- №1.The purpose of the drill. Difference from the puncher and the
- No. 2 screw gun. Household and professional drills
- №3.Types of drills to destination
№4.Types of drills as power №5.Power drill №6.Shaft rotation speed and its adjustment №7.Diameter of drilling №8.Type of drill chuck №9.What else to consider when choosing a drill?
- Conventional drill
- Drill hammer type
- Angular drill
To hang a picture, fix furniture, fasten a screw - all these operations are often performed within the walls of an ordinary apartment. You will not call every time a master for such trifles, therefore you need to have a drill on hand that will help to simplify small household repairs. An inexperienced craftsman, when he comes to the store, can detect such a variety of different types of drills that his head will spin. Let's try to figure out how to choose a drill for the house, and when it is better to buy a puncher or a screwdriver, and how all these, at first glance, similar tools differ in general.
№1.The purpose of the drill. Difference from the puncher and the
screwdriver. The main purpose of the drill is to drill the holes in various materials. The usual drill easily copes with metal, a tree, gypsum cardboard and other not especially dense surfaces. Percussion type drill can easily drill through concrete, stone and brick. Special-purpose devices can replace the screwdriver and construction mixer, and with special nozzles, the drill can be used to grind surfaces.
Percussion type drill can replace the rotary hammer, as it, in addition to rotation, also has impact force. That is why with its help you can easily make a hole in the concrete. On the other hand, if you are going to work mainly with concrete and other dense materials, then it is better to take a puncher - it is designed for constant loads of this kind and will last longer. The rest of the path of the punch and hammer drill diverge. The designs of these devices are fundamentally different, so the punch is under the power of many processes that require high power. It is used for shtrobleniya walls, splitting tiles, breaking off bricks. The main function of the perforator is to hammer, while for the drill this function is to drill.
The difference between an drill and an screwdriver can be easily found by a person who doesn’t understand much about repair work. If the drill drills the holes, then the screwdriver is necessary for tightening and unscrewing the screws and bolts. The rotation speed of the screwdriver cartridge is much lower, and this tool has fewer settings. There are drills with the function of screwdriver - it is a universal tool at home. If you drill and screw in screws with the same frequency, it is better to take two separate tools so that the drill does not suddenly fail.
№2.Household and professional drills
Like many other power tools, drills are divided into two basic types:
- household, for home use;
Sometimes there is another type of transition - semi-professional drills .The principle of operation of household, professional and semi-professional devices is the same - the difference is in power, weight, price, feature set and some other features.
The household drill for the vast majority of simple household repairs will be preferred. The advantages, in addition to the lower price compared to the professional tool, are:
- lightweight design, so working with the tool is easier;
- versatility. Household drills are often supplied with additional functions, such as a screwdriver and a mixer, and there are quite a few components in the case with them. Professional drills are focused on a specific task, so they are inferior in terms of universality;
- good protection and thoughtful design makes working with a household drill more convenient and safe, which is very important for an inexperienced user;
- warranty for household drills, as a rule, higher than a professional tool.
On the other hand, the household tool for more than 4 hours a day cannot be , otherwise the drill will quickly break. The optimal time for continuous work is 15-20 minutes, after which the instrument is allowed to rest and cool for about the same amount of time, then you can return to work again. The thing is that for the assembly of household models use less powerful engines and not so strong materials. This does not mean that the drill will quickly break - this means that it is designed for small or irregular loads.
If you have to regularly work with a drill for 5 or more hours a day, then it is better to take the professional tool. It is characterized by the presence of a powerful engine that easily withstands solid loads without overheating and without failing. A professional drill can work continuously for more than an hour and about 7-8 hours a day, breaks can be made small. Such a tool is more expensive than a household one, less versatile, more difficult, but better protected from dust and moisture, and a professional cannot do without it.
Semi-professional drills - a rather limited class of devices. Transition models can be represented by household drills with some properties from professional, or professional, but without any elements.
Which drill to choose depends on what kind of work and how often you are going to carry out. If you need it to hang a shelf or a picture if necessary, then you can safely dwell on the domestic version. If the repair - this is your main or additional income, then it makes sense to consider a professional drill.
№3.Types of drills by purpose
Depending on the set of functions the drill possesses, the following basic types of tools are distinguished:
- is an ordinary drill, it is sometimes called unstressed;
- impact drill;
- drill screwdriver;
- drill mixer;
- angle drill.
All these modifications are decently different from each other, including the price, so when you buy it is so important to be aware of the purpose of using the tool.
This is a drill without any frills. It does not have a blow function, so you can drill with it only wood, drywall, metal and other not very hard surfaces. This tool is suitable for minor repairs in the country, in the barn, wooden house. Conventional drills without impact function can be cordless or powered from the mains.
