- №1. Looking for a place for a barn in the country
- №2. Determine the size of the barn
- No. 3. Materials for a barn
- №4. Frame barn for summer residence
- №5. Sheds made of bricks and cellular concrete
- Brick barn
- Shed from foam blocks
- Shed from gas blocks
- Barn from arbolita
Each summer resident understands well that without a barn on the site can not do. This building can become a storage place for garden tools or firewood, a small workshop, a henhouse or a rabbit. Often, the barn becomes the first building that is built on the newly purchased land, but the hozblok can be erected during the construction of the house or after it is completed. In any case, it will be necessary to choose the material for the barn, and then the summer house is waiting for a huge range: from the usual lightweight blocks and boards to finished containers. We deal with the peculiarities of different materials, the types of foundations and the roof and determine which shed to build at the dacha.
№1. Looking for a place for a barn in the country
A place for a barn is better to choose in advance at a stage of planning of a country site. In the scheme it is necessary to designate the zones of the house, bathhouse, greenhouse, children's playground, barbecue area, garage and other buildings in order to find the best place for a barn and understand how best to arrange all the buildings relative to each other friend.
The shed usually have:
- behind the house, so that it can not be seen. Sometimes the barn is also masked with the help of vertical landscaping;
- near the housethat all the necessary tools and trifles in the household are at hand;
- on the border of the site.
Often a place that is not suitable for organizing other buildings or zones, for example shady plots, plots on the north side or with not very good soil, is often chosen for the farm block. In principle, there are no special requirements regarding the location of the barn in the country - it is important to observe onlydistance from the fence:
- if in the shed you are going to store garden tools, tools, carry out minor repairs, then the minimum distance from the fence is 1 m;
- if the shed is used for growing animals or storing organic fertilizers, the distance from it to the fence must be a minimum of 4 m;
- When using a shed for growing animals, it is important not only the distance to the fence, but also the distance to the neighboring dwelling house. It must be at least 12 m.
№2. Determine the size of the barn
Dimensions of the shed are determined by the purposes of its use. The experience of numerous summer residents allows us to talk about the minimum required parameters for different purposes of use:
- for storage of garden tools(rakes, shovels, pruners, etc.) will suit the construction of a size, *, m, it can organize a system of hooks and shelves;
- if it is supposed to store not only garden tools, but also additional materials, like paints, fertilizers and other things, it is convenient to store everything at sizes from, * 2 m;
- if it is supposed to store equipment, such as a lawnmower or a pump, it is better to expand the shed to a size of 2 * 3 m;
- when using a household block as a chicken coop or rabbit, its size depends on how many animals you plan to grow. For example, for 10-20 hens, a barn with a size of 2 * 3 m is sufficient.
Often the shed is built with a reserve, but its dimensions are rarely more than 3 * 6 m.
No. 3. Materials for a barn
Modern summer residents build sheds from anything: in the course are both completely traditional materials, and improvised. Conditionallyon the material and technology of building sheds can be divided into:
- sheds of brick and lightweight blocks.
№4. Frame barn for summer residence
Frame construction technology - one of the most popular today, it allows you to do with small investments, and to build such a shed with your own hands is easy. The technology consists in creating a strong, reliableskeleton from a wooden beam or proftruby. On top of the frame is covered with any sheet or scrap material and if necessary insulated from the inside.
