Living in a private house requires an autonomous sewer. It consists of internal wiring, external piping and storage (or VOC). For residents of holiday villages or houses of temporary (seasonal) residence, the cesspool remains relevant as the best way to collect and partially recycle waste.
We will tell the independent house craftsmen how the cesspool is constructed from the barrel. This is an extremely simple option that requires a minimum of funds in construction. Taking into account our recommendations, you will be able to arrange an autonomous sewage disposal system without any problems.
The content of the article:
- How is a cesspool different from a septic tank?
- Benefits of the barrel from the barrel
The choice of barrels for the device rake
- Types of containers by material
- Calculation of the volume of vygreba
- Drawing up a project and choosing a scheme
Step by Step Installation Instructions
- The device trench and trenches
- Installation of the barrel in the pit
- Connection and backfilling
- Nuances of the device pit without bottom
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
How is a cesspool different from a septic tank?
Previously, the word "septic tank" was unknown, and the role of the only possible place for waste collection was played by the cesspool.
Structurally, all the cesspits were similar, the difference concerned the presence or absence of any capacity. Often a simple pit was dug in the ground, and a wooden “nesting box” was built above it. Such street toilets can still be found in the old country villages.
The modern version of the toilet, which is "in the yard" - a beautiful house, neatly painted and decorated with flowers. A sewage tank with a mouth for pumping is buried under it.
A pit without a sealed container is an environmental threat to a garden plot. If the owners of the house are interested in the purity of the soil and water, they must put a tank in the pit for the grave.
Previously, it was made of planks or bricks, now it is made of concrete rings or solid concrete. Often used and barrels, metal or plastic, specifically designed for the construction of sewage.
Even a large sealed tank of modified plastic is just a drive that quickly fills up and requires regular pumping. It is for this reason that cesspools are absolutely not suitable for family cottages.
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The use of used drums provides an opportunity with minimal expenses to build a compact autonomous sewage system in the country
Sealed barrels of petroleum products or diesel fuel will be an excellent reservoir of wastewater, which will need to be pumped out as it is filled.
From plastic barrels you can organize a multi-level wastewater treatment system, which allows part of the waste to be disposed of in the ground
Instead of metal or plastic second-hand barrels, Eurocubes are suitable, in which liquid products from different countries are supplied to Russia
Country sewage using barrels
Barrel as a storage tank
Use of plastic containers
Eurocubes as a tank for raking
To make the sewer system more efficient, a septic tank, which not only collects drains, but partially cleans them, is installed instead of a rake. Pumping solid sediment from the septic tank is much less than from the pit.
Volumetric capacity from the modified plastic - the best option for a cesspool. A large tank with a capacity of 6-8 m³ can easily replace 3-4 standard metal drums
The most perfect way to collect and process sewage masses is to install biological treatment stations. Due to the special design and principle of operation, the block consisting of several sections cleans the liquid up to 98%.
After such a thorough filtration, the water enters the reservoir, into the ground or into the storage well for household needs.
Benefits of the barrel from the barrel
If, for material or other reasons, you cannot install a septic tank (a more efficient sewage treatment plant) you will have to build a cesspool.
Immediately it is necessary to abandon the option that does not involve the installation of capacity. In sewage drains that have not passed the process of disintegration and immediately fell into the ground and groundwater contain dangerous microorganisms. Over time, they are able to pollute and fertile soil, and water in the well, and cultivated plants in the garden.
Therefore, before the device of the sump, it is necessary to determine the type of tank, that is, choose one of the following options:
- brick well;
- concrete ring well;
- rubber tire pit;
- monolithic concrete tank;
- plastic container or a metal barrel.
The cheapest, but the least reliable is considered to be a well of old automobile tires. It requires high-quality waterproofing and is not suitable for bulk sewage. The construction of bricks is too laborious and also needs careful sealing.
Monolithic concrete chambers are durable and easy to maintain, but require knowledge of casting technology and masterful performance. Concrete rings are popular, but for their installation requires construction equipment and additional working hands.
An alternative to a cesspool from a barrel is a well of concrete rings. At its device it is necessary to pay attention to the sealing of the joints between the rings and waterproofing the entire structure.
