Modern self-contained water should necessarily be equipped with the capacity to hold a certain amount of water. Of course, the simplest version of such a device - a plastic or metal tank installed somewhere in the attic.
However, hydraulic accumulators for water steadily replacing conventional drives, because they are more comfortable and better impact on the state of the system.
In our proposed article describes types of accumulators, are the rules of selection. We passed detail as installing equipment and its adjustment. These recommendations provide a contact-free operation of the device and extend its working life.
The content of the article:
- The operating principle of a typical hydraulic tank
- Types gidroakkumulyatornyh tanks
- How to choose the right oil tank?
- Installation and adjustment
- Recommended use
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The operating principle of a typical hydraulic tank
Sphere, he's hydraulic tank, also known as battery or pressure tank - two different names for the same device.
Outside this really metal tank, and inside the container is divided into two parts, a rubber seal, which is sometimes called a membrane.
Hydropneumatic capacitance vessels (also known as hydraulic tanks or accumulators) used in the organization of the autonomous supply systems for automating the process of water extraction
Common embodiments accumulators are supplied in a complete pumping stations used for pumping water from the shallow source
water extraction depth available for the pump station, on the average is 10 m. In order to increase its equipment together with accumulator installed in a caisson
Accumulators are used in circuits with a submersible pump for pumping water from a depth of more than 25 m. In this case, accumulator put anywhere on the surface portion of system
If caisson insulated or its bottom is below seasonal freezing ground tank is a deep well may run round in the caisson
If you can not protect the accumulator from exposure to the cold, have a capacity within the house in a heated room
Accumulators composed pumping station is often used in complex circuits or too long systems in which the delivery of water, two or more pumps to produce consumer
If the water supply system will be operated only in the summer, the location of the hydraulic reservoir is allowed on the street under a canopy, closing it from direct UV exposure
Hydraulic tank as part of a pumping station
Installation in the well caisson
Hydraulic tank in tandem with the submerged pump
Storage for deep well
Located in the basement of a private home
Automation of pumping water from a reservoir
Accumulator at their summer cottage
The gasket is firmly anchored in the neck of the tank, wherein an opening for entry of water. On the opposite side of the container has another opening, it is intended for air.
There is installed a conventional nipple. What is all this done? The membrane separates the hydraulic tank into two compartments. On one side of this water is gaskets, and on the other - the air under a certain pressure.
To measure the pressure in the accumulator pressure gauge is used. Some models are equipped with an additional filter to not fall into the dirt. The membrane material - special rubber. He is not only resilient, but also safe for human health.
Accumulator membrane is divided into two parts. On one side of the liner is water and the other - the air under pressure which creates a pressure in the water distribution system
When connected to a hydraulic tank water system water from such a device is supplied with a stable pressure, thereby improving the quality of tap water and provide the necessary conditions for the operation of appliances.
Gidroobaka membrane comprises an amount of water which is constantly changing, so the membrane permanently stretched or compressed. By increasing the volume of water gas is compressed, the pressure increases. pressure switch recording limits gives commands the pump on / off
For example, for the normal operation of automatic washing machines, hydro-massage devices and other such techniques require specific indicators pressure in the water. Almost always accumulators equipped with a special regulating device - pressure switch.
This device can be configured so that it enables and disables the flow of water in the tank is dependent on the air pressure. It works like this: as the water intake from the unit the pressure is reduced in its air chamber.
When it reaches the minimum level, the pressure switch in an automatic mode comprises pumping TechnologyTo make up for the volume of water. As a result, the pressure in the hydraulic tank is increased again. Upon reaching the specified maximum pressure switch deactivates the water inflow into the accumulator.
This scheme allows you to get an idea of the place of the accumulator in the system of independent water supply of private homes
Such a system can significantly reduce the number of on / pump outages, and this prolongs the life of the equipment. If the pump is connected to the domestic water directly, the number of on and off cycles would be significantly higher.
