When installing split systems on their own, they take into account many details. Would not recommend to get down to business, if not so frightening price. What causes problems? The chief architect of Moscow, Alexander Kuzmin, once walked around the capital and decided: the type of buildings was heavily disfigured by engineering structures hung on the walls: split systems, antennas, satellite dishes. A number of laws have been passed that make installation activities difficult and costly. The project, showing in details the mechanism for installing the outdoor unit of a split system, costs 6 thousand rubles. Punish the iron ruble - the idea of Alexander Kuzmin. Nobody thought: in such a situation, the installation of a split-system with self-taught hands became an extremely profitable process. At the cost requested by specialized organizations, caught up with air conditioning.
The legal aspects of the installation of a split-system by the hands of citizens of
It is not known for certain what made 2012 Kuzmin resign. I didn’t like the architect to criticize the plan for the reorganization of Moscow, split-systems have nothing to do with it. Since 2014, Alexander Kuzmin has headed the Academy of Builders with the abbreviation RAACS.
A lot of necessary documents are listed to put the outdoor unit of the split system in place. In the middle of the last decade, the process was no more complicated than installing a coffee grinder on the kitchen table. Projects, permissions, other vanity were not required. Innovation marked at the household level propensity to fraud. Before installing a split system, according to the law, a citizen acquires a properly executed project worth a fair amount. Locate on the web a document called the “List of Construction Works” to be licensed. The legislation provides a list of events indicating whether a license is necessary for holding.
Microclimate systems are designed by specialized agencies with a license. However, the split-system is a purchased thing: the question of installation remains controversial.
Implementation of the finished project for air conditioning, heating, installation, electricians do not require a license. The law changes periodically. We offer readers to download to the computer from the government site, carefully study.
Do not try to find the answer on the forums. Described the correct decisions about the split-systems, but we need experience to distinguish from amateurish. The list paper is not as complex as it may seem at first glance.
Regarding the type of fraudulent scheme. One-day firms put conditioners without documents to customers. Split-system owners claimed: the installation was completed before the introduction of the law. The law is not retroactive in time. If it is not possible to prove how things really happened, the company will not be able to bring the owner to the account. Pay attention: by installing the split-system yourself, you will get into trouble. According to the court decision, the equipment can be dismantled by the state unilaterally. System performance may be impaired. It is unlikely that the bailiffs will pump the freon into the external unit of the split system, undock the valve assemblies.
About the project. If you can do the work yourself - ask for documentation, where there is no need to get out of the window, soar over the precipice. Citizens put the external units of the split-systems on the balcony, ask the organization whether it is legal, ask a search network question. Many will suit the option: an external unit will hang between two windows. Four holes for the brackets of the external unit of the split-system can be done relatively safely by yourself - described in the review about the dismantling of air conditioners. Competently compiled with the wishes of the project in the future will save many problems. Installing the internal unit of the split-system tricks will not require.
The installation process of the split-system
Trivia play a crucial role! Freon R410 is considered more promising: less compressor power is required for similar performance. The refrigerant R600a began to replace R12, R22 in refrigeration equipment, although it is explosive. The process of replacing freon in split systems is not simple. It is about the change of generations. R410 is not filled in place R22: even fittings under the nut of different sizes.
Refill collectors for split systems are designed for their own types of freons. The digital model Rothenberger supports 600 brands of refrigerants. Analog models are designed for the following types of freons:
We can’t say why these brands are used in split-systems, but isobutane isn’t. Probably due to two considerations:
- The working temperature range of split-system evaporators and refrigerators is different. Split system evaporator does not work in the area below zero.
- Street security is different. It is impossible to exclude vandals, children playing with burning isobutane, cutting split-system communications.
You need to know about the left gauge of the filling manifold: two PSI pressure scales( used in America), bars( popular in the Russian Federation) are drawn on the fittings. Bars are converted to MPa by multiplying by 10. Depending on the pressure in the low pressure path of the split system, the boiling point of freon on the evaporator changes. For the four brands listed above, one scale is applied for the parameter. The overheating method is used for the exact filling of the split-system independently:
- After starting the air conditioner, the low-pressure tube( thick copper tube suitable for the outdoor unit) is set to the temperature.
