Almost every one of us thought about the quality of water consumed. Buy bottled water every day in practice proves to be very expensive, and the tap water without further purification for the purpose is completely unsuitable. Do you agree?
It turns out quite easily cope with this problem. By applying a reverse osmosis filter checked by the manufacturer can be assured as the water consumed. In the vast range of reverse osmosis systems on the market, to make the right choice is not easy, but we'll help you find the right solution.
In this article we explain how to use a reverse osmosis filter, the criteria for their selection, we present an overview of models from the best producers, as well as give advice on filter operation. The material is accompanied by thematic photos and videos.
The content of the article:
- Forward and reverse osmosis
- The principle of operation of such a filter
- Criteria for selection of the filter system
Ranking of the best systems for water purification
- Location # 1. Water filter from Atoll
- Location # 2. Filters labeled Leader Standart
- Location # 3. Compact filter Aquaphor Morion
- Place # 4. Installing the "New Water"
- Location # 5. Reverse osmosis system "Barrier Osmo 100"
- Place # 6. Filter under the sink "Geyser Prestige"
- Recommended use filters
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Forward and reverse osmosis
Natural osmosis - a phenomenon that underlies the metabolic processes occurring in living organisms. It provides a balanced state of salt and mineral metabolism.
Living cells are washed by blood and lymph, of these fluids through the shell, which is a semipermeable membrane, it fall nutrients and cleans back.
The structure of the reverse osmosis system includes a group of filters performing rough cleaning, softening, removal of iron and water purification hyperfine
In areas with hard water in the cleaning water should be 5 installing filters in soft water areas sufficiently 3x
Modules with filter cartridges in reverse osmosis plants are in strict order. Rearrange them inadmissible
First in a series of cleaning components installed coarse filter retaining sand, rust and other particles down to 5 microns
After the coarse cleaning is made thin and for which the water passes through the carbon filter and the pretreatment filter, retaining particle size up to 1 micron
After performing coarse and fine cleaning water is fed into the module with a membrane filter, retaining not only the mineral and organic minute particles, but also bacteria and viruses
At the bottom of the module with membrane filter has a flange to connect the hose. Hose output drains, all the water is discharged therethrough without a permeated
Passed through a membrane filter water is supplied to another carbon filter, then through a separately mounted crane consumer. a storage tank is included in the circuit for collecting prepared to drink water
reverse osmosis function
The number of filters in the cleaning system
Location module in reverse osmosis
Mechanical cleaning filter
The following modules for water treatment
Module with a membrane filter osmosis
Hole for hose connection
The water after the membrane treatment
The semi-permeable membrane has a selective capacity. Having on its outer surface electric charge, it pushes away the dissolved minerals in the water, the molecules of the hydrolysis split into ions.
In these middle cells minerals transferred special transport molecules of separate channels available in the cell membrane.
To simulate in vitro process, taking vessel, divide it into two parts by means of a semipermeable membrane. On the right side of the partition poured highly concentrated aqueous solution of mineral matter, on the other - all the same, but to a much lesser concentration.
In an effort to balance the water on the left side moves to the right. The process continues until such time as the concentration of the solutions on both sides will not become equal.
With the achievement of equal concentration level, height of liquid columns arranged from different sides, will be unequal. The difference in height is directly proportional to the force, causes the water to pass through the membrane and is called "osmotic pressure."
The diagram clearly shows the process of direct and reverse osmosis modeled in vitro
Reverse osmosis - natural phenomenon of the opposite osmosis. All in the same vessel, under the influence of external pressure at high concentration solution, water changes direction. Applied pressure just pushes it through a membrane, releasing from the substances dissolved in it.
The concentration of the solution, which was already mentioned initially, rising further and smaller continued to decline. Through the membrane, as previously, it extends only water, but in the other direction.
Recommended related articles: Reverse osmosis: the harm and benefits of membrane purification of tap water.
