The very first paragraph autonomous sewer at the site is very often a cesspool without a bottom. Make it is not difficult. Since the construction of the sewer construction is very simple, it does not require special building skills and are not commercially available materials.
Yet negligence in the construction of such a useful object can turn into big trouble. In the present article we detail the rules of the cleaning device item independent sewer system. Given the nuances of its operation and maintenance.
The content of the article:
- The principle of operation of the pit bottomless
- Calculations and technical standards
- From what we can cesspool?
- Installation of facilities of concrete rings
- The construction of the sump overflow
- Biologicals for cesspools
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The principle of operation of the pit bottomless
Cesspool represents gray waste storage of human activities, i.e., waste generated in the performance of everyday activities, cooking and eating hygienic procedures.
Her suit at a (certain sanitary standards) away from home. For a device of such a sewage pit to dig, to strengthen and protect it from moisture wall, set top joists, and bring to a sewer tank.
The cesspools bottomless bottom part is not sealed. Here you can set a filter of sand and gravel, through which the liquid drains slowly seep into the ground, where they made final cleaning
Waste water flows into the container, and protects the floor from the surrounding odors. Settled sewage liquid component masses seeps into the underlying ground layers, and solid impurities deposited on the surface of sand and gravel.
Over time the tank is filled with an insoluble solid residue, and it is necessary to remove the content. For this purpose, special assenizatorskaya machine, although a small volume and the hole may be cleaned using a conventional bucket.
Drains inside the well over time a little change in composition. In part, they are processed by micro-organisms, the solids were converted into the sediment, and the liquid portion is separated. In order to reduce the amount of waste in order to use the services of sanitary workers as little as possible, make a hole "with no bottom."
The walls of tanks for gray wastewater carefully sealed, and at the bottom left with the ground clearance. On top of the soil make the filter of natural materials: sand, crushed stone and gravel. The liquid portion of waste water slowly percolates into the soil, and solid fractions remain inside the sewage tank.
Cesspool permeable bottom, folded dirt filter is designed for disposal into the soil liquid component sinks
The cesspools only gray wastewater can be discharged directly emanating from the kitchens, baths and showers, in other cases they are used as soil aftertreatment system
The multi septic tanks of concrete rings or monolithic structures with a filter bottom hole used for the final effluent treatment
If cesspools to groundwater aftertreatment arrange in sandy loam soils, walls and permeabilized to increase the rate of recycling of waste water into the soil
Cesspool as a second camera
Absorbing well for gray wastewater
Homemade with septic cesspool
Cesspool in sandy loam soil
Waste water passing through the filter, additional purification is obtained. Finally, the liquid waste is treated in the soil column by microorganisms that live there.
In order to speed up and strengthen the process of refining in the pit added biological agentsIn which basis the action of natural bacteria. Such preparations are used, and sealed inside accumulative cesspools, for performing the biological wastewater treatment and sludge volume reduction.
"Bottomless" drainage design is very convenient. It allows you to remove the liquid portion of the effluent natural and safe way. As a result, the capacity is filled slowly, and pay scavengers services account for less frequently.
An interesting variation of the hole without a bottom is in the form of after-treatment system of the filter well. It is set after the septic tank, sump, which made primary processing of waste.
Cesspool without bottom may play the role of the design, which consists of two chambers: the hermetic and permeable
Both sections are connected by an overflow pipe. First runoff ends up in a sealed sewage department.
Here the waste settles, solid fractions settle on the bottom, light engineering pollution accumulate at the top, and called "gray water", ie Purified water from these pollutants reach the overflow level and moved into the container without a bottom. Wastewater is filtered and disposed of in the ground, as described previously.
Using special design of microorganisms converts almost full septic tank which operates under similar principles.
Such a two- or even three-chamber construction makes sense to do only at home, which is home to a significant number of people in connection with what is planned to receive a large amount of wastewater. And for the summer garden can be arranged relatively small cesspool.
Calculations and technical standards
that cesspool to function properly, you need to correctly pick the place and calculate the volume of the container. To begin, it should be remembered that according to sanitary norms such a structure can not be used areas where groundwater lie high. The bottom of the container should be above this level for at least 1 m.
