Rise in price of conventional energy sources encourages owners of private homes to look for alternative housing heating and hot water. Agree, the financial component of the issue will play a significant role in the selection of the heating system.
One of the most promising ways of energy - solar radiation conversion. To do this, they employ solar. Understanding how they work and the mechanism of the device, make a solar collector for heating their hands not be easy.
We will tell you of the construction of solar plants, we offer a simple assembly diagrams and describe the materials that you can use. Stages are accompanied by illustrative photographs, the material is supplemented by videos on the establishment and commissioning of self-made reservoir.
The content of the article:
- The principle of operation and design features
- Classification temperature criteria
Autograph collector manufacturing
- Materials for self-assembly
- Nuances insulation device
- A heat solar collector
- Storage tank or forebays
- Stages build solar
- Test before commissioning
- Performance solar collector
- Prices of factory equipment
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The principle of operation and design features
Modern solar system - one of the types of alternative sources generate heat. They are used as an auxiliary heating equipment, refining the solar radiation into useful energy to the house owners.
They are able to fully provide hot water and heating in the cold season is only in the southern regions. And then, if they occupy a large area and are set to open, not shaded trees areas.
Despite the large number of varieties, the operating principle is the same. any solar system It is a circuit with a consecutive arrangement of devices, and supplying thermal energy and transmit it to the consumer.
The primary elements are solar panels on the solar cells or solar collectors. Technology Solar generator assembly Plate on a bit more complicated than the tubular manifold.
In this article we will look at the second option - a collector of solar systems.
Solar collectors until auxiliaries are energy suppliers. Fully switch heating solar systems on homes is dangerous due to the inability to predict the precise number of sunny days
Collectors are tubing, connected in series with the output and the input highway or laid out in a serpentine. By circulating the process water pipes, air flow or a mixture of water with a freezing liquid.
Stimulate circulation physical phenomena: evaporation, pressure change and density of the transition from one state to another and others.
Principle of operation of solar collectors based on obtaining and accumulating solar energy transferred to the coolant (+)
Collection and accumulation of solar energy absorbers made. This is either a solid metal plate with a blackened outside surface, or a system of individual plates attached to the tubes.
To manufacture the upper part of the housing cover used materials with a high capacity for the transmission of light. This may be acrylic, such polymeric materials, tempered glass of traditional types.
In order to avoid energy losses from the back side of the device is placed in the insulation box
It must be said that polymeric materials rather not tolerate the influence of ultraviolet rays. All kinds of plastics have sufficiently high coefficient of thermal expansion, which often leads to depressurization housing. Therefore, the use of such materials for the manufacture of collector housing should be restricted.
Water may be used as a heat medium only in systems designed to supply extra heat in the autumn / spring. If you plan to use solar year round before the first cooling process water was changed to a mixture of it with antifreeze.
The solar air into the air used as a coolant. Channels for its movement can be made from conventional trapezoidal sheet (+)
If the solar collector is installed to heat a small building, which has no connection with the central heating cottage or a centralized network, constructed simple single-circuit system with a heating device at the beginning of her.
The chain does not include circulating pumps and heaters. The scheme is very simple, but it can only work in the summer sun.
When the two-circuit header in technical structure is more complicated, but also a range suitable for use days significantly increased. Collector handles only one circuit. The predominant load imposed to the primary heating unit, operating on electric power, or any type of fuel.
For the manufacture of solar collector can use ready scheme, you can build your own model and pilot test it in practice (+)
Despite the direct dependence of the performance of solar devices on the number of sunny days, they are in demand, and the demand for solar devices increases steadily. They are popular among craftsmen seeking to send all kinds of natural energy in a useful direction.
Classification temperature criteria
There are quite a number of criteria, which classify certain design of solar systems. However, for devices that can be made with your own hands and be used for hot water and heating, the division will be the most rational mind of the coolant.
Thus, the system can be liquid and air. The first type most applicable.
Elementary air manifold can be made of corrugated pipe. Still need hard foil insulation and plywood or OSB for housing
On the bottom of the box, hammered together size of about 0.9 x 0.9 m, stacked insulation foil upwards. Then the whole system is covered with black paint from balonchika
The end walls of the box are cut holes for the exit air outlets. The pipe can be laid with any number of turns, it will need about 10 m
Construction must be protected from the atmospheric dust and water: for the manufacture of caps fit normal glass, polycarbonate, plexiglass or other similar material
Step 1: Assembling the collector of the corrugated pipe
Step 2: Staining of the solar unit in black
Step 3: Set the air feed
Step 4: Production of a cover for a solar unit
Also often used classification of the temperature to which the reservoir can be heated working units:
- Low temperature. Embodiments capable of heating the heat transfer medium to 50 ° C. They are used to heat water in tanks for irrigation, bathrooms and showers in the summer and to increase comfort during the cooler spring and autumn evenings.