The principle of operation of such a filter
The principle of water purification using reverse osmosis It based on the fact that a container divided by a semipermeable membrane, is fed under pressure a concentrated aqueous solution. The second part of the container falls filtered water through the membrane, minerals remain outside, and then go down the drain.
Filters consist of easily interchangeable modules during operation. Each of them has a certain lifespan.
Phased water treatment. Going through all the modules, the water is cleaned of all contaminants, including useful, so experts advise to buy a system with a mineralizer
The system design includes several filter cartridges with activated carbon and porous polypropylene inside. With their help, the water is freed from solids and organic impurities. In the first step, when passing through a polypropylene filter, water is released from the particles with a minimum size of 0.5 microns.
The second filter - coal, it can stand out from the water and organic chemical contaminants including oils, pesticides, heavy metals and other substances. Last before the reverse osmosis membrane filter delays microscopic mechanical impurities, their size does not exceed 1 micron.
The main element of the system - the membrane, where and fed under pressure from the water after a rough pre-treatment. Its pore size of 0.0001 micron do not miss anything except water molecules. When it passes through the post-filter is a final cleaning and stabilization of water.
Here the flow divides into two parts: crystal clear water and concentrated solution drained into the sewerage system. Pure requiring no boiling water is supplied to the storage tank, and then through a separate valve to the consumer.
Only a reverse osmosis system is capable of providing an ideal thin water purification, but the results of their operation depends on many factors
The system is designed so that as the treated water flow, its reserves are replenished automatically. Inside the tank is a chamber 2, which serves as a partition between the silicone membrane. The water enters the upper compartment, and the bottom is compressed air.
When the amount of water decreases, the membrane expands to maintain pressure until the water is not completely drained. The air pressure can be adjusted by means of a pin mounted on the part of the lower chamber.
For individual selection of drinking water in the kitchen sink or countertop crashed special crane, which is independent of the thread that is used for other purposes.
Some manufacturers supply their products with additional functionality:
- mineralizerIntroducing water in useful trace elements which did not allow the membrane;
- UV lampThat kills harmful microbes;
- structurerThat eliminates water from the "negative" information.
Water consumption during this purification can not be called economical - the preparation of 1 liter of potable water to the sewer leaves 3 liters dirty. Requires a system pressure of 2-6 bar, so sometimes it is required to raise by means of the pump or lower by using a reducer.
Main filter systems producing water purification by reverse osmosis, the membrane filter is
Passing through the filter membrane, water is treated at a molecular level, is released from particles smaller than 1 micron, viruses and bacteria
To install the filter membrane in an installation has a separate plastic module to be connected to the general water supply coming out of the hose
At the bottom of the module for membrane filter has a hole for connecting the hose coming out the drain. Through it all merges that has not passed through a membrane filter
Membrane filter reverse osmosis system
The structure of the filter membrane
A module for a membrane filter
Hole on the bottom of the module under the membrane filter
Criteria for selection of the filter system
cost of Reverse osmosis filters quite high. By their choice should be approached responsibly, being able to evaluate their capabilities in financial terms as at present and in the future, taking into account the need for periodic replacement of modules.
It should also be understood that most filters very slowly purified water. The rate of passage of water depends the pressure in the water, Concentrations of various impurities in the water permeability of the membrane. Rely on their great performance is not worth it.
In nature, there are no mechanisms detoxifying water from a huge number of toxic elements falling into it from contaminated sources. Therefore, a better alternative than reverse osmosis system does not exist yet
So how do you still choose a filter reverse osmosis?
The optimal choice will help to make assessment on the following criteria:
- The number of cleaning stages. There may be from 3 to 9.
- The presence of additional functionality.
- The credibility of the manufacturer.
- The material and the number of stages prefilters. The plastic should be odorless. Check his presence easily, one has only to roll out a flask.
- Reliability seal on flasks and connecting elements. The first should be a double, and the best connections are considered to be the product of JohnGuest and Organic companies.
- The material of which the storage tank is made and the fixing plate.