Approximate calculation of the volumes of the pit can be performed based on the averaged standard: 0.5 cc. m for each person who lives in the house constantly. depth raking typically varies within two to three meters. This is dictated by the peculiarities of the cesspool emptier, which do not serve the construction of three meters deep.
The distance at which the cesspool must be without a bottom on different objects at the site, dictated by considerations of safety in case the sewage fall to the ground
A further necessary to consider the following point: the cleaning wells produced when filling the container into two thirds of the total volume, rather than to the top. Dimensions of these two thirds of it is best to make multiple sizes cesspool emptier tank.
This is advantageous because the scavengers take payment not for the amount of waste water pumped out, and for any given visit, ie will have to pay even a small amount of waste removal at full cost.
On different grounds, there are different standards for placement cesspool. It is generally recommended to place this structure at a distance of at least five meters from the apartment building and not less than 25-50 meters away from the source of drinking water.
Standards dictated by soil contamination hazard or a source of sewage. This can occur during the spring flood, improper installation of sewage can also cause similar troubles.
The high filtration properties primer has, the faster the waste water to penetrate inside, and even more strict standards to be followed in the design of the sump.
Cesspools with absorbing the waste water down acceptable to arrange in soils with good filtration properties. Enclosing primers should freely pass the purified waste water into the underlying layers
In clay soils of the pit building is impossible without a bottom, because rock will not let the water in its thickness and the environment. In such cases mounted drives or discharged to waste water other objects discharge type gutters
The construction of the sump of the absorption-type is allowed at a distance of not less than 5 m from the house to the soil under the foundation can not be washed out gradually
The area around the sump must be sealed at least by the rammer. Ideally it recommended to arrange w / w plate, solid wood flooring or cushion of crushed clay to prevent overflow capacity in the flood period
Apparatus pits in sandy soil
system construction in clay soils
The distance from the foundation of the house
Arrangement neck sump
The best option - installation of construction with a deep bottom of the conditional in the sandy soil. Filtering waste in clay soils is not possible, so in areas with sandy loam or loamy ground of the pit is not set without a bottom.
When installing the structures on or silty clayey sand, on properties close to sandy loam, effluents penetration speed in the ground is increased by the use of rings with perforations. The result is a variation raking without a bottom with permeable walls.
And one moment. If you are using a special technique, it is necessary to provide convenient access to the sump cleaning. The maximum allowable distance between the object and cesspool emptier - no more than four meters, but the distance is less, the it is more convenient to operate vacuum trucks.
From what we can cesspool?
As a material for the walls of a sewer use a variety of materials:
- in-situ concrete;
- finished concrete slabs;
- Concrete ring;
- silicate blocks;
- plastic, etc.
Brickwork for raking quite fit, but it will take away a lot of installation time. On expenses will not come cheap, but it makes sense to consider this option if available to the site owner has enough unclaimed for other needs of bricks.
Of course, the special beauty here is not necessary, but also very very poor quality brick is not worth taking, yet constant exposure wastewater has serious damaging effects on the pit wall.
Some novice masons prefer to fill his hand on such an object because all the flaws will still be hidden under a layer of waterproofing and top canopy. But excessive carelessness can play with an inexperienced master a cruel joke: rough brick wall in fact is often very fragile.
Construction of cesspit of brick will require time and effort, but it's a good way to hone your skills for the novice master mason
Silicate block size is much larger brick. With this work will go faster material. Wood - not the best choice because of the damaging effects of effluent.
Pit, trimmed boards, will have to repair almost every year. Pouring concrete monolithic perform traditional way: using formwork. At the bottom left clearance for sand and gravel. Structure compulsory reinforced.
Concrete rings - the most popular and convenient choice for Structures cesspool. But we should remember that substandard construction unacceptable. Of course, it scooped - it is not well, however, and need to build correctly. Chips, cracks and similar damage should not be on the design.
If the planned installation sump without a bottom with permeable walls, concrete rings can be used on which already executed perforation
The downside of concrete buildings is an impressive weight of the structure, which complicates the installation and makes it difficult to repair. What should you do if sunk concrete rings sewer point, described here.
Plastic containers are widely used to create a sealed cesspools, but if you make a hole for the filter, it is possible to use the container for drainage without a bottom. Plastic - lightweight material.