- For medium. Ensure the flow temperature 80 ° C. They can be used for space heating. These options are best suited for decorating private homes.
- High temperature. The temperature of the coolant in such installations may reach 200-300ºS. Used on an industrial scale, are set for the heating of industrial plants, commercial buildings and others.
In high-temperature solar systems use fairly complex heat transfer process. In addition, they occupy an impressive space, which can not afford the majority of our fans of country living.
The process of making their laborious implementation requires specialized equipment. Independently make such an option solar practically impossible.
High temperature solar panels to photovoltaic inverters in the home is difficult to make
Autograph collector manufacturing
Making a solar device with their own hands - a fascinating process that brings a lot of benefits. Because it can efficiently use free solar radiation, to solve several important economic tasks. Let us examine the specificity of creating planar manifold supplying heated water to the heating system.
Absorbing panel made of polycarbonate, coated with black paint. The upper and lower edge of the panel, i.e. an open channel ends polycarbonate sheet, inserted in a cut along the sewer pipe
Towards the edges of pipes glued corners required for pipe connections. Ideally, it is better to weld the iron - welding machine for plastic pipes. Longitudinal sections of the tubes are filled with glue gun
The storage tubes made of drain pipes, equipped with thermal insulation. Before that, the adhesive at the seams and around corners or leveled soldering iron or hairdryer construction
Absorbing panel with tubes taped to it is placed on the foam or other rigid insulation. Top side is covered by polycarbonate, curved around the edge
To assemble the frame purchased metal profile suitable size. When calculating the width of a rigid insulation thickness is taken into account
The blanks of the frame assembly, the cut profile on the size of the absorbent panel, cut a hole for the collector output connection points
Assembling the frame components is made with screws, designed to work with this profile
To the collector has been directed at the optimum angle to the sun, it is constructed of lumber or rack of metal
Step 1: The absorption of the solar collector panel is a self-made
Step 2: A method of connecting to the storage tube
Step 3: Heat Insulation for pipes accumulating reservoir
Step 4: Build the instrument for solar energy
Step 5: The metal frame profile for the device
Step 6: The holes for the exit points of connection to the water supply
Step 7: compound of elements of the solar collector frame
Step 8: Production of stands assembled solar collector
Materials for self-assembly
The most simple and accessible material for self-assembly of the solar collector body - a wooden block board, plywood, OSB or similar embodiments. An alternative is to apply a steel or an aluminum profile with the same sheets. Metal housing cost a bit more expensive.
Materials must meet the requirements that apply to structures used outdoors. The service life of the solar collector varies from 20 to 30 years.
This means that the materials must have a certain set of operating characteristics, which will be used during the construction of the whole period.
The most inexpensive and simple embodiment of materials for making the body - the application of lumber and chipboards
When the shell be made of wood, the material durability can be achieved by impregnating the aqueous polymer emulsion and coating paints.
The basic principles that should guide the design and assembly of solar collector, is the availability of materials with respect to prices and the possibility of purchase. That is, they can either be found in the free market, either on their own to make available improvised.
There are many available tools, suitable for manufacturing a solar collector coil, e.g., PVC or PP pipe with corner fittings
The priority flexible plumbing pipes HDPE or PVC, which can collect solar energy receiver without the use of fittings
Original and highly cost-effective solution - the heat exchanger of the failed old refrigerator
Copper pipe - not cheap, but effective choice. Bend it needed so as not to create too much flow resistance in the knees
Almost free and quite effective air manifold come from used cans
Classics of the genre for the budget conscious hosts - plastic bottles in abundance occurring in any country house
If using dark plastic bottles, heat the coolant, they will be much better in the solar collector device
The most time-consuming and material option - a coil of aluminum or steel pipe in need of accurate bending and welding
Rigid PVC pipe fittings to produce
solar energy receiver of flexible HDPE pipe
A heat exchanger of the old refrigerator
Bent copper tube in the solar collector
Non-trivial use of aluminum cans
Plastic bottles in the construction of the collector
Attracting device rays from dark plastic bottles
heat receiver from bent metal pipes
Nuances insulation device
To prevent heat losses to the bottom of the box is mounted an insulating material. This may be a foam or mineral wool. Modern industry produces a fairly extensive range of insulation materials.