- The performance of the membrane.
- The presence of the pump.
- Cubic capacity tank.
- Resource membrane and cartridge.
- Bulb type. Cartridges of the "block unit" more than "bulb-filler", but replace them perform better. Better considered bulb installed in the inner cup method.
- Compliance with design sizes availability under the sink.
Considerable importance is the construction of the crane. There may be present one valve for purified water or 2, when included in the mineralizer.
All components of the reverse osmosis system disposed in plastic flasks-modules in which components are mounted replaceable filter
The size and shape correspond to the size flasks replaceable cartridges, specifically fulfill their functions and cleaning stage
The modules for filter coarse and fine filters are installed replaceable cartridges of polyethylene foam porosity of 5 micron and 1 micron, and of extruded activated carbon
To replace the filter components is desirable to fly the company cartridges manufacture purification system or elements of equal size
Replacement cartridges made the simplest way - using a plastic key unscrewed the lower part of the module, which then installed a new filtering element
When replacing the cartridges can not be swapped filter elements. Everyone should be installed in the order in which the cleaning is performed
At intervals as stated by the manufacturer of the system, it is required to change the contents of the fifth filter with activated carbon
If the system has a module with a mineralizer, then change its contents do not need to, but you have to periodically wash the filler under running water
The principle of interchangeability of components
Compliance with the size of the flasks cartridges
Flasks filters coarse and fine filters
Replacement cartridges for reverse osmosis
Unwinding bulb replacement cartridge
Installation of the cartridge in a clear manner
Replacing carbon filter filling
The contents of the module with a mineralizer
Quality Score is the color of the bulb. Its surface should be white or opaque and without stains impurities. In a completely transparent bulb wall is very thin, and under the influence of high pressure they can easily break.
Often, unscrupulous manufacturers are using this trick, as the increase in the weight of the flask, this masking material flaws. It gives such products an unpleasant smell. A good bulb should be neither very heavy, nor too light.
The filter operates on the principle of reverse osmosis, is a great option, but there are nuances that need to know when choosing a model
Housings made of high quality raw materials are well withstand high pressures. They have smooth inner walls without the slightest hint of the pores. In such a surface can not penetrate the bacteria and debris. When the secondary materials are used, then the body surface microcracks are observed, sometimes leading to splits.
For manufacturing tank manufacturers use plastic or metal. Last characterized by a long service life, and the first does not rust.
When choosing must proceed from the conditions of operation of the cleaning system. For an apartment or house, inhabited continuously fit the model of the plastic, and to give the best to choose the tank metal. Volume pots of different models ranges from 4-12 liters.
Membranes for reverse osmosis filters produced by many manufacturers. The cheapest products are produced in China. They are characterized by scarce resources and the quality is below average.
The most popular include membrane «Filmtec», «Osmonics», «Pentair», made in the USA license and «TFC» from the manufacturer from South Korea. At normal pressure in the system they are 2.5-5 years.
System performance depends not only on the quality of the membrane, but also on which fittings have been used in the assembly
So very important when choosing are the following basic characteristics: the number of steps, the presence of additional cartridges and their service life, the presence of the pump, the design dimensions, performance.
Ranking of the best systems for water purification
The range of reverse osmosis household filters represented a huge number of offers from different brands. It is worthy of attention, not all of them. Choosing a filter under the sink, you should pay attention to the manufacturer, user reviews, the duration of his stay in the domestic market.
In order not to doubt the quality of the acquired system, you can verify your choice in the popularity rating of the filters professionals involved in the installation and maintenance of systems for water with reverse osmosis for a long period. The most popular brands include: Atoll, Leader Standart, «Aquaphor", "New Water", "barrier", "Geyser".
Location # 1. Water filter from Atoll
This compact design, having a 5-step purification system. It is possible to install the tank in a separate cabinet with a lack of free volume under the sink.
When replacing the ink cartridge does not need to turn off the faucet, the tank and the very system of sewerage. Performance membrane household model is sufficient for the needs of the family consisting of 3-4 people.
