Country house - the dream of many. Incorporating it into practice, it is important not to forget that, to ensure the new building of sewerage and water supply. Otherwise, live in it will be uncomfortable. Contrary to popular belief drainage of a country house with their hands can be perfectly arranged.
If properly design and build a system of your own hands, it will be no worse than the professional. How to do it? On this and will talk in this article, where a closer look at features of the design and installation of indoor and outdoor sewerage networks. To better understand the material we have picked up the scheme, thematic photos and videos with expert advice.
The content of the article:
- How does the sewerage system?
External drainage system
- Option # 1 - cesspools different designs
- Option # 2 - septic tank anaerobic
- Option # 3 - aerobic sewage treatment plant type
- How to choose the right treatment system?
- Features of laying of external networks
The sewage network inside the house
- Particularly the drafting of the internal network
- Subtleties of the internal network installation
- Construction of sewage release
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
How does the sewerage system?
Development options wiring sewer system It is usually carried out at the building design stage and construction in the construction process.
If necessary, you can certainly fulfill this work and has erected a house on the plot-furnished, but it will be more troublesome and costly.
Autonomous sewerage - a complicated engineering system, intended for receiving, removal, partial or complete recycling waste
The inner part of the country house sewer network consists of pipes and risers, which connect sanitary devices
The outer part comprises a water drain conduit, sewerage plant designed for processing sewage and manholes
Processed wastewater in the purification step autonomous sewer system is discharged into the ground through the ground aftertreatment system or fused to a public treatment plant for gutters
Manhole in the country site
The inner part of the independent sewerage
Treatment facilities outer portion
Aftertreatment system ground
You need to know that the system consists of two interrelated components:
- Drainage pipes. Located outside of the building and includes a pipeline connecting to the centralized sewerage system or sewage treatment plant. The latter may be of any type.
- interior drainage. This design of the pipes connecting the outlets of all plumbing fixtures located inside the building, into a single system.
Both parts of the sewer system share a common task and function in harmony. A detailed look at each of them.
Autonomous sewer system consists of inner and outer interconnected parts, each of which is obliged to strictly follow its own function
External drainage system
In its simplest form, the outer sewer connects the building with centralized sewerage. Unfortunately, you can implement it by no means always.
Most often the owners of private houses have to equip autonomous sewer, suggesting the presence at the site of treatment facilities of various kinds
Independence from centralized wastewater treatment plant networks are different kinds of storage devices, which are considered below.
Option # 1 - cesspools different designs
The cheapest option - the construction of the system, complemented with a well filter bottom. It is a pit whose walls are lined brickLike him, or even material tires. The bottom is left free, it is poured meter of filter sand and gravel capacity of 1 m.
Impurities enter the container, the liquid is partially absorbed into the underlying soil layers. The solid precipitate is not passed through the filter compactor, collected and pumped out periodically. The advantage of such a scheme in addition to the low cost of everything is considered extreme simplicity.
But the drawbacks are many. First of all, it is the danger of contamination of the environment sinks, the threat of flooding which occurs when the system floodwater or depressurization of structural parts. According to the standards to clean in this construction is allowed only gray wastewater - contaminated water from kitchens, baths, etc.
Septic Tank with filter type bottom is considered the most simple variant of recycling waste, but also far unsafe
Installation sump without a bottom is possible only on sandy soils with sufficient filtration properties for absorbing the purified waste water. Between the theoretical bottom of the absorbing well - this sewage plant and the groundwater level in the area should not be less than meter soil stratum.
Sealed containers or storage are safer, because they assume the accumulation of waste and their periodic pumping. Liquid prevented from seeping into the surrounding ground layers.
These drives can be installed in any geological conditions of the site, even with high groundwater level. They do not create problems for the zealous owners, wondering how best to make sewers for their own home.
Processed in the storage tank spaced liquid effluent may be used as process water for cleaning and irrigation portion
Professionals are advised to pay special attention to the amount of installed capacity. For it would have to cause pumping scavengers who usually charge a fee for the call, not the volume.
Given that the machine at a time pumps 8000 liters of liquid, it makes sense to choose the capacity of just such a volume. But the cost of such a tank is usually large. Therefore it is necessary to choose a compromise, in order to optimize the cost of services of sanitary workers. We recommend detailed to deal with the features selection vessel for plastic septic tank.
