, become juicy and useful.
However, in addition to positive qualities, Sinap has negative, of which it is worth highlighting the main:
- After planting the seedlings,fruiting of the tree comes only for 4 years of life;
- Without the presence of pollinators, yields will drop to 40%;
- Sinap Severny unlike Orlovsky has low frost resistance, so it is not recommended to plant in the northern regions of Russia;
- Low resistance to scab, damage to pests and diseases. Therefore, periodically in the early spring, appropriate treatments are made;
- The tree has large dimensions, therefore it causes inconvenience when growing on small plots.
Regions of natural growth
In Russia, suitable areas for growing Sinapa Severnoy are the following:
- Central Black Earth;
- Lower Volga;
- On stanzier forms in the Eastern Siberia region.
Sort of Sinap Orlovsky suitable for planting in the territories:
- Central Black Earth;
- Middle Volga;
- North-West region of Russia.
In addition, this variety is actively grown in six regions of Belarus..
The trees of the variety Severny and Orlovsky Sinap have the same characteristics:
- Strong growth and large size;
- The shape of the crown is pyramidal with sprawling branches. For this reason, before planting it is necessary to allocate for seedlings the necessary place for cultivation. In the future, this will ensure full growth through the receipt of all necessary components;
- The height of an adult tree is between 3 and 5 meters;
- Shoots have a dark brown color, their thickness is medium.They are lowered down. The form is cranked. Leaves are sparsely distributed;
- The color of the leaves is green or dark green. Size - medium, in shape, they are wide slightly elongated, down. The edges of the leaf blade are raised;
- The main branches from the trunk move in a perpendicular direction, the ends have an upper direction.
Rules for planting seedlings
The appropriate time for planting apple seedlings of the Sinap Severny and Orlovsky varieties is from the middle of September to the middle of October..
Saplings can be planted in the spring. If the apple-tree is planted in the spring, then the planting should start from the first half of April. Spring is worth planting when the threat of freezing completely passed, otherwise the seedlings may not settle down.
The main features of landing:
- Pits for seedlings need to be done within 14 days for planting;
- The depth of the wells should not be less than 80 cm, and the length and width of each well should be at least 1 meter;
- The bottom of the hole should be loosened by rakes;
- Then you need to break the brick or expanded clay to small debris and put it on the bottom of the pit. This will provide additional drainage;
- Fertile land in the hole is mixed with the manure and wood ash. On ¾ of the land you will need ¼ of the fertilizer mixture;
- Then 40 grams of potassium sulfate and 80 grams of superphosphate should be poured into the prepared mixture from the soil and the fertilizer mixture. Everything is thoroughly mixed;
- After this, this mixture must be filled in the pit for planting. Fertilizer should fill the well with almost 1/3 of a piece;
- After falling asleep fertilizer, in the central part, you need to add a bit of ground to form a hill of 20 cm high;
- After that, the seedling is placed in the fossa. The distance of the root neck to the ground should be at least 5-6 cm;
- About a seedling, we drive a peg, the size of its height should be 60-80 cm. A seedling is attached to this peg;
- Roots are neatly straightened, they should not be confused. Then they fall asleep on the ground, tamped, but not much;
- Then the seedling is flooded with water. One young tree requires up to 3-4 buckets of water.
It is advisable to plant young planting material of the Sinap Severniy and Orlovsky apple varieties on loamy, sandy loamy soils having high air and moisture permeability. The main indicator is the remoteness of planting from the flow of groundwater no less than 2 meters, because the apple trees can not stand long stagnant water.
Despite the fact that Sinap Severny and Orlovsky are considered unpretentious varieties of apple trees, they still require additional care. If you perform appropriate and timely care, you can collect a good harvest as a result.
During the intensive growth of apple trees it is necessary to make periodic cuttings of young trees.
Features of pruning trees:
- In the first year after planting the seedlings, only a third of the branches are pruned;
- After a year in spring pruning is carried out so that after it there are three tiers of branches;
- In subsequent periods, the trimming procedure is performed so that only one main conductor remains.
Pruning of young trees is done at 20-25 cm, adults at 45-50 cm. During cutting, dry and damaged branches must be removed.
In order for the tree to constantly bear fruit and yield a good harvest, it is necessary to water it properly:
- During the spring and summer period, the trees are watered at least 4-5 times a month;
- One young tree requires pouring 2-3 buckets of water;
- After each irrigation procedure, it is necessary to loosen the soil. This ensures a full distribution of moisture;
- Before watering, be sure to make a trunks circle, due to this, water will be absorbed better.
Features of top dressing
The variety Sinap Severny and Orlovsky are fertilized 4 times a year:
- After the winter period;
- After the formation of the kidneys;
- After flowering;
- After full harvest.
How to properly fertilize the apple:
- The first fertilizer is done next spring after planting the seedling. During this period, a mixture of fertilizer is introduced into the soil - 700 grams of manure is added per 1 bucket of soil;
- As the first buds appear in the tree trunk of each tree, 500 grams of urea should be scattered, then the hole is dug;
- After the flowering period ends, the trees need to be fertilized with a special solution. The composition of the fertile solution includes 100 grams of superphosphate, 60 grams of urea, 40 grams of calcium. All these components are bred in 10 liters of water. You can fertilize another no less fertile mixture - 10 liters of water is added a kilogram of liquid mullein, 500 grams of bird droppings, 40-50 grams of superphosphate;
- As the harvest is collected, the soil is fertilized. For 10 liters of water, 30-50 grams of superphosphate is added.
Diseases and pests
Often, scurvy and powdery mildew appear at Sinap Severnogo and Orlovsky. To these lesions, trees exhibit an average resistance. Therefore, it is necessary to provide full protection against these lesions.
Rules for the protection and prevention of scab and powdery mildew diseases:
- Works on the prevention of lesions, diseases in apple trees are carried out in the autumn period;
- Mandatory control of the state of branches and integrity of the bark of the bark;
- Circumcision of dried branches and damaged parts;
- Places of pruning in young trees are chalked, in adults - lime mortar;
- After a complete collection of apples, the crowns are sprayed with 3-5% solution of copper sulfate;
- In the early spring period, before the beginning of bud blossoming, sprayings are made from a solution of Fitosporin M or 1% Bordeaux fluid.
When there is a lack of calcium in the soil, Sinap's apples are affected by a bitter pit.To saturate the earth during pouring and ripening of fruits, it is recommended to apply the preparation in liquid form - Kalbit C. For 10 liters of water, add 6-8 ml of the drug. Spraying is carried out in the evening. Spray from the top, gradually sinking to the bottom.
To combat the fruit flies, a solution of wormwood is used. To do this, tincture is made from wormwood, then add 10 ml of water to 25 ml of tincture and this solution is sprayed with trees. Spraying begins 4-5 weeks before harvest. Spraying is carried out 2 times at intervals of 7 days.
The apple cultivar Sinap iswinter variant, which has good yield. It can be planted in regions with a harsh climate, because trees have high frost resistance.
Of course, in order to get a good harvest, you must follow the rules of planting, care and further cultivation. Do not forget during feeding and spraying trees, it will protect against damage from diseases and pests.