Homeland turkeys is considered America. Domestically turkeys began about a thousand years ago. In Europe, they came only in the 16th century, after four travels of Christopher Columbus.
Table of contents
- Pros and cons of deducing
- The most famous breeds for breeding
- Conditions for keeping and growing
- Care and feeding at puberty
- How to maintain and grow
- How to keep and how to care for turkeys
- Major diseases of domestic turkeys and turkeys
- Prevention of young growth
- What to feed birds
Turkeys are colorful, majestic and at the same time, differing in size poultry.They love space and freedom. From the first days of life in the community of turkeys, a hierarchy is beginning to form.
Appears brave and snooty male and you can see gluttons - applicants for fattening for meat. In flocks of turkey-males, the right to fertilize female turkeys belongs to only one turkey, which stands at the top of the hierarchy..
Pros and cons of deducing
A clear advantage of growing a turkey herd at home is the production of useful meat and eggs. Meat of turkey is dietary meat, which has a low level of cholesterol and a high level of useful minerals and vitamins.
It is hypoallergenic and easily digestible, useful for pregnant women, young children and athletes. Eggs also have a large set of useful components, occupy the third place in the amount of nutrients, after quail eggs and guinea fowl eggs.
But if you consider that turkey meat costs twice as much as chicken and eggs by the number of nutrients and weight exceeds three times the chicken, then this minus does not seem so significant..
The most famous breeds for breeding
The most common breed of turkeys for breeding on a personal farmstead is the breedthe North Caucasian bronze. It has an elongated trunk, a small chest and a bronze plumage.
These birds are very mobile, long-legged and well adapted to the search for food. Live weight of adult males from 13 to 18 kg, females 7-8 kg. The egg-laying of turkeys varies from 80 to 100 eggs per year.
Very beneficial for the maintenance of the breed iswhite broad-chested. They are divided into three main types:
- Heavy: the weight of males reaches 25 kg, the weight of females is up to 10 kg;
- Medium: weight of males is 15 kg, and females 7 kg;
- Lungs: turkeys weigh 7 kg each, and turkeys weigh up to 5 kg.
Turkeys mature for egg production by 9 months, bring up to 115-125 eggs per year.
High viability of young animals and almost 100% fertilization is the breed of turkeys bronze broad-chested. Live weight of males is up to 18 kg, females up to 10 kg.
Moscow white and bronze breedscharacterized by a powerful body structure, productive fertilization and early egg-laying. Turkeys begin to be carried already from 6 months, bring in a year from 100 eggs. Live weight of males reaches 13 kg, females - 7 kg..
Conditions for keeping and growing
The main requirement in the content of turkeys, which should focus attention, is the thermal factor. Turkeys themselves are frost-resistant birds, but they need warmth and dryness in the enclosure for their full growth and development.
The room should often be ventilated. It is not uncommon for the content of turkeys to use "former" chicken coops, which are slightly modified for a larger bird.
The basic indicators of a pen for 10 turkeys:
- Areanot less than 5 square meters, as on 1 square meter can accommodate up to 2 birds (ideally should be 1 square meter per individual);
- Ventilation, to eliminate dampness;
- Litter made of straw, which must be changed at least twice a week;
- Nasses, equipped at an altitude of 70-80 cm from the floor, a width of 5-7 cm. and a height of 8-10 cm.
- Lightingcan be carried out by means of a conventional electric lamp, whose power should be 60 W.
- In order not to start the parasitic organisms in the turkey, smallboxes with sand and ash.
One turkey requires a minimum of 40 cm per perch, so there should be as many plots as the bird will be placed in the pen. The distance between the perches should be more than 60 cm.
Turkeys need constant walking. In the summer season near the poultry house for them street aviaries are arranged, the area equal to the number of birds, per bird is allocated at least one square meter.
Conditions for equipping the summer pen:
- On the territory of the penthere must be a canopy, under which birds can hide from direct sunlight in hot weather;
- Ideally, if the territory will growalfalfa, oats and clover, which sow in early spring;
- Drinkers, the water in which should change as the contamination, at least once a day;
- Feederswith barley, or with oats.
In the winter season, when the air temperature is below 10 degrees, turkeys are also recommended for outings. To do this, a layer of straw is lined on the territory of the pen, so that the birds do not freeze their paws, and the food is scattered throughout the paddock.
Walking turkeys is simply necessary, otherwise they will only grow fat without gaining muscle mass.
Most of the turkey breeders keep separate sexes.
In the case of females, only one manufacturer is then launched. But there are poultry farmers who prefer to keep all the birds in one enclosure. In this case, there should not be more than 5 females per males in a flock of turkeys, otherwise it will not be able to cover all turkeys.
If the herd of turkeys is large, then it is better to divide it into small groups, in each of which there will be one manufacturer..
Care and feeding at puberty
Sexual maturation in turkeys occurs at the age of 8-10 months. Turkeys for the most full-fledged development must be fed a special mixture, which consists of:
- Yeast- 5 grams;
- Carrots and greens70-80 grams;
- Cottage cheese20 grams;
The turkey starts to carry eggs from 10 months. Very often they suffer from the syndrome of "hen so to collect the eggs taken out, it is often necessary to drive it from its place.
It is very important to monitor the feeding of the rushing animals. When the birds are just beginning to sweep, they need to be fed up to 5 times a day. In the winter season it is necessary to give moistened grain crops, finely chopped carrots, herbal flour. In the summer, crops with greens.
After mating, the process of laying begins...
How to maintain and grow
During oviposition, a young turkey can demolish up to 17 eggs, which must be checked for fertilization. To do this, eggs in turn need to be lowered into a container of water, if the egg drowns, then we return it to the nest, if it floats up, into the refrigerator.