In the construction of pit latrines are used a variety of materials and ready-made design:
The most popular material in the construction of pit latrines to overflow and overflow are no concrete rings. Build sewage treatment points of the rings is carried out in a few days
Slightly less popular plastic containers, attracting lightness - a useful quality in transportation and installation. However, due to the light weight required to comply with the rules when installing
Plastic tanks require mandatory anchoring - fastening to concrete slabs laid or arranged to tank dive. This is especially important in areas with characteristic spring floods and stagnant water in autumn
Demand, but not too popular with the owners of suburban areas made at the factory w / w design. Installing them is laborious, requires the rental of specialized equipment
Reduce the cost and simplify the process of construction, but it will significantly increase the period of construction technology fill the sump with the device casing at the place of work
No less cumbersome in the implementation of the construction of a cesspool of brick, but this option allows you to construct an object of any shape and volume, and you can use the old brick
Build a cesspool on a suburban area, you can literally improvised - of cubic containers or packaging barrel
Virtually free cost device cesspool of old tires. Many gardeners prefer it to this method,
Construction of the overflow sump
Plastic containers for drainage device
Dipping plastic storage in the soil
Ready to install w / w design
Filled with on-site concrete cesspool
Brick sewer construction
Budget embodiment of cubic containers raking
Summer tires of cesspool
Option # 2 - septic tank anaerobic
To purify the liquid waste used anaerobic bacteria, which do not need oxygen in vital process. Structures generally have two or three, rarely more chambers in which the effluents are cleaved and cleaned.
After the septic tank is needed in the fluid post-treatment filter wellsOn filtering fields and similar facilities. Devices can be mounted on sand and gravel soil.
Septic tanks of this type can be made independently of several concrete, brick or metal chambers. You can buy ready-made design of plastic. Manufacturers offer a great number of different models of septic tanks.
The advantages of the equipment include a sufficiently high degree of purification, a good bandwidth and the ability to self-production.
Septic tank anaerobic type are not able to completely purify effluents coming into it. Liquid exiting the device needs a post-treatment Infiltrator absorptive well, the filter box
Among the shortcomings we need to take into account the relatively high cost of finished models, the need for regular cleansing septic tank. However, doing this will require much less in comparison with the drive. But in any case, when determining the location for the septic tank should be noted that for him to be free to approach assenizatorskaya machine.
Another shortcoming - an obligatory arrangement purification of water coming from the septic tank.
Septic tank - a clearing point of an autonomous sewer, where sewage water is purified and clarified by physical processes, disinfection is carried out its anaerobic bacteria
Purification and clarification of waste water occurs during settling, through which the heavy fractions are separated and sink to the bottom
For maintenance of large objects collected from several septic tanks, which are cleaning the camera points
Industry produces septic tanks in affluent range. Everything for the site, you can select the system in a single package or purchase the modules from which the sewage is going to point
A strong disadvantage of septic tanks is not sufficiently high cleaning percentage not exceeding 70%. For disposal of wastewater from the septic tank is required groundwater post-treatment, for example in a filter sump
If the structure of the absorbing well is impossible due to the high occurrence of groundwater, groundwater filtration fields produced aftertreatment
Upgraded Version of the field of filtration - Infiltrator successfully performs its functions. Costs more, but is constructed much faster
If the site can not be a country's own system of after-treatment device, wastewater output, and discharged into public sewer, transporting them to the municipal wastewater treatment plants
Septic two plastic containers
Three-chamber septic tank in a common housing
Construction of multi-chamber septic tank
Ready-to-install modules sewer
Collect the wastewater in the absorbing well
filtration fields Construction
An improved version of the post-treatment
Option # 3 - aerobic sewage treatment plant type
Perhaps the best option for the organization of the independent water drain in a private home - the station of high biological treatment. They are much more compact anaerobic septic tanks, wastewater is purified by 98%, that is, post-treatment is not required then.
Filtered water can be discharged into waterways, ditches or in storage wells, then to be used for household needs. Odors about such structures completely excluded.
The disadvantages of such stations may include a lot of power. To work it needs a continuous supply of oxygen, which is injected through special compressors operating on electricity. Another disadvantage - the high cost of the system. However, it should be understood that significant investments pay off in the future.
Aerobic sewage treatment plants do not require significant operating costs, whereas almost free septic tank, for example, needs constant expensive pumping and filtering facilities to bottom after a while, "clogged" and cease absorb water. We have to fill up a hole and equip a new one.
