Accomplishment of a private house is accompanied by the construction of communications that form the basis of comfort and well-being of the owners. Even temporary accommodation - cottage - is not without its simplest sewer system designed to collect runoff.
Let's try to figure out how sewage settling in the country with their own hands, and what rules are fundamental.
The content of the article:
- The nuances of everything the villa sewerage
- Possible sewer circuit
Instructions for the construction of the local system
- Drafting based on standards
- How do in-house wiring?
- Rules laying the outer tubes
- Installation cesspool
- The septic tank is different from the sump?
Stages of construction of a septic tank of concrete rings
- Preparation of the pit size structures
- Installing concrete blanks
- Measures for waterproofing
- Connect the pipes and testing
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The nuances of everything the villa sewerage
As you know, suburban communities and suburban villages located far from major population centers, so the owners of garden houses in the central services do not count. Option is a separate entity for each local system suburban area separately.
The elite settlements often powerful set of VOCs that can simultaneously serve several large houses, but it is rather an exception to the general rule. Most home garden plots ranging from 6 to 15 ar dispense more modest cost devices - cesspools or septic tanks protozoa.
Scheme simplest sewer system in the country: simple internal wiring (Sink bowl), a straight pipe for household waste, septic tank with access road construction equipment
Those and others can be built from inexpensive construction, or alternative materials, such as:
- factory concrete workpiece;
- red or white brick;
- cement mortar (to create a sealed monolithic capacity);
There is another way, a more costly, but effective enough - finished installing the original container The modified plastic, equipped with a socket for connection to the pipe, ventilation and Technological hatch.
Dig up the drain hole without creating a sealed vessel is prohibited, as it is contrary to the sanitary norms. Sewage infested by pathogenic bacteria and chemical aggressive products fall directly into the soil and ground water, contaminating them.
Variant device suburban street toilet. Cesspool partially beyond the "house", and Technical hatch for emptying the storage container located near the buildings - it gives the possibility to dispense with the pipeline
Installing expensive biological treatment plant also makes no sense, since the volume of waste, It is likely to be minimal, and the treatment plant will be more like all the same accumulative capacity.
It turns out that the best option - it is the volume cesspool or septic tank construction according to type. A large area can be raked more, for example, peat pit for outdoor toilets and two drives - the bath and home.
Possible sewer circuit
Depending on the number of tenants, even temporarily, the number of sanitary devices, the total number of wastewater facilities that are connected to the sewage system, the scheme may completely different way of life.
The distinctive features possessed by all parts of the system:
- internal wiring;
- simple or branched conduit;
- type wells or septic tank.
Consider some of the most popular schemes.
Modern cottage bears little resemblance to the storeroom or barn. Owners of even modest suburban areas are trying to build a well made, sturdy, roomy accommodations, so two-storey building has long ceased to be a rarity. Optimal variant for wiring two floors is shown in the following scheme:
Toilet and bathroom are located on the second floor (sometimes it is simply a modernized attic space), and the kitchen - at the bottom. Plumbing pipes from lead to riser placed with the nearest to a septic tank wall
The small one-storey houses typically establish a set of toilet + sink. Shower, if present, is on the street, not far from the gardening area.
Effluent coming from the toilet into the inner tube and then discharged out by gravity are moved to the septic tank.
Driving device and riser sleeve for decoration transition pipe outwardly. Cross-section line as riser must life of at least 100 mm and the pipe wall fragment must wrap the metal sheet and the thermal insulation
Raked often placed close to the building, at a distance of 5-10 meters. Less than 5 meters is not recommended by health standards, more than 10 difficulties may arise when laying the pipeline. As you know, gravity is necessary for the movement of waste bias sewer pipes - about 2 cm by 1 m backbone.
It turns out, the farther the location of the hole, the more have to dig. Too deeply buried capacitance inconvenient for maintenance.
The circuit arrangement of a drain hole. This is the most popular among truckers variant which is selected because of low cost, simplicity of construction and installation method
Increasingly, instead of constructing a sump two-chamber septic tank or raked with overflow into the filter well. Vacuum trucks also have cause, but much less frequently.
