- №1.Features of gas heating of a country house
- №2.Heating main and bottled gas
- № 3.Gas boiler for cottages and country houses
- №4.What boiler power is needed?
- №5.Schemes of gas heating country house
- # 7 pipe layout. Heating with a gas convector
. Severe domestic winters make it necessary to think over the country house heating system to the smallest detail. It would seem that there are a lot of possible options. Electric heating wins in ease of installation and operation, only with constant use it can ruin, diesel fuel also increased in price, the pillet boiler is a very expensive pleasure, and the classic stove is considered more like a decor today, since it cannot be an independent source of heat. After analyzing all the costs and payback period, many people choose gas heating for a country house, and you can even organize it without a main gas pipeline. We understand the possible schemes, options and types of boilers.
№1.Features of gas heating of a country house
The principle of gas heating is simple: gas burns and heats water( coolant), which circulates through a closed pipeline and radiators, heating them and giving heat to the room.
Advantages of using gas as a fuel:
- relatively low cost;
- autonomy and the ability to turn the heating system on and off at any time, to regulate the temperature at will;
- water is an excellent coolant, and since the circulation system its closed volume in the system does not change;
- the ability to heat water for the hot water system( subject to the use of a double-circuit boiler);
- easy temperature control.
- hot-water heating systems do not heat the air as quickly as they are turned on, such as electric convectors or fan heaters;
- gas heating is not suitable for villas and country houses, which are visited in the winter from time to time. If the room temperature drops to negative values, the water in the system may freeze, causing the pipes to burst. There is an exit either to use electric heating or gas convectors;
- water must contain a minimum of salts;
- for the entire gas water heating system needs care. It is necessary to control not only the operation of the boiler, but also the condition of pipes and radiators.
№2.Heating with main and bottled gas
Gas heating can be implemented through:
- gas pipeline;
- liquefied bottled gas and gas holders.
If the cottage or country house is not far from the gas pipeline, then it’s not long to think about how to organize the heating - the choice is obvious. The trunk gas pipeline makes it possible to talk about complete autonomy in providing heat, makes it possible to equip a system of warm floors, but it may take a long time to coordinate all the necessary documentation.
Even if there is no gas pipeline in the area, it is possible to organize an in-use gas-fired heating system, and for this purpose, liquefied gas cylinders are used for this. The cost of arranging such a system pays off within a few years. Balloon gas is not able to provide a fully autonomous heating system, but the problem is solved by connecting several cylinders. It will be necessary to check the security of the existing system once in a week or two.
The gas tanks — large-capacity tanks located underground close to home — proved to be excellent. Periodically, gas reserves in them are replenished with special gas carriers. Despite the fact that the use of liquefied gas is not as convenient as the main one, for areas located far from gas pipelines, this is a real salvation. The heating system works the same way as from the main, as from liquefied gas. Gas tanks are installed on a concrete cushion; if necessary, two tanks can be connected into one system if the gas demand increases later. Gas tanks are made of steel, and when choosing pay attention to the wall thickness( the more the better) and the volume( depending on the needs).
№3.Gas boiler for cottages and country houses
Most gas boilers are universal and can be used with any source of gas. The thing is that even those devices that were originally designed to work with the gas pipeline can be adapted for the use of liquefied gas. As a rule, you only need to change the burner or buy a new one, if the kit was not suitable. The remaining "modifications" will be minimal. Such universality of gas boilers is especially convenient when the area where the country house is located is only developing: cylinders can be used for the first time, and then the system can be connected to the gas pipeline - the investment will be minimal.
If you plan to use only gas cylinders in a country house heating system, when choosing a boiler, pay attention to those models in which the lower threshold of gas operating pressure is minimal - this will save in the process of operation. In addition, the boiler must be chosen with a high level of efficiency, certainly not lower than 90%.
The choice of gas boilers is huge, and it all depends on the requirements. According to their functionality( number of circuits), boilers are divided into:
- single-circuit .Apply only to the organization of heating;
- dual-circuit .Equipped with an independent circuit of hot water, so they solve another problem - the warm water in the faucet. Such boilers can be of a flow type, if the required amount of warm water is insignificant, or they can be equipped with a built-in boiler, which ensures full heating and hot water supply.