The presence of such a tank in a water system ensures the stability of its operation, as well as protection against possible water hammer.
Moreover, inside the accumulator is always some water reserve, which can be very useful, e.g., in case of breakage of the pump. Understanding the principles of the accumulator operation allows you to select a suitable device, to ensure its proper installation and maintenance.
Types gidroakkumulyatornyh tanks
Accumulators differ in the type of installation: they are horizontal and vertical. Vertical accumulators are good that at their installation is easier to find a suitable place.
Both vertical and horizontal pin provided with species. Together with water and fed into the apparatus a certain amount of air. He gradually builds up inside and "eats" part of the volume tank. For the device to work properly, it is necessary that the air from time to time through the play off that same nipple.
By type installing distinguish vertical and horizontal accumulators. They have some differences in the process of service, but the choice is largely influenced by the size of the installation site
In the accumulator, which is set vertically, a pin is provided which is intended for these purposes. Just click on it and wait until the air leaves the device. With horizontal tanks a bit more complicated. In addition to the pin for bleed air from the container mounted stopcock and discharge the drain.
All this applies to models capable of accumulating fluid volume more than 50 liters. If the container model is less, then no special tools to remove air from the cavity in the membrane are not available, regardless of the type.
But the air of them still need to be removed. For this purpose, the accumulator periodically drained water, then refilled with water capacity.
Before beginning the procedure should deenergize the pump and pressure switch, or the entire pump station, if the tank is located within that device. After that, you just need to open the nearest faucet.
The water is drained as long as the container is empty. Further faucet is closed, the pressure switch and the pump power is supplied, the water fills the accumulator tank in the automatic mode.
Hydraulic accumulator with blue casing is used for cold water, and the red - for heating. Do not use these devices in other circumstances, because they differ not only in color, but also the material of the membrane, and the ability to tolerate a certain level of pressure
Usually designed for autonomous engineering systems tanks vary in color: blue and red. It is extremely simple classification: if the tank is blue, it means that it is designed for cold water supply systems, and if the red - to be installed in the heating circuit.
If the manufacturer has not marked its products with one of these colors, then the purpose of the device should be specified in the technical data sheet. Apart from these two types of color accumulator differ mainly on the characteristics of the material used in the manufacture of the membrane.
In both cases, this high quality tires intended for contact with food. But in blue membrane tanks are designed for contact with cold water, and the red - hot.
Very often, the accumulator is provided as part of the pumping station which is already equipped with the pressure switch, pressure gauge, a surface pump and other elements
Blue devices are able to tolerate a higher pressure than the capacity of red. It is not recommended to use cold water accumulators intended for hot water systems, and vice versa. Incorrect operating conditions lead to rapid wear of the diaphragm, hydraulic tank have to be repaired or even replaced.
How to choose the right oil tank?
One of the most important indicators when selecting the accumulator - the amount of water it can hold. You can use the following formula:
Choosing accumulator should calculate the appropriate volume of the device. Too small tank is not to provide the system requirements, and too much will lead to unnecessary costs
And from this table can take the value of the correction coefficient depending on the power of the pump:
Calculating the volume gidroakkumulyatornogo tank for the water supply system should use a special correction factor which takes into account the power of the water pump
For household use the device is usually sufficient, with a capacity of about 25-50 liters. Of course, the design value is rarely the same as the real volumes of standard models of hydraulic accumulators.
In this case, simply take the pot with a bit more volume. For example, if the value calculated by the formula 32.5 liters, the tank can be safely acquire a capacity of 35 liters.
Keep in mind that the outer dimensions of the tank and the volume of water it can hold, it's different figures. Typically, the water takes about one-third of the total volume hydraulic accumulator. From the formula, it is clear that the more powerful pump used for independent water supply to the house, the more capacious oil tank must be purchased.