The cesspool from the barrel is easy to install, easy to maintain and has a long service life. Especially good modern sewage tanks made of plastic with stiffeners and neck for maintenance.
For temporary needs, a metal container, additionally treated with an anti-corrosion agent, is suitable, but it will last no more than 4-5 years.
The choice of barrels for the device rake
In order for the cesspool to serve for a long time, not to require repair and to have maximum functionality, two factors need to be taken into account when constructing it: the production material and volume. Let us dwell on each.
Types of containers by material
The tanks are selected based on two basic requirements for the material: strength and tightness. Metal and plastic barrels correspond to these qualities. Consider their advantages and disadvantages.
Both types are great for any type of soil. These are hermetic tanks without a filtering bottom, therefore it doesn’t matter what is under the barrel - high-capacity sand or waterproof clay.
The type of soil will become important if you decide to build a more complex structure of 2 or 3 barrels, the latter of which will serve as an absorbing well.
Variant of the device from two identical plastic barrels interconnected by a overflow pipe. The main part of solid precipitation will settle in the first tank from the house
For a sealed reservoir, it also does not matter where the aquifers are located. Proper adherence to the sump installation technology ensures safety for high groundwater. There is only one way to the waste accumulated in the storage tank - into the cesspool truck.
Thus, the barrels of metal and plastic unites tightness. If we talk about strength, then win plastic products. Modern types of plastic, designed for sewage tanks, can serve up to 50 years, easily resist the effects of household chemicals, do not give in to corrosion.
The light weight of the products allows for installation on their own, without the involvement of special equipment, although for the most volumetric models it is better to rent a manipulator and hire a team of workers
The only minus of plastic is freezing at very low temperatures if the reservoir is close to the surface. The problem is solved by additional warming.
Disadvantages of metal barrels:
- the big weight causing difficulties with transportation and installation;
- the inability to resist corrosion that can break the tightness;
- the need for additional processing on both sides;
- high cost of new products.
It can be concluded that the best option in terms of price / quality ratio is a plastic tank specially made for sewage systems.
Calculation of the volume of vygreba
The size of the barrel depends on the volume of wastewater, and their amount, in turn, on the number of people living in the house and the availability of water points. If a couple periodically comes to the dacha who does not use either the washing machine or bathroom, the amount of waste will be much less than that of a family of 4-5 people permanently living in house.
The easiest way to calculate capacity is to use the following formula:
The amount of sewage per person is very individual. In some houses there is no bathroom or shower, respectively, the volume of liquid will not exceed 0.5 m³
Suppose there are 3 people living in the house, for each of whom 100 liters (on average) of sewage waste are accounted for daily. According to the contract, the vacuum trucks arrive once a month (30 days). We get 3 x 100 x 30 = 9000 l. Therefore, a sufficiently large 9 m³ tank is required.
If you decide to use small tanks, they will need several, but for ease of pumping and installation it is better to purchase one large tank.
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If it is planned to discharge gray and fecal drains into the cesspool, the calculation is made for water consumption for 2 to 3 days
Approximate calculations provide that about 250 liters should be consumed per person per day. This volume should contain a storage device or improvised sewage treatment plants.
If you plan to dump only gray drains coming from the bath, pool, shower, kitchen, then it makes sense to set up a system with a barrel without a bottom. Through it, the settled and partially purified water is discharged into the underlying soil layers.
For a cesspool device of a cumulative type, it is better to select a large-capacity tank with a capacity of 1 to 3 mᶾ, so as not to contact too much sewers
Plastic barrel of compact dimensions
Metal barrel for a small family
Clearing system from two and more barrels
Tanks for cesspools
Drawing up a project and choosing a scheme
To hedge against errors in cesspool device to give or a small country house, it is better to make a small plan and draw a diagram indicating the size of the barrel, pit, trenches, pipes.
The list of necessary materials and tools should include:
- plastic barrel (eurocube, tank);
- pipes and fittings for the assembly of communications;
- tool for excavation (shovel with buckets, winch, wheelbarrow);
- backfill for arranging the bottom of the pit (pebbles, gravel, crushed stone, sand).