For insulating ducts can use foil insulation options. Thus it can be ensured and thermal insulation and the reflection of sunlight from the foil surface.
If the insulating material used is rigid slab foam or polystyrene, for laying a coil or a system of pipes can be cut groove. Typically, the absorber reservoir is placed on top of the insulation and is firmly fixed to the bottom of the housing in a manner dependent on the material used to manufacture the housing.
Insulation serves to reduce heat losses through the bottom of the housing. Device in a metal casing produced without thermal insulation irrationally (+)
A heat solar collector
This absorbent member. It is a system of pipes in which coolant is heated, and parts made of sheet most often copper. Optimal materials for the manufacture of the heat considered copper pipes.
Handyman invented a cheaper option - a spiral heat exchanger polypropylene tubes.
Interesting budget solution - solar absorber of a flexible polymer tube. For connecting devices with the inlet and outlet suitable fitingiVybor improvised used from which to fabricate the heat exchanger of the solar collector is quite broad. This may be a heat exchanger of an old refrigerator, plastic water pipes, steel panel radiators, etc.
An important criterion for the effectiveness of the thermal conductivity of the material protrudes from which the heat exchanger is made.
For self-manufacturing optimum embodiment is copper. It has a thermal conductivity which is 394 W / m². At this aluminum parameter varies from 202 to 236 W / m².
Copper tubes are considered the best option for the production of the heat by heat engineering qualities and durability
However, a large difference in thermal conductivity between the copper and the parameters of polypropylene pipes at all It does not mean that the heat exchanger with copper pipes will produce large volumes of hot hundreds of times water.
Under equal conditions, the heat exchanger performance copper pipe will be 20% more effective than metal-plastic performance goals. So that heat exchangers made of plastic pipes, have the right to life. In addition, these options will cost much cheaper.
Regardless of the pipe material, all the compounds as a welded, threaded and must be sealed. Tubes can be positioned either parallel to each other and in the form of a coil.
The circuit of the coil type reduces the number of connections - this reduces the probability of leakage and provides a more uniform coolant flow motion.
The top of the box, in which the heat exchanger is closed glass. An alternative is to use advanced materials such as acrylic or analogue monolithic polycarbonate. Translucent material may not be smooth, but a matte or embossed.
In the classic version the collector box is closed tempered glass, plexiglas, polycarbonate or similar material. Craftsmen adapt himself to use the glass instead of polyethylene
Such treatment reduces the reflective capacity of the material. In addition, the material must withstand considerable mechanical loads.
The industrial design of such solar systems use a special solar glass. This glass has a low iron content, which ensures less heat loss.
Storage tank or forebays
As the storage tank may be any container with a volume of 20 to 40 liters. Suitable number of multiple smaller volume tanks, pipes connected in a daisy chain. Storage tank is recommended to insulate, because heated by the sun in the water tank without insulation will quickly lose heat.
In fact, the coolant in the heating solar systems must circulate without accumulation, because obtained from it must consume thermal energy during preparation. Storage capacitance rather acts as a distributor of hot water and forebays supporting pressure stability in the system.
Storage capacitance in solar works as a water dispenser and a container supporting pressure (+)
Stages build solar
After manufacturing the collector and the preparation of all components of the structural elements of the system, you are ready for immediate installation.
One of the variants of the coil device of polypropylene pipes with fittings and tees will collect solar collector rapidly (+)
Operation begins with the installation forebays which usually placed at the highest possible point: attic freestanding tower, overpass, etc.
When mounting it should be noted that after filling the liquid coolant system, this part of the structure will have impressive weight. Therefore, you must ensure the reliability of the overlap, or reinforce it.
After installation capacity are ready to install the collector. This structural element of the system is placed on the south side. The angle of inclination relative to the horizontal line must be between 35 and 45 degrees.
After installing all the elements of their tubes tied, combining into a single hydraulic system. The tightness of the hydraulic system is an important criterion that affects the efficient operation of the solar collector.
Under the scheme of the solar system assembly for the delivery of water in the outdoor shower is possible to build a structure to heat water for irrigation or to create comfortable conditions for cool evenings (+)
For compounds of structural elements in a single hydraulic system used inch pipe diameter and half inch. The smaller diameter is used for the pressure devices of the system.
Under the pressure of the system is meant water in forebays input and output of the heated heating medium in the heating and hot water system. The remaining part is mounted by means of pipes of larger diameter.
