Composition of detergent: chemical and natural

In the household chemistry market, the majority of counters are occupied by usual washing means: powders, capsules and liquid gels, and only a small part of the windows are occupied by ECO-chemistry. Such a wide publicity did not receive such funds, so many buyers and bypass them by choosing the usual ones.

Why become a victim of advertising and the harmful effects of harmful chemicals? If you know the composition of the detergent, you can choose the safest for washing clothes. Next, we'll look at what chemical and natural remedies are made of, so you can make a deliberate choice.

Content of the material:

  • 1Chemical composition of detergent: what is added according to GOST
    • 1.1Other components
    • 1.2"Secret" components
    • 1.3Requirements according to GOST
  • 2What are natural washing powders made of?
  • 3Popular washing powders: which ones are more natural

Chemical composition of detergent: what is added according to GOST

First, let's consider what is added to the vast majority of conventional automatic powders:

  • Anionic surfactants (A-surfactants).The level of foaming depends on these surfactants. These components are distinguished by a minimal cost price and are good for washing stains, eliminating fatty traces.
    But the cons are more: they dissolve not only fat on clothes, but also a protective layer on the skin of hands; almost do not wash out tissues, therefore through the skin they enter the body and dig into internal organs, which eventually leads to a number diseases. For example, in the EU it is forbidden to add more than 2% of A-surfactant to the composition of funds, and we have powders with a 15-30% level.
  • Non-ionic surfactants. They clean the fabric, acting inside the materials, so they penetrate the fiber structure deep enough. They are not toxic, they break up perfectly. In view of low foaming, they are used in combination with A-SAW. The effectiveness of non-ionic substances is better at low temperatures.
    Usually it can be found in gels for washing - there they are present in minimal amounts, not more than 5%.
  • Oxygen bleaches. Their vocation is the neutralization of yellowness on the fabric. In oxygen-containing powders of recent years sodium percarbonate is used as such bleach, which not only whitens, but also performs other tasks: disinfection, removal of odors. The substance is non-toxic, it decomposes well.
  • Phosphonates. Soften water for more efficient washing. They are considered less toxic substances, which are now replaced by phosphates - the harm of the latter is known to almost everyone.
  • Polycarboxylateis added to the powder in order to protect the parts of the styralka from rust, it also softens the water. Safe for humans and the environment.
  • Zeolites. These are so-called absorbents that neutralize dirt. In combination with phosphonites, phosphates are substituted, making the water softer. Only natural zeolites are not dangerous for living organisms, and synthetic ones are as harmful as phosphates. In cheap powders, you are unlikely to find BIO-zeolites.
  • Enzymes.Protein spots of surfactants can not be eliminated, therefore, compounds that can destroy organic compounds, including protein, are used. In budgetary funds, the enzyme alone for all types of spots, in expensive ones - separate species for different pollution.
    At temperatures above 40 degrees, enzymes are destroyed, since they themselves have a protein structure. Their toxicity at the middle level - can cause skin reactions, as well as spoil things from natural tissues.
  • Optical brighteners. This is a "descendant" of bluehead, which deceitfully made things brighter and whiter. Optical bleach works on the same principle: absorbs UV rays, converting them into blue light. Roughly speaking, this is not a bleaching agent at all, but a coloring agent. They penetrate deeply into the tissues and do not wash out, they can cause allergies.
  • Aromatic additives and fragrances. They do not just give the fragrance to the powders, but mask the unpleasant odors. There are both chemical and natural. On the pack, as a rule, they do not write about it, but it is also clear that in cheap powder, most likely, they will be artificially synthesized substances.
    Be that as it may, these are allergens that can cause irritation - both skin and mucous membranes.

Other components

We listed the typical components. There are other components that are usually added to the powders with the effect of "dazzling whiteness" and "frosty freshness

  • Sodium tripolyphosphate. It is a classic phosphate that softens water. It is easy to find in the composition of any cheap powder.
  • Sodium Hypochloride. Chlorine bleach, harmful to the body and enhancing the effect of surfactants and phosphates. Almost all powders are replaced with oxygen bleaches, but you can still meet it in any inexpensive means.
  • Cationic surfactants. Not particularly powerful, but can reduce harm from A-SAW. They have bactericidal properties, they are part of expensive rinses and powders.