The scheme of the two-chamber septic tank device, made with his own hands. The filter takes the well partially clarified effluent and continues to clean them, ferrying through the sand and gravel filter into the ground
Common circuit villa sewage may be supplemented by branched internal or external wired, connection of more waste discharge points, more efficient septic, field filtration.
The construction of the sewerage system at their summer cottage greatly enhance the degree of comfort will allow reasonably decide on the organization of the reception and disposal of waste
Independent drainage comprises two interconnected parts: an internal wiring connected thereto with plumbing equipment and with an outer drive or treatment facilities
All components of the exterior of the system deepened into the ground. To the surface are only output hatches sewer facilities and checkpoints
Water, deep cleaning in the past autonomous systems can be used for watering plants, fountains work and cleanup
water drain on a country site
Internal wiring sewer system
Manhole sewer system in landscape painting
Using the purified wastewater
Instructions for the construction of the local system
Unified plan for installation of autonomous sewerage network does not exist, but almost any system consists of three main stages - laying pipe inside a home connectivity santehpriborov, the outer pipe and wiring raking device (Septic).
There are exceptions - for example, the complete absence of internal wiring, when all sanitary facilities are on the street (shower, toilet, washstand). Consider the full version.
Drafting based on standards
Half of success is the correct design, which can be done in two ways: on their own and with the involvement of experts.
The first way is when the area is not planned construction of major facilities - septic tanks, swimming pools, fields of filtration, filtration wells. Suppose you have in mind the construction of a street tualeta- "birdhouse", which simultaneously performs the function of garbage for household waste, but instead full sinks for washing hands and utensils have decided to establish a regular washbasin.
To build a toilet in the street, enough to dig a pit, equipped with its airtight container, choose the optimum structure of the scheme and to conclude a contract for regular waste disposal.
Wash-basin as a summer shower, can be connected to installed on a platform a plastic storage container, in which water heated by solar energy
If, however, plans to make a complex in-house wiring, mount the septic tank, lay a pipe from the house, baths and summer food, better to turn to engineers who will make a reasonable project, based on the layout and features of the house landscape.
In any case, when the device drain hole or septic be guided SanPin rules by which the distance from the reservoir to the waste collection to the nearest object would be:
The interval from the septic tank to the wells (wells) is completely dependent on the composition of the soil: clayey soils - 25-30 m for sandy loam and - at least 50 m
When choosing a plumbing and sewer equipment also we encourage you to draw on the technical conditions and standards GOST, which regulate the use of certain materials.
For example, only need to use special pads for the outside line outer pipe type (Smooth and corrugated products made of PVC, PP or HDPE orange). Fittings shall conform to the pipes on the material and diameter.
How do in-house wiring?
Scheme internal wiring network includes a horizontally disposed tubes, which on one hand are connected to the sanitary appliances, on the other - to the riser. Riser, in turn, is connected to the pipeline leading to the storage construction.
It is advisable to lay the internal communication in the process of building a house - so it is easier to equip the holes in the walls, and mask some parts of the inner pipe.
Choosing quality products from polypropylene and create a tight junction, you can "sew up" part of the pipe into the floor, leaving only a technical hatches for maintenance
When installing the pipes is very important to take into account the slope, as in a country house usually do not use special equipment, and the movement of drain water occurs by gravity. The magnitude of tilt adjustment is selected based on the diameter of tubes: large (diameter 150 mm) tube - about 8 mm / running meter, for medium (100 to 110 mm) - 20 mm / rm, to products with a minimum cross-section (50 mm) - 30 mm / running meter.
When installing the plumbing should be equipped hydraulic locksWhich serve to trap odors. Shower or sink is better to have higher, and the toilet - at the lowest point as close as possible to the standpipe.
Wiring sink to the pipe. The optimum diameter of the pipes leading to the riser - 50 mm, the diameter of the riser - 100 mm or 110 mm
The order of connection and assembly of pipes may vary, but is usually first mounted riser pipe is then fed, and in the end make the connection of plumbing fixtures.
If the country installed a gas or solid fuel boiler and operates a system of hot water, a minimum set of toilet + sink complement the shower or bath. Accordingly, the inner branch of the local sewer to give in this case will be more difficult.