According to the material used for exterior cladding sheds:
- wooden shedswith planking of edged or unedged boards (slabs) are considered to be the simplest in implementation and the cheapest constructions, however, their durability is not high. The construction begins with the erection of the foundation, then mount the support frame from the wooden beam, fasten the rafter racks for the arrangement of the roof. The resulting frame is lined with a regular board or croaker. Ideally suited for grooving material, as it avoids crevices. Some resort to installing planks with herringbone. Wooden sheds can be used for any purpose, but if wintering in animals is envisaged, then it is better to use windproof films and insulation material during the construction phase. A wooden shed is cheap, simple and environmentally friendly. The disadvantages are significant: low durability, susceptibility to putrefaction, inflammation, the appearance of insects, the need for permanent protective treatment to extend the service life;
- sheds tiled with OSB, show the best indicators for longevity, because the material practically does not rot and does not warp. The basis is a wooden frame, but when it is erected it is very important to mount the support posts so that the seam between the OSB plates is exactly on them. At the cost of a OSB plate will cost more than boards, but the hassle in terms of installation and maintenance is less. Nevertheless, it is better to cover such a shed not so much for aesthetic reasons as for providing additional protection;
- metal shed- already more reliable and durable construction. The frame is made from a profile pipe, some summer residents use old water pipes. They are concreted in the ground, bolted or welded with vertical passes and fastened to the lining, which is suitable for corrugated sheets. Metal will have to be protected from corrosion periodically, then the shed will stand for a very long time. The metal hozblok comes out cold, and if it is necessary to organize in it a workshop or a place for keeping animals, it is better to conduct internal insulation;
- polycarbonateIt is traditionally used for the erection of greenhouses, but it is used for the arrangement of sheds for closed poultry farming. If the barn is to be used as a workshop or a warehouse, transparent walls are of no use to him, but for lack of other materials and polycarbonate can fit. Fasten sheets of material can be on a wooden and metal frame, using special screws with a wide bonnet and sealing washer;
- slate, left after replacing the roof of the house, can also be used to create a barn. Flat or wavy sheets are best mounted on a wooden frame. Since the size of the sheets is large, the installation is greatly accelerated. Looks like these sheds are not very attractive, but they are the most economical;
- shed of sawdustis built on monolithic technology. You will need to create a skeleton and trim it with OSB slabs, having got the formwork. It poured a mixture of cement mortar and sawdust. As a result, you get strong walls with a good indicator of thermal insulation. In such a shed you can equip a workshop, a warehouse or a chicken coop;
- pallets, they are also pallets, you can use it as an alternative to the bar when building a shed frame. To get wooden pallets will not be difficult: if not completely free, then for a minimum fee. The pallets are exposed to the foundation, tightened together by bolts, the rafters are installed, and the finished frame is sheathed (usually OSB plates).
№5. Sheds made of bricks and cellular concrete
Of course, much more durable constructions leave the stone materials. Remember at least a fairy tale about three pigs, which clearly shows that the stone building is not afraid of anything, but it takes more time and effort to erect.
Of brick barns erected infrequently, and due to thisa number of shortcomings:
- high price;
- high labor intensity of work;
- great weight and the need to lay a powerful foundation.
Brick barn can boast of numerousadvantages:
- excellent appearance. In fact, this is almost the only option, when the barn looks perfectly acceptable and does not spoil the plot without additional cladding;
- high durability and reliability;
- fire and moisture resistance;
- resistance to rodents and mold.
Despite the high cost of building such a barn, some prefer to invest once, then not to know the problems with permanent renovations and repairs.
Shed from foam blocks
A shed of foam blocks is ideal when it is necessary to erect a durable building with a small budget. The foam blocks have large dimensions and a porous structure, due to which numerousadvantages:
- high speed of erection due to small weight and large format of blocks;
- low load on the foundation;
- excellent thermal insulation properties;
- resistance to fire and rodents;
- relatively low cost.
Ofminusessuch a solution the possibility of shrinkage and not the most attractive appearance. Shrinkage is about 2-4 mm per running meter, and the problem of appearance is solved by facing with plaster, decorative bricks or siding.
Shed from gas blocks
Gas blocks are produced using a slightly different technology, but in many respects they repeat the properties of foam blocks. They keep heat, weigh a little, are resistant to fire, are inexpensive, but are afraid of water. Water absorption can reach 35%, therefore reliable waterproofing is necessary. Not every summer resident is ready to bother with the construction of a barn, therefore, aerated concrete is not used very often, unlike foam concrete.
Barn from arbolita
Arbolitic blocks are made on the basis of concrete and wood chips. Not so long ago they began to be actively used in private low-rise construction. While sheds of arbolite erect infrequently, but this is only a matter of time, since the material has a masspluses:
- high thermal insulation qualities;
- high vapor permeability;
- large blocks and light weight allow you to build quickly and with a minimum load on the foundation;
- high strength;
- resistance to mold and rodents;
- trouble-free installation of fasteners.
Arbolit is scolded for not the most precise geometry, low frost resistance and moisture resistance, so after the erection of the shed it is better to revet it. Finishing will not only make the barn more aesthetic, but also extend its service life.
№6. Ready-made container shed
If the deadline for the construction of the household block is critically small, then it is possible to considerably simplify one's life by purchasingready shed. At the heart of such designs is a metal frame lined with metal with a layer of insulation. In the heater lay all the necessary communications. Outwardly such a barnsimilar to container, and its equipment can be very different: from a small shed-pantry, then a full-fledged household unit with a toilet and even a place for rest and a canopy for arranging the veranda. The most functional containers can be used as a small cottage, while the main one is being built.