In any case, you can fix to weight or plastic container. Especially if in winter it stays empty to the design was not supplanted the frozen ground or floated during the flood.
We should also mention another option - a cesspool of waste tires. Build it simple: dig a round hole, a suitable size and placed inside the tire, one to another.
Tires protect the pit walls from collapsing and prevent the penetration of waste water into the soil. Tires should be connected to each other, and the joints be sealed. At the bottom of the facilities put traditional sand-gravel filter.
Build a cesspool without a bottom of old tires is easy, but be aware of the high permeability of the structure and its small term of operation
Put a hole in the tire made in sandy soils in areas with a low occurrence of groundwater where there is no threat of abundant spring flood. Otherwise, in the flood period possible contamination of the environment by untreated sewage masses at depressurization joints.
The advantages of this construction consists in the low cost of time and using inexpensive materials. But it is necessary to understand that the life of such constructions is small - only a few years.
Installation of facilities of concrete rings
Since the concrete ring is the most common one for raking structures, it makes sense to consider in detail.
Here is the general scheme of the installation work:
- Run markup.
- Dig a pit.
- Set the ring.
- Bring to the object sewer pipe.
- Make a hole for the pipe and introduce it into the container.
- Perform sealing of all connections.
- Apply a layer of waterproofing material.
- Put on the bottom of the filter structures of sand and gravel.
- Run backfill excavation.
- Set the upper floor with a lid.
- Cover overlapping primer or decorate it.
Under a small pit pit can be dug by hand. You need a bayonet spade to dig a bucket on a rope to remove dirt, a shovel to pour it in a bucket, and the partner on top of it to pull the bucket. Concrete ring put on the ground and digging inside.
If a cesspool without a bottom requires a large pit, it makes sense to hire a backhoe to work went faster
As a result, the ring is gradually lowered, preventing the collapse of the walls of the pit. For a large raking better yet spend money on rent excavator. Speed of work will increase significantly. It is also possible to first put a ring on the ground, and then start working. You need a backhoe bucket with an appropriate size and an experienced operator.
The trench for sewer pipes should have small slope2 - 3 cm per meter. If the soil freezing in the winter is typical for this area, the pipe above this mark should always be warm.
Hole punch tube in a suitable position after it is laid. If you make a hole in advance, you can guess the height of banal occurrence of the pipe.
Concrete ring to the bottom of the sump pit to be set very carefully using a crane, so they will not injure
The joints of concrete rings and pipes treated with the entrance place. This is followed by a coat of waterproof material. Suitable inexpensive Obmazochnaya insulation.
This step is not essential, if all the joints are securely sealed. However waterproofing layer to protect the structure from damage, and this significantly increases its service life.
The joints between the concrete rings bonded sump solution, then all joints carefully covered with a layer of waterproofing material
Bottom filter formed of river sand and gravel. You can also use suitable gravel fractions. First poured sand layer about 30 - 35 cm, then - two layers of gravel or crushed rock about the same thickness.
The fine particles should be at the bottom, and large - on top. Now you need to set the upper ceiling. This usually takes the finished concrete slabs of suitable size and configuration.
The overlap should be spacious enough hole, so you can not only lower the hose cesspool emptier, but also to send a person to inspect the state of the container after cleaning. This hole is covered with a lid, so odors do not bother others.
Concrete slab with a hole for the cover - the best option for mounting the sump of concrete rings. Such designs are used in the construction of sewage and other materials
Some owners prefer to make a double cover. It reliably protects against odors and runoff from freezing in the winter. On top of the overlap is usually applied a layer of soil, so as not to spoil the landscape.
Cover, of course, must be left free, it must be above ground level to 20 - 30 cm. Now we need only to monitor the level of sewage in the tank and promptly remove them.
Dual cover over a container without a bottom sump has higher insulating properties and reliably shuts off unpleasant smells
If everything is designed correctly, the treatment need only a couple of times a year. After raked cleaned, do not put pull down a man in overalls. Its mission - to explore the construction of the wall, check their integrity.
Periodically perform the washing of the bottom of the filter or a complete replacement. All operations inside the sump need only be carried out in the presence of a partner, who is at the top for insurance.