Fully furnished bathroom in a wooden summer house. When choosing shower guided by a simple model that does not require strong pressure and high pressure in the pipes
The final point in laying intrahouse wiring - an adapter device in the wall of the house, which is a metal thermowell. The ideal solution is to derive the tube in the foundation into the house opening located below the frost line.
Rules laying the outer tubes
The choice of tubes of good quality - not the only condition literate laying highway connecting the in-house network cesspool or septic tank. There are rules and regulations that must be followed during burial ground communications.
The first rule concerns trench depth: pipes to be installed below freezing to liquid wastewater medium with the onset of the cold is not frozen and not severed pipe. On the other hand, the depth should not be too high, since it is necessary to withstand bias - at least 2 cm / m 1 trenches. It turns out that the difference between the depths of the start and end of a 10-meter groove is equal to 20 cm.
If the pipe section has a length of more than 10 m, or a compound of turns in the field of pipe joints and the bending must be installed revision wells - for the control and elimination of blockages
In order not to make the trench too deep even in the northern regions, the pipes are laid at a depth of 50-70 cm and carefully insulate all areas.
As the heat insulating material is used:
- foamed polystyrene shell;
- Styrofoam box;
- basalt fibers;
- mineral wool;
- foamed polyethylene;
- filling of expanded clay.
In northern areas to increase the efficiency of combined materials, such as coated tubes and penoizol sprinkled on all sides by expanded clay.
There is another way of heating - with the help of electric cable. However, volatile insulation is optimal for permanent residence homes. For the cottages, where in the cold time of the year visited by rarely using a simple insulation. If the pipes freeze and still forms an ice plug, it is recommended to try to break through it with boiled water.
Read more about the rules laying sewer pipes in the ground can be found in this material.
For laying sewer developing a trench at a depth adopted for the data structures in a particular locality
An outer gasket part sewer start from leaving the house, to comply with required bias towards the cesspool or septic tank accumulator
The slope of the soil pipe should be 2-3 cm per meter. Ideally, the better to put the trays in which simpler and easier to provide this bias
Box sewer pipe or septic tank in a home-made prefabricated structure is performed at a height determined by the fact of laying the pipeline with a gradient
Development of trenches for laying the pipeline
Output from the house sewer pipe
tube current bias for spontaneous
Entrance into the sewer or septic drive
The order and timing of resettlement drain hole depends on its type. For example, assembling factory produce plastic vessels for day 1, and a monolithic concrete construction of the tank, which implies the complete solidification of the solution, lasts at least one month.
Excavation can combine with the device trenches and laying pipes. Pull pit size drive, but so that each side is left approximately 0.3 m handling and filling. The volume is chosen based on the needs of residents.
One option cesspool of concrete rings. Typically suburban use enough reservoir of blanks 2-3, provided fill it 1/2 or 1/3 volume (waste water level should not rise above the inlet opening)
For excavation or construction equipment using a shovel with buckets. After cleaning the bottom of the pit bottom enhance drainage sand and gravel bed (20 to 40 cm thick).
If the tank is easy, it is advisable to put on the bottom of the concrete slab (or make a concrete screed) and secure the container anchors, giving it stability. With the same purpose during the backfill soil into the dry cement was added to the container formed around reliable waterproof ring.
In the construction of pit latrines are used a variety of technologies, designs and materials. The most common version involves the use of concrete rings
simpler and easier to arrange all drive pit using plastic containers, commercially available in a wide range
The only drawback of plastic tanks, installers appreciated in both a strong plus is the lightness. Cesspools of plastic is necessary to anchor - tied to laid on the bottom of the concrete slab, so that they are not pushed out ground water to the surface in the flood period
The device of cesspools for large country houses, mini-hotels, roadside cafes, restaurants used precast concrete tanks prefabrication
Alternative finished concrete structure is monolithic RC raked hosted by pouring the solution into the formwork
As the pit storage battery receiving sewage effluent at summer cottage can be used built of brick well with a permeable or impermeable bottom
Budget option sump for holiday allotment can be constructed from cubic containers in-house
The cheapest way device sump in the country recognized by the construction of its old tires. Build it with a permeable bottom, it is intended for receiving waste gray
Cesspool constructed of concrete rings
Plastic containers of various volume
Installing plastic emoksti in pit
Concrete construction apparatus raking
Fill monolithic sump in place
Brick sewer construction
The budget structure of cubic containers
Absorption well from tires
Prefabricated structures - brick, rings, cinder blocks - must cover two layers of waterproofing the outer and inner sides of the tank so that the contents do not fall into the ground and blended with ground waters. Another important condition - ventilation installation of the riser, the outdoors gases.