The hammer drill will be needed by those who are going to drill holes in concrete, brick, stone and other solid materials .Such a tool is cheaper than the simplest punch, but has some limitations. Such a drill will not sustain constant work with dense materials - it will quickly break. In addition, the frequent drilling of concrete and stone can adversely affect the accuracy of conventional drilling. If you have to regularly work with dense materials, it is better to take a punch.
The ability to punch hard materials through a special drill . During operation, not only a rotational action is transmitted to the drill, but also a shock. If the punch in the punch is achieved due to the complex electromechanical or electropneumatic unit, then in the drill a punch is achieved due to the presence of two ratchets. One is located inside the drill, the second is attached to the chuck. When the two elements are connected, the chuck and the drill begin to move in the axial and translational direction, thus providing the function of chiselling, or the impact. If necessary, the blow function can be turned off, the ratchets open, and the drill is working as usual. However, in some models, the ability to disable is not provided - be careful when choosing.
Drill with a blow function is more expensive than a conventional one, but cheaper than a punch. Plus, it is also easier to punch, so it can be called universal home tool .When choosing a hammer drill, pay attention to the power tool. To normal impact function, this indicator should be at least 800 watts. Also note the function of reverse rotation and the presence of a safety clutch.
It makes sense to choose a drill-screwdriver in the case when you also need a tool for tightening / unscrewing screws, screws and screws. In the screwdriver mode, such a drill has a low rotational speed and high torque, while in the drill mode it is the other way round. The device cannot be called fully universal, since such a drill is not suitable for drilling concrete and bricks.
The drill-mixer differs from the conventional universal drill by the presence of special nozzles in the kit, which allow you to conveniently mix liquid and semi-liquid compounds. The design of the tool, as a rule, provides special handles for a comfortable grip during mixing. The drill mixer is suitable for mixing putties, adhesives, paints and other construction solutions up to 10 liters in volume and allows for more thorough mixing than with a manual process.
As the name suggests, such a tool is designed for drilling holes in the most inaccessible and narrow places that you cannot get with a conventional drill. The design of the device is characterized by the presence of an angular gearbox and the location of the rotating shaft perpendicular to the housing. Such drills, as a rule, have low power and there is no need to talk about any impact function here.
The angle drill is a very specific tool, so it’s better to take a regular model and, if necessary, use a special nozzle - it is cheaper and more reasonable in most cases.
№4.Types of drills according to the type of power
Depending on the power source, the drills can be divided into two types:
- power drills work from the electrical network, they are distinguished by high power and ease of maintenance - you just need to find a power outlet and not worry about battery charging. Binding to the outlet - this is the main disadvantage of such devices, as when working on the street or with frequent outages can cause problems;
- cordless drill allows you to work where there is no electricity at all or access to the network is difficult. Plus, the lack of wires provides freedom of action. The reverse side of the medal - low maximum power and the need to constantly monitor the battery charge, and sometimes buy a new one. The battery life is 0.5-2 years, it will be necessary to buy strictly defined batteries.
When choosing a cordless drill, pay attention to the type battery . Lithium-ion Li-Ion is the most popular and most preferred, it weighs relatively little and is durable in operation. Nickel-cadmium NiCd allows you to work normally in frost conditions, but has a pronounced memory effect. Suppose you have 15% of the charge and you decide to put the battery to recharge, the next time the drill may refuse to work exactly when the charge level is 15%.This, of course, has a negative impact on durability, and interferes with work. Nickel-magnesium NiMg battery has no such pronounced memory effect and weighs less.
The larger the battery capacity, the longer it will be possible to work with the drill without recharging. More capacious batteries are placed, as a rule, in professional drills. The duration of charging is also different: if in household models it can reach 7 hours, then in professional models it is much less - about 1 hour.
№5.Power of the
drill The power of the drills offered for sale ranges from 300 to 1500 W of .The higher this figure, the greater the load can overpower the tool. In professional models, power is usually higher than 800-1000 watts. The power of the device grows with power, so taking a drill with a large margin for this parameter does not make sense - hands will get very tired when working. On the contrary, if you take a model with insufficient power, your hands will get tired of the fact that during drilling you will have to put an additional load.
If you have to work with materials no stronger than bricks, you can stop at a 800 watt drill. If your plans to drill concrete or constantly use the drill as a construction mixer, then you need a more powerful model.