As a rule, similar designs are brought to the site already assembled - it remains only to connect all necessary communications. These are durable structures, the arrangement of which requires a minimum of time. It will be necessary to take care only about the foundation, but a simple columnar or simple concrete slab will do. Such sheds are expensive, they do not look very attractive, but due to their durability and strength, the construction can be sold if there is no need for it.
№7. Prefabricated sheds
Prefabricated sheds should be identified in a separate group, in spite of the fact that they are actually a kind of frame. In their basis - the same technology, only the manufacturer so simplifies the task of the summer owner, which turns the construction of the barn into a kind of assembly of the designer.
Prefabricated sheds are produced on the basis of:
- sandwich panels;
- plastic panels.
Initially, a frame is created, and pre-made standard elements are attached to it. It's enough for the truck driver to follow the instructions and mount one element after another in order to get a full shed. Time costs are significantly reduced, and the need for insulation or external finishing is eliminated by the design of the panels. SIP panels consist of two layers of wood boards, between which is a layer of insulation, sandwich panels - the same, but on the sides of the heater there are metal sheets. The cost of the finished prefabricated shed is greater than that of the frame or block, but the speed of erection and mobility is higher.
Separately it is worth highlightingplastic sheds. Elements for their erection are made of composite plastic. You can not call such buildings super durable, but with the tasks of storing garden tools they cope, they look pretty, they gather quickly, the reinforced basement does not require. For the maintenance of animals such a construction is not suitable because of lack of warming.
№8. Foundation for a barn
No matter how easy the building was, the foundation for the shed is needed anyway. If you save money or succumb to laziness, and miss this important stage of building a barn in the country, then you can soon come across squat walls. Of course, a powerful labor-intensive foundation is not always necessary - everything depends on the material used in the construction.As a rule, the following types of foundation are used:
- blocky- the basis for the lightest sheds, incl. wooden. Is equipped with concrete blocks that are installed on a sand cushion along the perimeter of the future barn with a step of 1 m. Financial and labor costs are minimal;
- solid cast-in-place foundation- a universal option, which can be used even in a terrain with loose soil. The process of arrangement is simple and consists in preparing a sand cushion 15-20 cm thick and pouring cement mortar 10 cm thick, to ensure it can be further strengthened by reinforcement. A significant advantage of this solution is the lack of work on the arrangement of the floor;
- columnar foundation- a popular option for frame barns, it is cheap and simple in arrangement, but not suitable for terrain with a complex ground;
- piling foundationcan be applied on any ground, quickly arranged, but high cost, therefore, it is resorted to in the absence of alternatives;
- band foundationthe most laborious, but the construction of heavy buildings (a barn made of bricks, for example) without it is difficult to imagine. Ribbon foundation is erected on monolithic technology from concrete and in precast technology from concrete blocks. Under the shed you can use an intermittent ribbon foundation, it is laid not with a solid line.
№9. Arrangement of the roof of the shed at the cottage
The roof of the barn can be:
Other options (hipped, round, four-pitch) are very rare. The cheapest is to equipslab roofing, so this is the most common option. Its advantage lies in better natural ventilation, which is especially important if the shed is used for breeding animals. When installing a sidewalk roof, it is necessary to ensure that its inclination is not in the direction of the door, otherwise puddles will accumulate in the rain before the entrance.
Gable roofbetter only by appearance. Natural ventilation below it is worse, but there is an opportunity to equip the hayloft under the roof. In any case, it is necessary to ensure a roof slope of at least 25 degrees.
To arrange the roof of a barn, the following materials are usually used:
- Slate - the most budgetary option, and after the construction or repair of other dacha buildings it is in the majority of summer residents. The material is distinguished by its durability, good strength, weather resistance, but it requires a reliable crate and is too fragile. Its low aesthetic properties in the construction of the barn are not so important;
- metal-tile - a light inexpensive material, which also often remains after the roof of the country house or gazebo. In pluses we will refer the appearance, assortment and durability. The shed, covered with metal, can become part of the architectural ensemble of the site. Fear is worth the appearance of scratches during installation, since they trigger the corrosion process;
- profliniteon the properties resembles metal, but it costs less and looks much easier;
- ruberoid - a soft roll material, characterized by low price and easy installation. The aesthetics of such a roof are not high, besides it is better to put roofing material in several layers;
- ondulin, it is a soft slate, weighs a bit, looks good, flexible, easy to assemble, but differs flammability;
- flexible tile has excellent aesthetic and performance characteristics, but because of the high price for the roof sheds is used infrequently.
The exterior decoration of the shed can be anything - if desired, hozpostroiku can not just be organically integrated into the landscape design, but also make it a highlight.