Depending on the type of draft, boilers are :
- with a natural draft .Best suited when the house already has a chimney. Such a boiler will be cheaper, although its installation will be somewhat more difficult, and during operation it will sometimes be necessary to clean the chimney;
- with forced , or turbinated. The combustion products in this case are discharged through a small pipe equipped with a fan. The pipe can be installed even in the wall, just place it better away from windows and ventilation systems. Forced draft allows combustion products to leave the boiler faster, does not require the construction of a chimney, but during operation it constantly uses electricity.
The type of ignition may also differ:
- manual , i.e.with the help of a match, is the most ancient method, often unsafe. Today, such boilers almost do not produce;
- piezo igniter .Here, instead of a match, a spark is used, resulting from pressing a special button. This is a more perfect way and, according to many experts, is best suited for the conditions of a country house, because electricity, which may be a problem, is not used for ignition;
- Electrical firing is convenient, economical, safe, but for areas where power supply interruptions occur, it is not an option.
According to the method of installation of boilers are divided into:
The question here is not only in personal preferences, but rather in the required power. floor standing boilers are more powerful, productive and durable devices, but they are also somewhat more expensive than wall mounted ones. Wall-mounted boilers have less power( maximum, provide heating for a house of 300 m2), occupy a minimum of space.
To the room where the boiler will be installed, some safety requirements are put forward. The room should be at least 7.5 m2, with a ceiling height of at least 2.5 m. If the house is wooden, it is better to insulate the room with the boiler with roofing steel, in extreme cases - asbestos sheets 3 mm thick.
№4.What boiler power is needed?
One of the main characteristics of the boiler - its power. According to this parameter, boilers are divided into devices of small ( up to 65 kW), of average ( up to 1700 kW) and of high power ( up to 15000 kW).For country houses and country houses, boilers of low power are usually used, the rest have found application in industry.
The choice of boiler power depends on the mass of parameters:
- room size;
- climatic conditions;
- quality home insulation;
- need to heat water for hot water.
According to , the simplest calculation of requires 1 kW of boiler power for every 10 m2 of heated space. This formula gives a general idea of the requirements for heating equipment, but other parameters should be taken into account in order to obtain more accurate data. For houses built according to a standard design with a ceiling height of not more than 3 m, the calculation is carried out easily. For every 10 m2 of space you will need the following boiler power:
- 0.7-0.9 kW for houses in the southern regions;
- 1-1,2 kW for the middle band;
- 1.2-1.5 kW for Moscow and Moscow region;
- 1.5-2 kW for the northern regions.
The results of these calculations are valid if the boiler is used only for heating. In the case of with double-circuit boilers , which also work for hot water supply, it is worth adding another 25% of power to the result. If the house uses a forced ventilation system, to the value obtained, it is better to throw 5% more power.
If the house is built on an individual project, the calculation is somewhat more complicated. For this purpose, special calculators are used, but approximately the required power can be calculated according to the following scheme:
- consider building heat loss using the formula V * Pt * k / 860, where V is the volume of the room, Pt is the maximum difference between the external and internal temperature, and k is the dissipation factordepending on thermal insulation;
- for well-insulated houses with reliable double-glazed windows k = 0.6-0.9, for buildings with an average level of thermal insulation - 1-1.9, with a low level - 2-2.9, without thermal insulation - 3-4;
- for example, there is a house with an area of 120 m2 and a ceiling height of 3.5 m, it is well insulated, but not enough( k = 1), the temperature in the house should be maintained at 210C, and outside it can go down to -200C.Heat losses will be( 120 * 3,5) * 41 * 1 = 17.22 kW;
- power reserve takes 15-20%, so for our house you will need a boiler with a capacity of about 22 kW.
Of course, you can not bother with calculations and take the boiler with a capacity that is several times higher than what is required, because automatic systems know how to regulate gas consumption. But not everything is as simple as it may seem. Firstly, a much more powerful boiler than needed will cost more, its efficiency will decrease, equipment malfunctions can occur, components will quickly wear out, therefore it is better to take the boiler at least approximately meeting the requirements of a particular country house or cottage.