After installing and connecting the well to the pipeline, the backfilling and decorate the neck. Top eye, which performs technical functions, durable cover is closed.
The septic tank is different from the sump?
Many people wonder how the country make an effective sewerage system to drain water, not only accumulate in the sump, but also partially cleaned. The only way to make the visit more infrequent scavengers - instead of raking to install a septic tank, a factory or homemade.
It should distinguish between two types of septic tanks. Some of them are actually purified water to 68 - 97% because the purification process takes place under anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. The lowest degree of purification are systems in which processing effluent is carried out by settling and anaerobic steps.
they are complemented by filter wellsFiltration fields Infiltrator performing additional cleaning groundwater drains.
If the septic system involved aerobes, the second compartment is equipped with a compressor for supplying air and a special load required for their productive life.
The nutrient medium for the slurry is the clarified sewage, to move into the second compartment by overflow. From systems with aerobic treatment beyond the maximum purified water that can be discharged to the terrain or soil without further treatment.
After the "purging" in the fluid chamber into the filter well, to the filter box or forcibly by a pump, is pumped into ditch
The second type is a two-chamber accumulator, wherein the first chamber also serves for the separation of fractions, and the second - for filtering the clarified water. Purification of the first container occurs with the same regularity as the removal of waste mass of the sump, from the second tank dirt removed frequently. Usually it is the replacement of gravel, which replaces the bottom.
It should be remembered that in septic tanks eventually accumulate activated sludge, which can then be used as fertilizer. The contents of the sump may also be used, but one condition will be maintained if the peat recycling technology.
Maximum efficiency of the biological purification plant, but expensive installation, as noted above, use is impractical for temporary housing. Therefore, as the sample for instructions on installation of precast concrete septic tank blanks Prefabricated.
By the method of disposal of all kinds of waste sewer systems are divided into export and floatable. The types of export effluents accumulated in raking or holding tanks, and then pumped exported
Cesspool or accumulator is a sealed container is completely isolated from contact with the environment
The floatable sewerage systems use septic tanks and deep processing station. They are designed for the processing and disposal of waste (alloy) of the ground or terrain
deep cleaning station recycles the waste water by 93 - 97%, whereby the waste water can be used as process water
Septic cleans waste water only 60 - 70%. Waste water with a degree of purification before discharge need to pass additional cleaning dirt, such as in the absorbing well. Its bottom is folded filter dirt from the sand and gravel
Between conditional bottom aftertreatment system ground and the ground water level has to be the thickness of at least 1 m. If the geological conditions at the site does not meet these conditions, for the disposal of building field filtering
Improved variant filtering fields are infiltrators. They perform similar functions are built faster, but more expensive
Only Recycling wastewater in the sewage station deep cleaning can display the wastewater directly into the gutter and drop it in deserted places on earth
Nkopitel or cesspool
Plastic storage tank
Two-chamber septic tank at the cottage
Sewage plant deep cleaning
Field filtration on a suburban section
Installing tape Infiltrator
Reset purified wastewater
Stages of construction of a septic tank of concrete rings
Installation of sewage treatment plant of cylindrical workpieces held on the standard template. The process is simplified through the large size of the parts, but for the same reason there is a difficulty - mandatory rental of construction equipment, and participate teams of workers.
For the construction of a septic tank will need 2 sets of parts, since it will comprise two tanks. The function first - funded, the second - the filter.