The biological treatment plant effluent 98 is purified. Issuing of them industrial water can be discharged into a reservoir or used for household purposes
When selecting a suitable type for your site treatment facilities, experts recommend not to hurry and figure out all the options for resettlement. Do not try to save as much as possible in the septic tank. In the future, such savings can result in serious problems.
Sewer stations for deep purification of sewage, produce a complex processing, which involves the biological, chemical and physical methods
Sewer plant require that electrical connections, because they are energy-equipment
To supply oxygen and stimulate the work station system equipped with a compressor device
Technical devices induce the wastewater to movement and ensure their consecutive runs of three or four chambers. In case of insufficient processing equipment sends the wastewater purification reconsideration
The sewage plant wastewater passes multistage filtering and processing, thus can be disposed of in the ground or unpaved terrain without further aftertreatment
Station deep processing of waste can be placed in close proximity to the house and the neighbor's land. No adverse odors beside her there
Installation of sewer stations available in all geological and hydrogeological conditions. She did not wimps low filtration quality of the surrounding soils and high groundwater level
deep cleaning system may be installed next to the house, because the probability of failure and leakage of waste water with the application of mineral foundation damage strength characteristics is negligible
Sewage deep cleaning station
Connecting the unit to the power supply
Compressor apparatus in boxing station
The multi-chamber sewage system
Multistage waste water filtering
Location near the station housing
Installing under any circumstances geologoicheskih
The reliability of the sewer system
How to choose the right treatment system?
The deciding factor should be the condition of the equipment, in addition, special attention should be paid to:
- Frequency of use of the sewer system of the future. If it is, for example, a country house, where people come from time to time, there is no point in using high-tech equipment. The bacteria in the absence of power, which they supply effluent simply perish.
- The daily volume of wastewater. This parameter characterizes the desired bandwidth of the selected treatment facilities. It is influenced by the number of resident in the house of the people, the number and type of plumbing fixtures, etc.
- Ability to connect the equipment to electricity. This is important if you plan to install the sewage treatment plant of aerobic type.
- Soil type and level intrasoiled waters. If the latter is too high, a septic tank work can be difficult or simply impossible, because the purified liquid will have nowhere to go. The same happens when installed in clayey soil, which does not absorb water and does not pass.
- BudgetWhich will be spent on the acquisition, installation and use of a septic tank.
Determining the type of cleaning equipment - responsible action. On this depends the efficiency of the entire system. An important point: the place for the installation of a septic tank must comply with sanitary regulations.
First of all, it should be removed at least 5 meters from the apartment building, and the water intake point for drinking, e.g., from the well -. 50 m is desirably set in a septic tank at the bottom area portion.
Sewer manholes - a required element of external networks. They are placed at the corners and at every 25 meters of the straight portion of the pipeline
So it will be possible to use the natural terrain to create a bias for the tubes. This will facilitate the work. Pipeline to the treatment plant of a private house sewage desirable to a straight line, since each turn can be considered as potentially dangerous for the emergence of blockage site.
Here necessarily settling manhole. A compound of the feed pipe and the septic tank is performed by a rubber cuff. So it will be saved after the seasonal movements of soil.
Features of laying of external networks
In general, sewer installation process is not much different from the laying of water pipes, but there are differences. First of all, sanitation is not always in need of insulation. The reason is that the liquid passes through the pipes without stopping and, in theory, most of the time they are empty.
Moreover, flows out from the inside of the system with a minimum temperature of 15 ° C, during movement through the pipeline, they simply do not have time to freeze.
Therefore, sewer pipes are allowed to lay at approximately 0.5 m above the ground frost layer interface. But in areas with cold winters for secure them better insulate. This can be done in any suitable way by analogy with running water.
You can not use mineral wool, which is wet and thus loses insulating properties. A good option - foam, foamed polyethylene foil with the outer shell.
Laying of external sewer pipes are sloped, that gives the opportunity to move drains by gravity. For plastic parts is considered the minimum slope of 0.8 cm per meter of the pipeline.
Optimal - 1.5 cm per meter. For tubes of asbestos, these figures 1,5 and 3 cm per meter. Bigger is not recommended slope, otherwise the liquid will quickly coalesce, and large inclusions can be deposited on the walls and clog the pipe. Detailed calculations of sewer pipe slope with the formulas we have given in this article.