To prevent pipe heat losses must be carefully insulated. For this purpose, you can use foam, basalt wool or foil versions of modern insulating materials. Storage capacitance and forebays also subject to warming procedure.
The most simple and affordable option is the storage capacitance insulation structure around the box of plywood or boards. The space between the duct and the container should be filled with insulated material. It can be slag, the mixture of straw with clay, sawdust and other dry.
Gelisistema set so that the solar collectors were located on the side of the house itself or illuminated portion (+)
Test before commissioning
After installation of all system components and insulation of the construction can begin filling the system with liquid coolant. The initial content of the system should be made through a branch pipe located at the bottom of the reservoir.
That is, the filling is carried out from the bottom to the top. Through such actions can avoid potential air pockets.
Water or other heat transfer fluid enters the forebays. The process of filling the system ends when the pipes from the drainage forebays water begins to flow.
With the float valve can be adjusted in an optimum liquid level forebays. After filling the coolant system it begins to heat up in the reservoir.
The process of raising the temperature occurs even in cloudy weather. The heated heat transfer fluid begins to rise to the top of the storage tank. The process of natural circulation occurs as long as the temperature of the coolant which enters the heat sink is aligned with the support temperature, exiting from the collector.
At a flow rate of water in the hydraulic system will operate the float valve in forebays. Thus, a constant level is maintained. In this case the cold water entering the system, is stored in the bottom of the storage container. The process of mixing cold and hot water practically does not occur.
The hydraulic system must provide for the installation of stop valves which will prevent reverse circulation of the coolant from the reservoir into the accumulator. This occurs when the ambient temperature is lower than the temperature of the coolant.
Such a shut-off valve is usually used at night and in the evening.
Podvodku to places of consumption of hot water is carried out using standard mixers. Conventional single valves should be avoided. In sunny weather, the water temperature can be up to 80 ° C - to use such water directly uncomfortable. Thus, faucets will save considerably hot water.
Performance of such a solar heater can be improved by adding additional sections collectors. The design is quite possible to mount two to an unlimited number of units.
Solar performance is increased by installing a larger number of solar collectors
The basis of such a solar collector for heating and hot water is the principle of the greenhouse effect and the so-called thermosyphon effect. The greenhouse effect is used in the construction of the heating element.
The sun's rays pass freely through the transparent material of the upper part of the reservoir and converted into heat energy.
The thermal energy is in a confined space due to leakage collector duct section. Thermosiphon effect is used in the hydraulic system, when the heated heat carrier rises, thus displacing cold coolant and causing it to move into the heating zone.
Due to the thermosyphon effect occurs in the system is stable and continuous natural circulation of coolant
Performance solar collector
The main criterion which affects the performance of solar systems is the intensity of solar radiation. Number of incident on a certain territory potentially useful solar radiation is called insolation.
The magnitude of insolation in different parts of the world varies within fairly wide limits. There are special tables for determining the average of this value. They represent an average value for the solar insolation of a region.
Data on solar insolation in a particular region can be obtained from special maps and tables (+)
Furthermore insolation values on the system performance is affected and the material of the heat exchanger area. Another factor affecting the performance of the system is the volume of the storage tank. The optimal capacity of the tank is calculated based on the area adsorbers collector.
In the case of a flat collector is the total area of the pipes that are in the collector box. This value, the average value is equal to 75 liters of tank volume per m² collector tubes. Storage tank is a kind of heat accumulator.
Prices of factory equipment
The lion's share of financial costs for the construction of such a system is necessary for the manufacture of collectors. This is not surprising, even in the industrial design of solar systems around 60% of the cost falls on the structural element. The financial cost will depend on the choice of a particular material.
It should be noted that such a system is not able to heat the room, it only helps to save on costs, helping to heat up the water in the heating system. Given the relatively high energy costs that are spent on water heating, solar panels, integrated heating system significantly reduces these costs.
The solar collector is quite simply integrated into the heating and hot water system (+)
For its production are used quite simple and affordable materials. In addition, such a design is completely non-volatile and does not need any technical maintenance. Care system is reduced to the periodic inspection and cleaning of the glass reservoir from contamination.
Additional information about the company solar heating in the house is presented in this article.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The process of making an elementary solar collector:
How to assemble and commission the solar systems:
Naturally, self-made solar collector can not compete with industrial models. Using the materials at hand, it is difficult to achieve a high efficiency, which have industrial designs. But also the financial cost will be much less compared to the purchase of ready-made settings.
However, homemade solar heating system It will significantly increase the level of comfort and reduce energy costs, which is produced by traditional sources.
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