Frequent power outages in the area where the house is located, is a good reason to choose the tank more. Thus, at the disposal of the family will have a small supply of water.
But do not choose too zealous and large accumulator. In this arrangement water will be replaced too slow, and it will lead to a deterioration in its quality.
In this table presents detailed information about what is the amount of water can be stored in the accumulator with specific characteristics
That is why the calculations take into account the maximum amount of water that passes through the water system. Another important point relates to models of foreign manufacture. Such devices are not always without problems connected to the water distribution system in Russia or in the territory of neighboring countries.
Selection of the hydraulic tank for independent water supply is selected so that its stock was enough for use in a switched
The capacity of the accumulator surface pumping equipment often varies from 12 to 24 liters, which is enough to provide one-WATER points in the country or in a country house
For the organization of the automated water supply from a deep source of tank volume is needed more, because the submersible pumps are extremely sensitive to the number of activation processes
Accumulators for distributed systems with multiple draw-off points are also required to be increased, given the possibility of using several cranes at the same time
The average volume for a country house and garden
Hydraulic tank for surface pumps
Hydropneumatic tank for deep wells
Hydraulic tank for water supply branched
Installation and adjustment
By installing the accumulator impose more stringent requirements than a conventional installation of the storage tank. The fact that the set in the attic of static storage device, but the tank is located in the dynamic motion: the water enters and is drawn from the tank, the membrane is stretched and compressed, etc.
That vibration is not transmitted to the water system and surrounding objects, the accumulator is set on a level and firm base, using shock-absorbing rubber pads.
The place where the tank is installed, must be large enough and accessible. Such devices require periodic adjustment, checking and maintenance.
Before installing, you must determine how much pressure should be in the empty accumulator. The nominal value of this indicator is usually equal to 1.5 bar. It is the pressure specified by the manufacturer. However, over time some of the air can exit from the container.
any defective gauge can be used for measuring the pressure in the accumulator, which provides information to an accuracy of at least 0.5 bar
Therefore it is necessary to measure the pressure using a pressure gauge, and then to pump air or bleed it, if excess pressure has appeared. Not interfere also clarify that the air pressure value in the empty tank level using Product Data Sheet. Since the spool is standard size, suitable for measurement of virtually any gauge.
If the accumulator, for whatever reason, is not equipped with the measuring device, you can take the car gauge. The main thing that it was a proper and sufficiently precise. It requires scale with graduations of 0.5 bar or less. Electronic devices can also be used for such measurements.
TO water pipes the connection is made using flexible adapters. It should be remembered that adapters diameter should match the size of water pipes, narrowing unacceptable. Before filling the tank with water, remove all the air from the membrane.
To extinguish the vibration caused by the accumulator, connecting the device to the water distribution system using special flexible hoses of suitable diameter
The first time water is pumped inwardly as slowly as possible in a thin stream with a weak pressure. This is to avoid damaging the membrane, which can compact or slightly deformed during storage.
Such nuances may seem like small things, but they can significantly affect the state of the tank. The important point is also the setting pressure in the vessel.
Once the accumulator is filled with water, it is necessary again to measure air pressure. The smaller the air in the hydraulic tank, the lower the pressure, the larger volume of water can be pumped into it. But the smaller the air, the lower the operating pressure of water at the outlet of the accumulator.
May decrease the air pressure in the apparatus to a level of 1 bar, if there is a need for an additional volume of water for storage. However, the water pressure in the system decrease. Owner of the device will have to choose between good pressure and the ability to be pumped into the tank a large amount of water.
In any case, the minimum air pressure must be 1 bar. If the air in the vessel is small, insertion of membrane filled with water, stretched, and can touch metal walls tank. Such contact is not acceptable, since under the influence of its tires begin to break down, the accumulator breaks down, and the membrane will have to be replaced.