The process of hatching eggs lasts up to 28 days.At this time, it is necessary to ensure that the turkey ate on time. Feeding is done in the morning. It is best to feed the poultry with soaked and swollen oats. When the turkey takes food, it is necessary at this time to cover the laying of eggs with a warm cloth to prevent its supercooling.
One turkey is able to sit and grow not only its offspring, but also someone else's. One bird is capable of raising 75-80 turkeys.
How to keep and how to care for turkeys
Thermal factor is the basis of growing turkeys. Chilled young animals are strongly exposed to various diseases, which can prevent you from gaining the right weight, even with a good balanced feed.
The turkey must be planted in cardboard boxes with a cloth lining, or dry small sawdust. For 10 kids, a container with dimensions of meters per meter and wall height up to 40 cm is suitable.
Heating and lighting is done by electric lamps, whose power must be not less than 40 watts. Electro-lamps are fixed on top of the box, using a table lamp. It is possible to lower the lamp directly into the box, but for this, it is necessary that it be in a special weighted glass plafond.
The first two days of turkeys are kept at round-the-clock illumination, gradually reducing the light regime for 30-35 minutes.
From 20 days, the light regime lasts 15 hours. In addition, the first 10 days of life of children is to maintain the temperature to +36 degrees, gradually lowering and bringing it to +25 degrees. In two months the temperature should be +20 degrees.
Under such conditions, the turkey should be kept until the end of fattening, that is, up to 7 months.
Turkeys are susceptible to the development of diseases, most of which end in a fatal outcome.
Major diseases of domestic turkeys and turkeys
- Coccidosis- the development in the body of birds of the simplest microorganisms leading to the death of the carrier.
- Trichomoniasis morbidityoccurs in the body of birds during the absorption of Trichomonads by drinking water, or by contact with other species of birds that carry the infection.
- Tuberculosis. It develops when the rules for keeping turkeys are not observed. Direct sunlight is the only source of healing for a diseased bird.
- Pasteurellosis. Most often occurs in fattened turkeys, whose age is from 1 to 2 months. The reason is the squishing of the turkey manure and the harmful pasteure substance contained in it, which is destroyed from direct sunlight per day.
- Developmentparasiticorganisms in the digestive tract.
- Aspergillosis- fungal disease of the pulmonary system of organs, developing as a result of the presence of straw on the territory of the enclosure, or other litter containing fungal microorganisms.
Prevention of young growth
- In the 1st day a solution is evaporatedascorbic acidwith glucose, because the turkey is still weak and unable to assimilate other complex elements;
- From the second to the fifth day is givenirex-vital(a pinch is built per liter of water);
- You can alsoamino-vital(pinch per liter of water).
The earlier the feeding of turkeys begins, the more they become more viable. The first day is best to feed the egg, hard-boiled and crushed.
Then, specialized feed for young animals is given up to 40-45 days, and also include dairy mash, reverse, sour milk and buttermilk in the diet. Necessarily it is necessary to give to kids finely cut greens of a nettle, dandelions, a clover. In a month and a half you can transfer them to an adult diet.
- From the 6th to the 10th day, chicks are given in small quantitiesfurozolidone, which goes for the prevention of gastrointestinal diseases;
- From the 15th to the 20th day turkeys need to be drunkamprolium, which goes against coccidia;
- Before releasing turkey poultry, you need to give themASD-2 - fractionagainst fungal and aspergillosis;
- In 40 days, themetronidazole, for 4 days (4 tablets per liter of water). It will protect young growth from the development of the simplest microorganisms, which are formed during the seaming of earthworms and can cause the death of a turkey.
What to feed birds
When preparing for the winter period, it is recommended to harvest lime, birch and poplar brooms for turkeys, which are subsequently suspended in the poultry house at an accessible height for turkeys and are the source of additional vitamins.
The diet of adults includes:
- Feedstuffs, which includes proteins, vitamins and proteins. Usually used for feeding male producers.
- Oats, preferably germinated.
- For fattening, it's best to feed turkeyswheat.
- Botvavegetable crops (in summer).
- Shreddedvegetables(potatoes, carrots, turnips).
- Greenery(alfalfa, green onions, clover, dandelions).
- Youngbranchletstrees, hay, sauerkraut (in winter).
If you raise a bird for fattening, then you need to feed it more wheat and other grains. During the morning feeding, the crops should be moistened with water, and in the evening they should give dry food. In order for the meat to be tender and juicy, you need to feed as much of the greens and vegetables as possible.
In order for laying turkeys to be balanced in their diet they must also include:
- 150 gramsboiled potatoesper day, while the laying hen produces up to 9 eggs per month, if 15 to 18 eggs per month, then the potato, respectively, from 110 to 130 grams.
- Bone flourand table salt should be daily up to 2 grams, no matter how many eggs the bird gives out.
- Waste from fishshould be 30 grams for egg production of 9 eggs per month, 40 grams for the issuance of 15 eggs per month, 50 grams if the turkey gives out 18 eggs.
- Cottage cheese, if the laying out of the laying hen 3 eggs per month, then 3 grams per day, 9 eggs, then 5 grams, 5-20 eggs, then 10 grams.
Breeding turkeys on a personal farmstead, subject to all the necessary measures for the care and rearing of young animals, will become very interesting and profitable occupation, even for a beginner farmer.
Contain and grow a turkey herd on a free-range summerand the cellular content in winter will give a large number of large eggs and dietary, enriched with vitamins and various microelements of meat. Recently, broiler breeds of turkeys, which are contained for fattening, are gaining popularity. They are not fastidious in food and are easy in content.