The water after passing through the membrane enters the storage tank, where it accumulates until the supply to the consumer. Thus, work aimed at the filter preform "future use" water
The membrane of a polymeric material of high quality is produced in the United States. The system design is simple and affordable maintenance costs.
Filter insured against leakage excellent build quality and the fact that it employs fittings John Guest, the reliability of which has long been recognized in the world. Each model design maker mans cock.
Membrane comprising multiple layers, do not miss the smallest pollution. Only water molecules to pass through it can
For efficient operation of the reverse osmosis system Atoll pressure in the water should be maintained at a level of from 3 to 8 atm. When exceeding the upper limit, may be followed by failure to prevent such cases requires a pressure reducing valve. Pressure below 3 bar also leads to failures, if installed without pump design.
Location # 2. Filters labeled Leader Standart
Leader Standart drinking systems are of high quality. Produce them in Poland and Korea.
Some models include filters bioceramic cartridge, inside which there are sealingly packed beads with the addition of clay mineral tourmaline. their value is that they are long infrared waves, changing the structure of water and giving it healing properties.
Operate all systems Leader Standart silent, easy to maintain. Sealed connecting elements provide John Guest
Water flowing through the reverse osmosis filters are cleaned at 97-99%. The manufacturer gives guarantee on the excellent job for 36 months.
Location # 3. Compact filter Aquaphor Morion
Relatively inexpensive and ergonomic filter operates on the principle of reverse osmosis, created the company Aquaphor.
The device is completed storage tank 5 liter built into the housing, interchangeable modules in an amount of 3 pcs., Module with a membrane, a set of tubes for connection, cranes - inlet for purified water, the clutch for connecting the system to drain.
Aquaphor MORION - filter with natural minerals having increased filtration rate. It not only cleans, but also softens the water and protects it from bacteria
Origin of the modules with a polypropylene filter performs mechanical pretreatment. It needs to be replaced at intervals of 3 months. Deep purification of the second module executes containing sorbents in the form of fibers and granules. With the help of the water removed heavy metals, organics, active chlorine. replacement interval - every six months.
The module with a membrane designed for ultra-deep clean. Passing therethrough, the water freed from bacteria, viruses, harmful impurities, nitrites, nitrates, salts, giving it rigidity.
Change the module every year or two. Final cleaning and water salinity occurs in the fourth module, which is subject to annual change.
Place # 4. Installing the "New Water"
In addition to obratnoosmaticheskomu filter system equipped with mineralizer and bioceramic activator. New versions of the filters from the company "New Water" called smart systems. They are characterized by high performance, an unusual tap design that has LED lights, which responds to swipe his hand to the body.
One of the new developments of the company - fully automatic, high-tech 6-speed system. It works on the electronic control, equipped with a display, an electric pump, electronic pressure sensors and valves. In case of contamination of the membrane, the electronic controller sets the special mode is carried out and its washing.
In the photo cartridges for reverse osmosis system "new water". The model comes in two product lines: Expert and Praktic. They are ergonomic and have a beautiful design
In the filter design is included postfilter-mineralizer to silica-shungitnym filler, enriching water with potassium ions, calcium, magnesium, sodium, what increases its bioavailability. Accumulation puts metal tank 12 liters of water. Performance of the membrane - 185 liters per 24 hours.
Location # 5. Reverse osmosis system "Barrier Osmo 100"
The performance of this system of 228 liters per day. At an operating pressure of from 3 to 7 atm, and the water passes five purification steps:
- "BARRIER PROS Mechanics 5 microns" retains solid particles larger than 5 microns. Inside filter food sprayed polypropylene.
- "BARRIER PROS sorption" clears organics, chlorine, organochlorines. Filler - activated coconut charcoal in the granules.
- "BARRIER PROS Mechanics 1 micron" - last preliminary purification step prior to membrane when sifted fine slurry.