The construction of the sump overflow
Pit overflow - more sophisticated technical and constructive sense sewer object. Its structure will require more effort and investment, but refer to the scavengers will be ultimately much less.
The overflow sewage treatment paragraphs arrange two or three chambers, the first of which is fitted with a sealed bottom. Finish camera is always constructed by type filter wells.
On the main stages of the construction of the cleaning item introduces the following selection of photos:
According to the pre-designed project dig the pit. Its depth should be taken into account otspypku sand layer, the width should provide ease of operation
The bottom of the pit filled with sand and ramming it until then, until the surface of the sand is no longer imprinted trail shoe
In the pit are building formwork required for pouring monolithic reinforced concrete walls. Inside formwork set reinforcement cage
The formwork constructed fill concrete mortar. We try to fill in all at once, without interruption. The cells of the spacer hole set the board to concrete curing at not deformed
After at least 28 days, dismantle the formwork. On the first day after entering the sewer pipe chambers arrange monolithic bottom: polyethylene plank, laid reinforcing mesh and fill solution
Three-chamber pit with overflow closing of the formwork board. Above each of the cameras set hatch are building boards perimeter formwork
Formwork close polyethylene, put a mesh and fill the space of cement-sand mortar
Waiting for curing solution, which should last at least 14 days, go to sleep w / w ground floor. It is desirable to build a fence around to avoid accidents
Step 1: Development of the pit under the cesspool
Step 2: Stacking and seal the bottom of the pit
Step 3: The construction shuttering for pouring walls
Step 4: Die wall with overflow sump
Step 5: Removing the shuttering after hardening of
Step 6: Building slab formwork
Step 7: The product reinforced concrete slab
Step 8: Construction of a site cesspool
Biologicals for cesspools
The presence of special bacteria in the tank can significantly improve the efficiency of sewage, as well as reducing the speed of its completion. Usually it is specially selected anaerobic complexes (i.e., can exist without oxygen) microorganisms. These bacteria are capable of handling waste water, decomposing them into more or less pure water and neutral yl.
Such biological wastewater treatment significantly reduces the risk of soil contamination. If the degree of purification is high enough, even water can be used for irrigation, and the resulting yl - as fertilizer.
In practice, after the biological treatment liquid in the effluent increases, it will be disposed in the ground, and accumulates yl slower than when using a bacteria-free sump.
Sale of such products in the form of concentrated liquids, granules, powders, tablets, etc. On the package contains detailed instructions, which both need to follow. Powdered and granular formulations typically must first be diluted in a small amount of water, and concentrates immediately sent to the sewer.
To stimulate and accelerate the processing of domestic waste in cesspools and septic tanks produce a wide range of products of biological and chemical origin
Means of biological origin are stabilized colonies of anaerobic bacteria that renew the vitality, if introduced into the cesspool
Dilution before making raked require powdered drugs, but among the funds, there are fully trained to use the options that you just need to fill in the required amount
The use of drugs for cesspools significantly less likely to cause vacuum trucks, as because of downstream processing of sludge produced much less
Means for treatment of municipal wastewater
The preparation of biological origin
Breeding means for cesspools
Call scavengers for extracting sludge
Thus it is necessary to pay attention to the list of chemicals that are detrimental impact on these organisms. Such substances, such as chlorine, contained in various household products. Particular attention to what enters the sewers, should be the owners of automatic washing machines.
If all instructions followed exactly, to replenish the colony of bacteria in the sump is not necessary. They reproduce and maintain the necessary strength. If the unpleasant smell from raking become stronger or changed for the worse, it may indicate that a significant proportion of microorganisms killed, you need to restore the colony.
Detail methods of cleaning cesspools dismantled the following articleWith which we recommend reviewing.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Clearly the process of creating a cesspool presented in this video:
There is a procedure for filling the walls of the sump-situ concrete:
To learn how to self-clean the sump with pump, narrates this video:
Cesspool of this type - a convenient and useful structure. You can use it to dispose of waste safely and efficiently. It is important to strictly observe the technology and adhere to the established sanitary norms.
Please write comments in the box located below. Tell us about how you were building a cesspool with filter bottom at his dacha, or country site. Ask questions, share opinions and useful information, post pictures of the article.