"Secret" components

These substances can be present in the detergent, and the manufacturer can "forget" about them to mention:

  • TAED- bleach activators. Oxygen bleaches work only at high temperature conditions (over 80 degrees). To activate them in cold water, TAED is used. If you see in the composition of oxygen bleach, about TAED there is not a word, but it is written that the powder removes stains at low temperatures, it is quite possible that the manufacturer kept something.
  • Antiresorbentmay be present in the laundry detergent to prevent back dirt from sticking to washed laundry.
  • Phthalatefixes the smell and does not allow it to weathered. If to you promise, that the blouse will pleasantly smell for a long time, then the composition clearly has phthalates. They also reduce the percentage of dust in the powder and do not allow it to roll down with lumps.

As you can see, in the usual powders or gels for washing there are "pests". Therefore, it is worth choosing selectively.

Requirements according to GOST

All listed chemicals harm or do not harm the body at a certain concentration. The GOST specifies the density for the most harmful components, as well as the requirements for the appearance of the powder and other points:

  • Externally, the powder should look like a granular mixture from white to light yellow, but color is also acceptable.
  • Unpainted powders should be white by 60%.
  • The mass fraction of dust should not exceed 5%.
  • The hydrogen ion concentration index should vary from, to 1, pH.
  • Mass fraction of phosphate salts is not more than 22 percent.
  • Foaming is not more than 20 centimeters.
  • Washing ability is not less than 85%.
  • Whitening (for powders with chemical bleaches) is not less than 80%.
  • Shelf life for funds with chemical bleaches or BIO additives is not less than 9 months from the date of manufacture. Other means are not limited in the period of validity.
  • The mass fraction of active oxygen should not exceed the 6% mark.

There are other requirements of Gosstandart for powders for washing, but we have listed the main ones. When choosing it is not necessary to rely on GOST, for example, often safe ECO powders are not made in accordance with GOST, and there is no harmful "chemistry" in them. The composition of natural powders will be discussed below.

What are natural washing powders made of?

In BIO powders all manufacturers try to replace harmful substances with harmless analogs:

  • Surfactants are replacedbiological surfactants (ecosurfanthants).They are compounds of glucose, potato, wheat and rice, as well as fatty alcohols from coconut or palm oil. Their composition can also be yeast or bacteria - this does not particularly affect the quality of washing, but greatly simplifies the disintegration of funds, preventing their harm to the environment.
  • All chemical and optical whitening ingredients are replacedon auxiliary and nonionic surfactants. They demonstrate excellent bleaching performance and are harmless.
  • Instead of phosphates, natural powder containssodium disilicate, binding part of the salts of water hardness. It has a phosphate-like action: water softening, caring for the details of the styralka. Particularly effective are agents with 15-55 percent content of this substance.
  • In ECO-powder you will not find chlorine and active oxygen, instead of it there will bea stabilizer of peroxide compounds or a water-soluble complexing agentorganic origin.
  • Instead of a chemical perfume in a safe means,natural essential oilor a whole complex of them.

Popular washing powders: which ones are more natural

We will tell you about the most popular automatic powders that can be found in almost any stores, so that you determine for yourself - it is worth buying each of them, or not.

Phosphates,% A-surfactant,% Optical bleach Phosphonates Zeolites
Ariel Professional System 15-30 5-15 +
Ariel Color Cleanness Deluxe 5-10 + +
Gloss Total System 9 5-15 + +
Myth "Frosty freshness" BIO + Oxygen 15-30 +
Tide children's 15-30 + +
Persel-automatic Color + + +
Washing powder concentrated Amway SA8 + +
Pemos +
Lotus 5-15 & g; %
Biolan 5-15 5-15 +
Seagull "Northern Lights" 5 +
Children's Ecole 15-30 +

Do not advertise ECO and BIO powders - now you just know what components you should be alerted to in the usual powders. When choosing another detergent, take a look at the label. In life, and so enough harmful - even if at least the powder does not spoil the health.

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