To determine the length of the pipeline, you need to measure the distance from the building (bath, garage, guest house) to the intended installation site of the barrel.
The dimensions of the pit should correspond to the size of the tank, but do not forget to leave 0.3 m on each side for backfilling. It may be necessary to level the bottom of the pit and reinforce it with a concrete casting or a previously prepared concrete slab.
There are several options for the construction of a cesspit from used containers (or barrels). The simplest is to install a single tank at a distance of 5-7 m from the house (closer is not recommended by sanitary standards). If there are several barrels, they are joined by an overflow pipe and they dig up an oblong-shaped pit.
The larger the volume of the barrel, the farther the distance of the place of installation of the cesspool from the house and other important objects - wells, pools, ponds
A large number of pipe joints and sections of pipe adjunctions to barrels increases the risk ingress of sewage into the ground, it is therefore necessary to consider an effective method of sealing joints.
Step by Step Installation Instructions
Purchase of factory-made airtight plastic container equipped with a hatch and accessories to connect, gives you the opportunity to skip one rather time-consuming stage - waterproofing structures.
This means that the installation process will be much faster, and additional funds for the purchase of bitumen mastic or other means of sealing will not be required.
The cycle of works on the construction of a sump from a used metal barrel includes a number of standard steps:
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We will start the construction of a cesspit for a country toilet with the development of a pit. Its bottom is divided into two parts. Under the barrel should be about 20-30 cm higher than the rest of the
From the bottom, approximately one-fifth of the height of the barrel and its bottom, are “perforated”: we cut out holes or drill so that throughput comes out as in the photo
We fill the bottom of the pit with gravel, which will serve as a natural soil filter for the liquid component.
On the step formed during the digging of the pit, put a barrel. The rest of the space is filled with coarse-grained material, for example, fragments of slate or large rubble.
We lay polyethylene on top of the filter we have built to eliminate odor and isolate the upper ground layers.
We fill the pit with a homemade cesspool with rolled-off primer.
At the bottom of the barrel pour a layer of gravel or fine crushed stone, layer thickness of about 20-30 cm
Dump the ground around the barrel. Everything, the cesspool is ready, it remains only to build a booth above it
Stage 1: Development of a pit for a homemade rake
Stage 2: Metal Barrel Perforation
Stage 3: Gravel backfill
Stage 4: Installing the barrel and filling the space
Stage 5: Laying polyethylene over a dirt filter
Stage 6: Backfilling
Stage 7: Filling the bottom with a gravel filter
Step 8: Ramming the ground around the barrel
At the device of a septic tank from a barrel with a tight bottom and walls in a construction of the soil filter there will be no sense. The stages in these cases are reduced: in the pit, they simply install a large hermetic tank and periodically cause a vacuum truck.
The device trench and trenches
Dredging and arrangement of the desired shape of the pit is the most difficult and long phase. If the soil is clay, you have to spend a lot of effort, if sandy, collapse of the walls is possible, which should be temporarily secured by the similarity of formwork. The land raised to the top does not need to be taken far away from the excavation, as part of it will be needed for backfilling.
For digging large pits, it is better to hire a team of workers with a mini excavator. The use of bulky equipment is a threat to country lawns and plantings.
The shape of the factory tanks can be different - round, square and rectangular. Usually the pit is dug, focusing on the shape and size of the barrel or cube
When the device on loose subsiding and heaving rocks reinforce the bottom of the pit, to give the structure greater stability. You can use a concrete slab as a base, or you can make a cement screed with a thick drainage layer.
If the screed is not required, the bottom is covered with a layer of rubble (gravel, broken brick, pebbles), on top of it - the same layer of coarse sand. An important requirement for the device base is compaction and alignment.
If in the area of construction of a private sewage flood waters were noted or according to drilling data groundwater organizations are close to the surface, a barrel or a group of plastic containers should be to anchor Those. It should be attached with a polymer cable to metal loops embedded in a concrete slab so that when possible watering does not “float” the tank.