Pipes external network stack at a certain bias. Ignore the recommended values of elements should not tilt, or increases the risk of clogging
Everything for outdoor networks using only special pipes - PVC or HDPE. Parts for internal wiring are not strong enough for such work. Use them at a depth of more than 1.5 meters is strictly prohibited.
Experts remind that the work on laying pipes external sewerage start at the point of connection with the centralized sewer system or septic tank and moving toward the house.
Installation involves several steps:
- Dug trench depth calculated in advance. It is desirable to directly withstand the desired bias. Ready to pour the trench inappropriate. This is a rather time-consuming, given the need for additional compaction bottom.
- Poured cushion of sand. The height of the structures is 0.1-0,15 m. Sand shed water well, and then carefully ram.
- Put the prepared substrate tube. Checks whether a predetermined deviation.
- Poured sand bed height of 0.1 m. Filling again poured and compacted.
- Held backfill soil.
In the course of laying the outside sewer need to remember to everything manholes. They are placed at all corners and in areas where there are deep differences. In addition, the straight sections every 25 meters also establish such facilities.
An important caveat. Professionals are strongly advised not to choose for the external water drain in a private house pipes of different materials. the risk of destruction of joints is too large due to the different rates of thermal expansion.
The depth for laying sewer pipe is determined by local conditions and is made based on the experience of the construction systems in the region
Sewer beginning to blaze from the house to observe the required bias towards the treatment plant
The slope of the sewer pipe should be 2-3 cm per linear meter. It is necessary for spontaneous movements drains to the cleaning step or drive
Sewer pipe cut into the septic tank, storage or treatment station into the deep at the installation site because in the factory to predict the height of the tie can not be
The trench for laying sewer pipes
Starting stage construction of sewer lines
The slope of the sewer pipe
The height of the tie sewer pipe
The sewage network inside the house
Domestic sewage system is a set of pipes and fittings which connect them. The whole system provides a diversion of sewage plumbing.
Each such device is equipped with a siphon is required that eliminates the rooms unpleasant smell of sewage. For the removal of waste used riser. The construction can be one in the whole building or several.
For arranging internal and external networks using different operating characteristics of the pipe
The latter is practiced when the area of the house is large or toilets are located at a considerable distance from one another. The riser pipe is located vertically, extending from the basement to the roof of the building. The lower part of the workpiece is connected to the discharging waste water pipeline, which connects to the external sewerage.
The upper riser portion lying above the roof, where it rises to not less than 50 cm.
The pipe is provided with a check valve or left open. This is necessary to ensure the normal pressure in the sewer system. Since the pipe is not only displays an unpleasant smell, but also acts as a pressure compensator. If we ignore this rule, the problems in the system are inevitable.
Plumbers secrete a number of rules to break that is not recommended:
- The diameter of each of the feed pipes can not be less than the eyeliner from the plumbing.
- Toilet connected to a riser only separate from all other devices.
- All plumbing equipment must be located within 3 m from the riser, toilet - within 1 m.
- On the outlet pipe proper diameter may be several devices. When this toilet must be connected very first. All the rest of the equipment included in the scheme above this point.
- Diameter pipe extending from the toilet bowl is never less than 100 mm. Provision than 3 m must have a cross section of at least 70 mm, longer than 5 m - not less than 100 mm.
In addition to a proper choice of diameter pipes for the prevention of blockages it is important to draw the corners. For example, corners 90 ° are inadmissible, because at this point will inevitably be formed blockages and pipe become clogged quickly. To rotate the need to select shaped elements forming an angle of 135 °. So will be able to achieve a smooth flow of water without any tendency to clogging.
For the formation of twists and turns are used special shapes, which can be bought in any store
Sometimes the "craftsmen" are advised to bring sewage pipes obschedomovoy in the ventilation system. This is not strictly necessary to do, otherwise the house will be filled with highly unpleasant odors, which would be impossible to remove. P
When settling sewage worth thinking about sound insulation. Water moving through the pipes, can be very noisy. Optimal - wrapping parts mineral wool. Thereafter, they are placed in boxes plasterboard.
It is important not to forget about the revision hatches, which set at every turn and at every 15 meters. Another important point: the mandatory presence of the check valve. It is mounted on a pipe connecting with intrahouse septic sewage.
If this is not done, with the possible overflow tank sewage rise upwardly through the tubes and will flood basement or ground floor.