- "BARRIER PROS Osmo" - the main stage of the process. The membrane is made of ultra-thin composite polyamide.
- "BARRIER PROS post filter", which placed coal enriched with silver. Additionally purify and enrich the water after the storage tank.
Membrane replacement is performed once every 1.5 years, and the mechanical cleaning modules - once a year. Capacity plastic filter tank barrier Osmo 100 - 8 l.
"Barrier Pro Standard" will operate even at a system pressure of 1.2 atm. Therefore, it is so popular among consumers
Filter produces a Russian company, so its value is lower than their foreign counterparts. The quality of the consumers do not complain. The body portion of the filter of "Barrier" very strong. All filter elements differ in decent quality.
Place # 6. Filter under the sink "Geyser Prestige"
Three allow purification stage delay heavy metal chloride salts, bacteria and viruses. Performance Cartridge - 0.13 liters per minute. A feature of the development company "geyser" is the sorption device, which can be purchased only directly from the manufacturer.
Throughput of the membrane - 0.0001 microns, allows clean water to the ionic level. Change it 1 time in 1.5 years. The required pressure for operation of the system - not lower than 3 atm. Called "Geyser Prestige" hiding how models are distinguished by their extra characters.
The letter M in the title indicates that in the base there is supplied a mineralizer, P indicates a pump PM - complete there pump and mineralizer.
The company "geyser" model "Geyser Prestige 2" is replaced by a system of 3-stage cleaning special pre-filtration unit. The filter is equipped with a high-quality and productive membrane Wontron. Now, the storage tank can not be used
Figure 2 is present in the designation compact systems with reverse osmosis. When the marking has the number 3, the system has an increased capacity.
Recommended use filters
The life, besides the quality of the system itself, is influenced by the conditions of its operation, the timely replacement of individual elements. The main condition for a long and trouble-free operation of the system - the optimal pressure. If it is in the range of 4-6 atm, the membrane works well, and the ratio between the clean and dirty water is 1: 2 or 1: 3.
By lowering the pressure force for forcing water through a membrane is not enough and goes down the drain more water, and the resource of the membrane decreases.
Reverse osmosis system - the best option to solve the problem is really getting clean water, but when properly installed and the timely replacement of main elements
There are other side effects: pre-treatment cartridges quickly become contaminated, storage the tank is filled not completely irrational increases water flow filter housing intensively silting.
Recognize failures in the reverse osmosis system can be on such grounds:
- Constant sound of water indicating that the water is discharged to drain continuously.
- Increasing the readings on the counter for 2-3 cubic meters per month of the ordinary.
- Pollution cartridges primary treatment for 2-3 months.
- One-time sink to storage tank in a volume of less than 7 liters or absence of water therein.
- The absence of water flow through the open valve when full tank.
- The emergence of scale in the kettle and the water is salty in taste.
- Extraneous sounds in a clatter of the pump, indicating the frequent switching on and off of the pump.
- Do not turn on the pump.
- When the tub is completely filled, the pump off and is very hot.
- Hot power supply though the pump is not activated.
- Water supply is turned off, and the pump is running.
Malfunctioning filters form a negative opinion of consumers in respect of certain good filtering systems. A position fix can sometimes simply setting the step-up pump, if the pressure is lower than 3 atm.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
To fully understand the specifics of the reverse osmosis filter and explore top producers of water treatment devices, we offer a selection of movies.
Video # 1. Relationship with the principle of double action filter osmosis:
Video # 2. Recommendations for choosing a filter for drinking water:
Video # 3. Instruction for those wishing to establish their own reverse osmosis filters:
You can not all of the reverse osmosis systems uniquely identify one and say that she is the best. The parameters are determined by their bandwidth membrane tank volume. It is believed that for good quality water is enough 3 purification steps. And the choice depends on the individual needs of everyone.
Want to share only you know the intricacies of the filter selection for installation in the reverse osmosis system? There are recommendations on the use of drinking water treatment system or have any questions? Please write comments.