The construction of a septic tank of concrete rings manufactured in several standard steps:
For the construction of a septic tank of concrete rings first thing in developing the pit. Development of faster and easier to carry out with the use of technology
In malovlazhnyh sand, crumbling during the development and implementation of further action, the pit walls reinforce boxes from edging boards
On the set bottom tamped aligned starting ring of the first chamber which is a sealed container
shaft assembly of concrete rings were collected by sequential installation of concrete rings. Prior to installation of each subsequent element of the previous end cover grout
A second chamber, the bottom of which must be permeable construction in the same manner, but without setting the ring start
At about 1 m from the surface of the mine hoisting the concrete slab with holes
Handle openings solution set narrow concrete rings for forming the neck construction. Then fill the trench with soil
If the work area is characterized by spring floods and autumn stagnation of water, if the water is bad, "seeps" into the ground and did not go away, for unloading is better to arrange the filter box in place of the second chamber. Even better to withdraw the purified water in the septic tank into a public sewer
Step 1: Formation of a concrete pit under septic
Step 2: Enhancing the pit in loose soils
Step 3: Setting the starting level pevoy chamber
Step 4: Build the first chamber of the mine
Step 5: Construction of a permeable chamber bottoms
Step 6: Installation of concrete slabs mines
Step 7: Installing the narrow rings with sealed hatches
filtration field organization
Preparation of the pit size structures
In the place specified in the draft by a suitable tool (spade), the winch or mini-excavator dig a pit depth of 2-3 ring + neck. By design adjustment assembly is added 30-40 cm on the base unit: 15-20 cm 15-20 cm sand + gravel (gravel, river pebbles). The drainage layer is a reliable basis and filtering "pillow."
pit length should be such that it placed two tanks connected short overflow.
Sandy soil at the construction site excavation may cause problems in the form of shedding walls. If the possibility exists to strengthen the wall, it is best to dig a wide hole, and after installation and waterproofing septic tank to fill it heavier soil with clay content
The soil is not necessary to remove from the site - it is useful for backfilling. Leftovers can be used for the formation of landscape features, such as flower beds.
Installing concrete blanks
Rings made of concrete are mounted on each other, fixing brackets at the joints and sealing gaskets special. Manufacturers simplified installation storage capacitance lower ring - invented item with a closed bottom that does not require additional weight.
It put even one or two parts, closed ceiling with a hole on top of hoisting the neck and equipped with technical hatch cover.
Similarly Tools and a second chamber, but instead the lower hollow parts using conventional ring. To filter well drainage layer is not enough - you need to make a dense filter with a minimum thickness of 50 cm
Now there is no need for any individual calculations. The dimensions of workpieces are standard, and the manufacturer can always find out what volume of waste is calculated selected combination of elements.
Measures for waterproofing
Concrete septic tank of the individual parts be sure to cover the waterproofing. In practice, two methods are used: applying a protective material on both sides or waterproofing coating on the outside and on the inside - only finishing seams.
One of the options for protection, which is suitable for objects buried in the ground. On porous concrete waterproofing bituminous layer is applied, after which the wall parts are more durable and waterproof
There is a modern deep-penetrating materials, superior layer of bitumen on the technical characteristics (for example, Penetron), but they are more expensive.
Connect the pipes and testing
Fully assembled structure are combined in a single unit and is connected to a pipe leading from the house. For this purpose, the workpieces concrete bore holes to overflow - short length of pipe, and then opening the same - to enter the sewer pipe. All elements are connected and sealingly coated waterproofing. Display the vent stack.
To check the availability and integrity design is filled with water the first vessel. Then, when the hopper will fall first drains, bioactivator can be used to process waste made more efficient.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
To better understand the process of organization of the sewer system, we suggest you review helpful videos.
Secrets of laying the outer tubes:
Review of internal wiring, held their own hands:
Important moments in the construction of the sump:
As you can see, for the independent water drain device at his dacha require specific engineering knowledge and skills. If in doubt, it is better to seek help from professionals: there are plenty of companies that have successfully involved in the design and installation of local sewer systems.
Do you have experience in everything sewerage in the country? Please share practical advice with our readers, tell us what to pay attention to the regeneration of the stand-alone system - the feedback form located below the article.