Particularly the drafting of the internal network
To properly perform the wiring in a private home sewage systems need to make educated design. For a start is performed diagram indicates the location of the installation of plumbing fixtures.
Before that, you need to consider at what distance from the riser will be equipment which way to connect to the sewage system and what should be the appropriate section of the pipe to it.
It is also important to determine the type of sewer system. You can choose from two options: Gravity and pressure. In the first case the pipes are laid so that the waste water flowed "gravity".
There are regulations governing the minimum slope of the pipe. For details of cross section of 50 mm is chosen inclination of 3 cm per meter pipe, the pipe diameter of 100-110 mm - 2 cm.
In drawing up the internal network of the project takes into account the number of plumbing fixtures and think the best way to connect them to the general system
If the item selected section of more than 160 mm, they are placed with an inclination of not more than 0.8 cm per meter. In addition, you need to take into consideration the height difference. So much for the toilet he has to be 1 m, for the rest of the equipment - 3 m. If these numbers are exceeded, it is necessary to equip additional ventilation at the ends of pipes suitable for appliances.
It requires the installation of the pump, so the slope is not required for pipes for pressure sewerage project. We recommend you visit species sewage pumps and features a choice of such equipment.
To determine the diameter of the feed pipe for each sanitary unit calculated a momentary drain. This can be done on the basis of its technical characteristics.
Practice shows that most devices can operate with a pipe section of 50 mm. Exception - toilet, 100 mm pipe is required for it. In addition, it is necessary to designate the place of the riser location.
It is usually mounted in the bathroom, near the toilet. If you plan to more than washroom or "wet" zone spaced around the house, the number of risers have to be increased.
In drawing a wiring circuit it is desirable to minimize the number of rotations of the pipeline and its length to make as small as possible. So can reduce the risk of blockages
Subtleties of the internal network installation
Internal wiring begins with risers mounted. The ends of the tubes are removed in the basement and on the roof. At the upper edge is set check valve or it stays open. The lower portion is connected to the horizontally laid piping, the discharging waste water to the treatment plant.
Then, to the struts connected by bends toilets are each individually. Further higher than toilet bowls have been connected, are fed pipe from other devices.
When connecting the plumbing fixtures to a sewer conduit necessarily used siphon that prevents odor
All plumbing fixtures are set traps, which are then connected to the inlet pipe. These are the main stages of the internal network arrangement. All joints should be made leakproof pipe is rigidly fixed to the ceiling or walls.
Everything for intrahouse sewage optimal use of PVC pipe sockets. They are easy to cut a special saw and connected by sockets.
At the output area on the street sewage using corrugated pipe, which resists possible shifting of soil.
For assembly of parts into a single network fittings used to help build turns switch from Details of one diameter to another, etc. To facilitate the bonding process pipe sockets is heated in hot water.
All sanitary equipment connected via a siphon. So called bent pipe in which the water seal is present, eliminating odor sanitation of the room. It will not work in the two cases.
The first - the lack of ventilation. In such circumstances, simply vacuum will suck the liquid from the water trap and thereby opens it. The second case - drying siphons rarely used appliances. In order to avoid smell them should be closed with a plug or rag.
Construction of sewage release
node, which is called the release is mounted for combining the inner and outer parts of the sewage system. He's settling in the basement of the building, as a rule, still under construction.
To do so, laying the foundation in a certain place is left a hole. Its diameter is equal to the cross section of the sleeve, which in turn slightly larger diameter of the sewer pipe.
be sure to use a special sleeve to release everything that is walled up in the basement of the building
Typically, the liner pipe section is used whose cross section 150-160 mm. It is important to choose the correct length of the element. He should approximately 0.15 m to act on both sides of the base. Inside the liner pipe is embedded, to which is connected inside the internal network, and the other end of the outer.
An important point - the insulation of the structure. This procedure is performed in order to exclude the possibility peremerzaniya sanitation.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Sewer laid at the correct slope:
The advisability of warming of external sewerage networks:
Possible variant arrangement of a sewer pipe of release:
These are the main recommendations on sanitation devices for private homes. They can be used to equip autonomous sewer system. Of course, the easier it will be someone who has experience in similar works.
If it appears that the planned events is too complicated, you can always seek help from professionals. They will perform the design and conduct high quality installation work of any complexity.
You built a sewage system for his house on his own project? Or just do the project's preparation and you have any questions? Ask them under our article - our experts and other visitors, holding the information, try to help you.