Hydropneumatic tank only work in tandem with a pressure switch, without which the use of the hydraulic tanks would be meaningless
pressure switch responsive to the vibrations of the membrane giroakkumulyatora, set just behind them. For visual pressure monitoring gauge put
For fixing the operating parameters of the system and automatically respond to them in addition to the pressure relay circuit includes several energy-dependent devices, for example, relays dry running. For their energy needs a separate power line from the socket
To drain water from the circuit for a period of prolonged inactivity without operation after the hydraulic accumulator mounted crane
Working in tandem with the pressure switch
Place the installation pressure switch
Location relay dry walking
Crane for preservation equipment
Once the tank is full, set up and connected to the water system, it is possible to configure the pressure switch. It is usually equipped with a manual, which detail the course of action.
Under cover of the device housing has two adjusting springs. Large spring, designated as P, allows to set a minimum pressure at which the relay includes a pump and a water injection starts in the accumulator.
With small springs designated as P expose the difference between the upper and lower pressure, i.e. Pressure opening and closing. As the water of bidders hydraulic tank pressure is changed.
When it reaches the bottom mark, the relay contact is closed, and turns on the pump. In the course of the pressure switch setting will have a couple of times to fill the accumulator, and then empty it.
Usually the difference between the pressure on and off is about two bar. The passport hydraulic tank indicates the maximum pressure for which the appliance is designed, however, does not make sense to try to pump it "to the eyeballs."
When operating at maximum performance device elements wear faster. During pressure switch setting should consider one important point - the difference between the pressure and turn off the air pressure in the accumulator must be about 10%.
After accumulator installed, It needs to be serviced properly. Approximately once a month should check pressure switch settings and adjust them if it became necessary. Furthermore, it is necessary to check the state of the housing, the integrity of the membrane and sealing compounds.
The most common failure in the hydraulic tanks - membrane rupture. Constant tension cycles - with time compression will damage the element. Sudden changes in pressure gauge readings usually indicate that the membrane is torn, and the water flows into the "air" compartment of the accumulator.
To ensure you have damage, you just need to bleed air from the entire device. If followed him from the nipple water flows, then the membrane is exactly needs to be replaced.
Fortunately, to perform such a repair is relatively easy. To do this:
- Disable hydraulic tank from the water supply and power supply.
- Unscrew the bolts which hold the neck of the device.
- Remove spoiled membrane.
- Install a new membrane.
- Assemble the unit in reverse order.
- Run the installation and connection of the hydraulic tank.
According to the pressure setting repair completion in the tank and the pressure switch should be checked and adjusted. Connecting bolts need to tighten evenly to prevent distortion of the new membrane, and that it does not slip off the edge into the hydraulic tank shell.
Replace membrane accumulator is relatively simple, but care must be taken to the new membrane was the same as the former
For bolts installed in the slot, and then in turn make just a couple of turns of the first bolt, proceed to the next, etc. Then the membrane is pressed against the body of the same throughout circle. A common mistake beginners in repair accumulator - improper use of sealing means.
Installation location of the membrane in the treatment of sealant does not require, on the contrary, the presence of such substances may damage it. The new membrane must be exactly the same as the old and the volume and configuration. It is better to dismantle the accumulator, and then, armed with tainted membrane as a sample, go to the store for a new member.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
In this video, discussed in detail the principle of operation the accumulator:
For the calculation of the accumulator volume, you can use special software calculators. One of these options is presented in the following footage:
Replacing the diaphragm tank - the process is not too complicated. He discussed in detail in this video:
Accumulator - an important part of modern autonomous water supply system. Of course, this device is more complicated and more expensive than conventional storage tank.
But all expenses fully paid off, because in the presence of the fluid container and the quality of tap water is better, and pumping equipment service life is greatly increased. Finally, it is simply convenient, because in the water there is always a steady water pressure, which takes care of reliable equipment.
Please write comments in a downstream block form. Ask questions on the desired points in the information, share useful information, post photos, and advice. Perhaps your recommendations will be useful to site visitors.