If the gas source is a gas cylinder, then it is a special responsibility to calculate and set up the system. Practice suggests that heating and hot water to an insulated house with an area of about 130 m2 will require 3-4 bottles per week, provided that the temperature outside is lowered to -230С, and the house is maintained at + 230С.
condensation boilers help us to save and increase productivity, which, in addition to the heat of combustion, also uses the heat of combustion products and water vapor. In conventional boilers, this heat is thrown into the street. The efficiency of such boilers often exceeds 100%.If the performance of one boiler is not enough, then you can connect several boilers "in cascade".
In order to save gas, it is also necessary to warm the room, equip the heating system with automatic devices and gas leakage sensors.
№5.Schemes of gas heating country house
The gas heating system with the boiler works quite simply: the coolant heats up, receiving heat from the combustion of gas, circulates through pipes and radiators, and returns to the boiler already cooled. The circulating coolant through the system can be:
The natural circulation of the is due to the use of an expansion tank, which is fixed at the highest point of the house, and is ensured by the difference in density between hot and cold water: heated water with lower density is displaced up with cooler water. Having risen to the top of the heating system, the heated water flows by gravity to all radiators and heating pipes, and when it returns to the boiler, it already has a lower density. The cycle repeats. For the implementation of natural circulation, it is important that the boiler is lower than the radiators, and the greater the difference in level, the better. Horizontal sections of pipes are carried out at an angle to provide a higher rate of flow of hot water to the radiator, and cold - to the boiler. In addition, it is better to take polypropylene pipes with a deliberately inflated diameter, and the fewer twists and turns, the better.
The forced circulation of the is carried out using a pump, and in some modern boilers it is already integrated. Installing the pump will solve a lot of problems and put the boiler in any convenient place, neglect the inclination of the pipes, but will result in higher electricity bills. Nothing prevents you from taking advantage of both systems: you can use a pump when there is electricity, but when there are interruptions with it, you can rely on natural circulation.
pipe wiring diagram. The heating system can be implemented by one of the following options:
- single pipe scheme .It requires a minimum amount of materials, is relatively easy to install, therefore it is often used for arranging heating of a country house, and can even organize independently. The minus of is that the different rooms are heated unevenly, so a single-pipe scheme is suitable only for not very large country houses. The coolant from the boiler enters the first radiator, then flows into the second, third, etc., gradually cooling and returning back to the boiler;
- The two-pipe scheme is more perfect and provides for the supply of warm water to the radiator through one pipe and its drainage through the other pipe from each battery separately. This layout allows all radiators to heat up evenly, and the temperature of each one can be controlled separately using special shut-off valves. disadvantages of include more complex installation and higher costs.
№7.Heating with gas convector
In some cases it makes sense to heat the cottage with a gas convector. The gas source may be the main pipeline, but it is most often used cylinders. Gas convector is ideal for those country houses, where in the cold season the owners appear infrequently.
- easy installation;
- does not use water in the system, therefore there is nothing to freeze;
- rapid heating of the room from the moment of inclusion;
- high efficiency;
- ease of temperature control, and in different rooms without any problems you can set different temperature conditions.
The principle of operation of the gas convector is based on a recuperative heat exchanger. The gas burns, heating the ceilings of air that enter the room, and the products of combustion are removed to the outside. Convection of warm air can be natural or forced( a fan is used).Install the convector stationary on the wall. If a cylinder is used as a gas source, then it is better to build a metal box on the terrace or at the outer wall of the house.
When choosing a gas convector, you need to understand that it can be used to heat only the room in which it is installed. They can not heat water, and the power rarely exceeds 7 kW( usually 2-5 kW).As for power, the choice is based on the ratio of 1 kW of power per 10 m2 of area, but it is better to take a convector with some margin.
Remember that there are alternatives to gas heating a country house. If in the country in the winter you appear infrequently, and with an overnight stay even less often, then it is better to stay on electric heating. It becomes unprofitable when the area of the house is large, and visits to it during the cold season are frequent - there is nothing better than gas heating.