№6.The speed of rotation of the shaft and its adjustment
The speed of rotation of the shaft of the drill at idle can reach 3500 revolutions per minute of , but this frequency is not always necessary. The higher this parameter, the faster it will be possible to drill a hole and the smoother its walls will be. High revolutions are more necessary in order to polish and polish the surface, but also during shock work will also be useful. In order to tighten the screw, it will be enough 400-500 revolutions per minute.
The versatility of using the tool is ensured by the rotation speed switch. In the simplest models, a step switch is used, in the more advanced ones an electronic switch is used which clearly reacts to the pressing force. If you push hard, we get the maximum speed.
The speed limiter and soft start will also be useful. The latter allows you to smoothly accelerate the engine and provides a gradual increase in speed from the minimum to the required. This allows you to get rid of jerks at the start, overloads and drilling errors.
№7.The diameter of the drill
The instructions for the drill indicate what the maximum and minimum hole can make a drill in wood and metal, for some models add this parameter for bricks and concrete. If you insert drills of a larger diameter into the drill than those for which it is designed, the tool will very quickly overheat and break. The minimum diameter, as a rule, is 0.3-0.6 mm, the maximum diameter is 30 mm, but often this parameter does not exceed 10-15 mm.
№8.Type of drill chuck
Depending on how the drill is fixed, the drill chucks can be:
- key or notched chuck fixes the drill with a key, clamps it with three symmetrical “petals”.It is believed that this mount allows you to more reliably hold the drill, therefore, is used in high-power and impact drills. Minus - the inconvenience during the replacement of the drill, as it is necessary to use a special key. Incidentally, it can be lost, and then the time for replacement increases several times. Some craftsmen tie the key to the drill;
- quick-release mechanism allows you to quickly change the drill, using only a small manual effort. In terms of reliability, it is not inferior to the key chuck, but is still used only in drills with low power, designed to work with not very hard materials. The durability mechanism is inferior to the key.
Also when choosing a drill, pay attention to the diameter of the fit of the cartridge. The minimum value may approach 0, but usually there is no need to use a grip less than 1.5 mm. The maximum value can be 10-13 mm and even 16 mm for powerful drills.
№9.What else to consider when choosing a drill?
Going to the store for the purchase of drills, do not forget to pay attention to the following points:
- ergonomics .The drill should have a convenient construction for you, keep well in your hand, not cause discomfort, otherwise it will be impossible to do the work with its help. The tool handle may differ in diameter - here it is more convenient for someone. Non-slip and grooved linings will increase safety and comfort during operation, as they virtually eliminate the possibility of accidental slipping of the drill from your hands. You can also try pressing the buttons to make sure the design of the drill is comfortable;
- the fixing button of the start button allows you to reduce the voltage on your hand, since there will be no need to keep the button pressed while working;
- reverse allows you to change the direction of rotation of the drill by pressing a button. It is necessary when the drill is used as a screwdriver or when the drill is stuck in the material. A similar function is in almost all modern models;
- anti-lock clutch is in many models and protects the tool from burning out if it is jammed or colliding with the reinforcement, and also prevents the user from returning the blow if the drill stops at the same time;
- Drilling depth limiter - an element on the body of the drill, which allows you to make holes of well-needed depth. Conveniently, when the wall is thin and when drilling it is necessary to make a not continuous hole;
- motor brake allows you to quickly stop the movement of the drill at the touch of a button. After the termination of work, the drill can rotate for about 10 seconds, and sometimes more, while the drill must be kept on weight. Forced brake function allows a little easier work, but not so necessary;
- anti-vibration system is, as a rule, only in expensive professional models, which allows to significantly reduce the vibration of the instrument during operation;
- additional handle can be attached to the body, be removable or rotating, allows you to facilitate the drilling of dense materials due to the additional stop;
- spotlight illuminator allows you to highlight hard-to-reach places, built into the drill body;
- dust collector collects part of the dust that is formed when working with concrete and stone;
- grade .Some manufacturers sell a spare chuck with a drill, a metal depth gauge, as well as nozzles and some other elements. If you really need all this, it is better to get a drill with an extensive complete set - it will be cheaper this way;
- specific nozzles for the drill are purchased separately. There are limiters, mini-drills, krugorez, nozzles for grinding and polishing, screwdriving, mixers and even nozzles for bird plucking;
- The name of the manufacturer is a guarantee that for your money you will receive a really high-quality and durable tool. The topic of drill manufacturers deserves separate consideration, but we note that the leaders in this regard are Metabo, DWT, DeWalt, AEG, HILTI, Black & Decker, Bosch, STERN, Makita, Hitachi, Skill, Sparky, Interskol, Einhell, Zenith.
Only a clear definition of the purpose of use and the understanding that a good thing can not be cheap, will allow you to choose a really high-quality drill.