- Evaporation temperature of freon depends on pressure. For each brand of refrigerant its own figure, read on the scale of the collector( or take a table on the Internet).
- The difference between the boiling point and the vapor temperature of a thick tube is determined. The figure should lie within 5-8 degrees Celsius.
The most difficult is the laying of copper tubes: the length of the communications does not always correspond to the distance from the indoor unit to the outdoor unit. Sometimes, the terrain imposes restrictions. When drafting a project, ask the developers to observe the length of communications sold by the seller.
It is enough to flare both ends, fastening the nuts from the kit and attach them to the inner, outer blocks. Only soft copper rolls( you are looking for brands on the net), you have to heat the hard one with a torch or on a gas stove. Rolling is that the cone under pressure enters inside, unbending the edges, not allowing the nut to come off. Spanner holds tightly freon inside.
Rollers are conical, eccentric. The conical surface is structurally present in any case. But where models, a figure moves along an eccentric path, are considered preferable: mechanical damage( defects) are excluded.
Worse with the build-up of copper tubes. Fitting and bezfitingovye methods are used. Fittings( a segment of a tube slightly larger than the diameter to be joined) are sold in finished form. The second method involves the sorting of one end: the second enters into it with a slight fit. Joints are soldered. This method is twice as reliable: solder joints are half as much. Use solder with silver content not less than 5%, flexible, plastic, with good adhesion. Before performing work outside, inside the tube is cleaned from oxide scurf.
Features of installation of air conditioners in terms of refueling
freon The main problem concerns the commissioning of the circuit of freon. Installation of the air conditioner itself will not bring difficulties, if there is a winch or other equipment at hand to put a heavy external unit in place. We are talking about the types of split systems. Everybody can put a monoblock on the floor, drop a hose in the window. Similarly, installed window models that are embedded in the frame. The process boils down to carpentry, glass works, subject to a competent owner on their own. But when the air conditioner consists of two blocks that require a connection by communications, competent introduction of the system into operation causes difficulties. Tell about the setting.
Installation of the air conditioner has passed, consider the next steps. Freon is collected in an external unit under pressure - it remains to conduct a vacuum. Refrigerant restraining valves open and gas takes up the right place. Checking the correct operation of the air conditioner is equally important. The manufacturer calculates the length of the communication, the amount of freon, so that in the assembled state the system is operational. Let us introduce the term “freon overheating” - the difference between the temperature of the vapor on the low pressure side( wide copper tube of communications) and the boiling point of freon in the evaporator. Ideally, the parameter is in the range of 5-8 degrees Celsius. Here are two cases of abnormal functioning:
- The overheating temperature is less than 5 degrees Celsius - freon is too much. In such conditions, the evaporator is not completely converted to gas. If part of the liquid phase enters the compressor - the latter breaks. Accelerated equipment wear or instantaneous failure will follow.
- The temperature of overheating is more than 8 degrees Celsius - there is little freon in the circuit. Underpressure, system performance decreases. Compressor cooling mode is violated - equipment wears out faster.
The above method is called temperature. There is a method based on measuring the pressure in the system, less accurate. The service department will find the table for the brand air conditioner with the correct values. To conduct an independent installation of the air conditioner, the pressure method is not suitable. For each brand, the values are unique, depending on the specific conditions. No citizen can legally get tables: manufacturers do not send out the manuals to the first to ask. Papers receive service authorized centers. The issue of setting the system resolved.
The installation of the air conditioner is completed, how to configure the
The self-taught wizard cannot do without a vacuum pump assembled on the basis of an old refrigerator compressor, but ideally purchase a factory one. Service air conditioning is carried out through the manifold - fittings with two pressure gauges, with a number of connecting pipes. Distinguish between collectors:
- On-Off will allow for a full air conditioner maintenance, refueling, evacuation. A low pressure pipe is used( left side of the collector), the necessary equipment is connected to the middle one. At first - the pump for evacuation, then a cylinder with a coolant.
- Four-position will allow you to connect the equipment in a crowd immediately, then the master opens and closes the necessary valves, saving them from problems.