Together with the pit and prepare the trench for sewer communications. The shorter they are, the more functional the system. The pipes do not lead along the surface, but are laid at a depth of at least half a meter so that they do not freeze when the temperature drops below zero. Accordingly, the depth of the trenches should be 20-30 cm below the level of soil freezing.
Installation of the barrel in the pit
If the pit is prepared correctly, installation of the tank does not take much time. The plastic container is gently lifted and transferred to the bottom of the pit so that it is exactly in the center.
It is important location of the tank relative to the surface of the earth. The tank is installed so that the upper part of the neck after filling to 20-25 cm rose above the ground
The barrel must be turned so that the inlet for connecting the pipe is opposite it and coincides with the end of the pipe in height.
If there are several barrels, they are arranged in a sequential order and connected with pipe sections, carefully sealing the joints. Even when using fittings of suitable size, you should use a quality sealant and treat the places where the pipes adjoin the vessel.
Connection and backfilling
Together with the installation of the barrel produce pipes. Sewage drains will move by gravity, without the use of technical devices, so it is important to ensure sufficient inclination - approximately 1.5-2 cm per meter of pipe.
To connect communications to the barrel, modern sewage tanks are equipped with a special pipe. If it is absent, it is necessary to cut a hole on the diameter of the supply pipe.
If accurate calculations have previously been made, the connections and openings can be prepared in advance until the barrel is placed in the pit. There are two main openings - for connection to the supply pipe and for pumping out the drains.
When all the connections have been made, you can backfill. To stabilize the tank inside the pit, dry cement is added to the soil. After setting, it forms a durable protective ring, which serves as a protective barrier against soil movement.
Backfilling is performed in layers, pouring 0.2-0.3 m of sand-cement mixture and ramming each layer. It is not necessary to tamp the soil over the sewer pipe.
If the communications are long and have branching / connections, it is better to make technical wells at the intersections and turns of the pipes. In case of blockages, they will help you quickly find the cause.
The finishing touch is the decoration of the neck with the hatch. The easiest way is to break up a small bed. However, do not forget about the regular pumping of accumulated waste by vacuum trucks, that is, the device convenient access road.
Nuances of the device pit without bottom
A cesspool with a filtering bottom is a type of a conventional cesspool. However, it is used exclusively for the collection and processing of gray wastewater - water contaminated during cleaning, hygienic procedures, cooking. It can not be considered cumulative, because part of the sewage flows into the ground.
A gravel-sand pillow is used as a filter. Filter power in a filter bottom must be at least 1 m. Backfilling shall be done so that at the base there is a sand layer 30–40 cm thick, which is quite enough for cleaning gray drains from a fine suspension.
Above have layers of gravel or crushed stone: first small fraction, then large. They contain large contaminants and lighten the water. Thus, a multistage purification of wastewater is disposed of in the ground, where it is further processed in natural conditions.
So that the sewage liquid does not mix with the groundwater, a pit without a bottom is arranged only where their level is low enough.
More efficient scheme of the cesspool device - a septic tank of two tanks. In the first there is a mechanical separation of the effluent, in the second - anaerobic purification and partial filtration.
For the device of a cesspool without a bottom in sandy soils, characterized by extremely low filtration properties, the lower part of the walls of plastic drums are perforated. So increase the absorption area to speed up the recycling process. True solid sediment will gradually clog the holes, so clean the drums with holes will have no less than ordinary drives.
Self-made collection point and partial sewage treatment needs regular maintenance using biologically active agentswhich are described in the article recommended by us.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Advice for those who are interested in the proper arrangement of the cesspool.
Video # 1. Theoretical preparation for the construction of a sump:
Video # 2. Equipment of plastic barrels:
Video # 3. Installation and insulation of the overall capacity:
The installation of a ready-made factory model can be done by the owner of the dacha or a country house, even if he had never before engaged in sewage systems. However, before starting work, we recommend that you study the installation norms for the cesspool and enlist the support of a professional with engineering education.
Write about how you constructed the cesspool at your own summer cottage. Tell us about the nuances of operating an independent sewage treatment plant. Please leave comments and photos on the topic in the block below the text of the article.