So, the process itself. We will focus on the two-position collector: the process of service work becomes more complicated. The owners of the four positions must read what is written below: there will be digressions in the text. Consider the case: in the external unit a sufficient amount of freon( although no one can know in advance).
We will work with the fittings of the outdoor unit. It is assumed that the air conditioner communications are correctly connected to the fixture, it remains to configure the product. In the initial period of time we connect the collector to the service port( cranes screwed down).We will nitrate the system( crimp).Sense in injecting compressed nitrogen inside, bringing pressure to the worker. After we endure the time, let's see if the pressure will fall. Let us examine in more detail the process flow diagram:
- Freon is located in an external unit. On the side, on the right side, are angled cranes, covered with plugs, while the cranes are closed.
- Tubes connect the external and internal blocks, during the installation process there could be poorly made joints: there will be a leak.
- When we connect the collector tube to the service nipple, we get access to the tubes closed through the indoor unit of the air conditioner.
Inside the system there is air, we do not pump it out: after nitriding we will conduct a vacuum. The convenience of nitrogen is inertia. Leak detector, soapy water, easy to check the soldered joints, restore integrity. Inert nitrogen: will not ignite the burner, will not allow scaling to form inside the tubes. The virgin purity of the compressor is preserved, therefore, the resource is saved. Below we will discuss in more detail the actions during the soldering process. We now describe the sequence of operations for nitriding:
- The left collector hose is connected to the service nipple, the taps are shut off.
- A cylinder with liquid nitrogen is connected to the central hose.
- We do not release air from the system, nitrogen is close in properties, ice, condensate that will fall on the walls, will be removed by subsequent evacuation.
- First the collector valve opens, then the cylinder valve. The pressure is brought to the maximum working.
- Shut off the valves, wait fifteen minutes, controlling the constancy of the readings with a pressure gauge.
- Soldering points, nut docking assemblies are available - it does not hurt to simultaneously check the tightness with a nitrogen-detecting leak detector( universal models are ultrasonic).
- The integrity of the tubes is in order - go to the evacuation.
Vacuuming is designed to free the system from moisture, air and other chemical compounds. The cylinder is undocked, replaced by a pump.
Note: at the start of operations, it is sufficient for owners of four-position collectors to connect each branch to their inlet pump, cylinder. With on-off is recommended to buy hoses with ball valves. In the future, if refueling is required, shutting off the valve, the owner blocks access to the air inside.
Before turning on the pump, open the left manifold valve. Manage the pressure drop to minus one. Sometimes the scale is on the pump, the instruction( for example, Rosenberger).Read about the proper use of the device. A working pump, a vacuum is present for some time, so that air with nitrogen, residual water, and ice are removed from the system. The process of sublimation, evaporation takes time. In the case of a refrigerator, it is recommended to let the pump run for another 15 minutes after dropping the gauge needle. In our case, 3 minutes is enough.
If the pump hose with a ball valve - it's time to close the valves, disconnect the vacuum pump, connect the cylinder with freon. If, after starting, the temperature difference is out of the norm, then the amount of refrigerant will need to be adjusted. Before filling the freon, before opening the left valve of the collector, the right one opens: the air is released from the cylinder with pressure. Part of the refrigerant leaks - bad. There is no hose with ball valve - you will need to bleed air anyway.
Pro tool for installation of air conditioners. The manufacturer unwinds the phone so that the device starts working immediately. For docking with the outer, inner blocks, a manual rammer is used, which allows to put nuts on the copper tube. Better, more expensive eccentric models: the cone runs in a circle. Tubes are made of soft copper; otherwise, the ends are heated to a flaring process with a torch. It is more difficult to install the air conditioner yourself if you need to lengthen the communications: for docking, use fitting / fitting-free joints. We wield a burner, before we conduct nitriding with a pressure of 0.5 atm: prevent the formation of slag, carbon deposits inside.
Freon is measured by weights, the adequacy of the amount of refrigerant is evaluated by the temperature difference between the high and low pressure valves. If necessary, unnecessary bleed, or fill the missing grams. The drainage channel is led into the sewage system by corrugated pipes running under the insulated facade of the building.