- №1. Types of bricks by material of manufacture
- №2. Ceramic brick: pros, cons, production
- No. 3. Lime brick: the pros and cons
- №4. Hyperpressed brick: production technology and features
- №5. Fireclay refractory brick
- №6. Clinker brick
- №7. Building and facing brick
- №8. The nature of the filling of bricks
- №9. Brick size
- №10. Brick grade by strength
- №11. Frost resistance of bricks
- №12. What else to consider when choosing a brick?
It is difficult to imagine a more popular and versatile building material than brick. Private and multi-storey houses, fences and outbuildings are built from it, it is used to organize the foundation and erecting partitions, they are faced with the facades of buildings and lay out the furnaces. Such a wide use of brick has acquired due to its exceptional performance and diversity. The latter, by the way, can lead to a dead end, because once said, what kind of brick to choose for the construction of the house, its cladding, the arrangement of a fireplace or an internal partition is not so simple - before buying a small theoretical preparation.
№1. Types of bricks by material of manufacture
For the production of bricks, various raw materials can be used. The manufacturing process can also be significantly different, which explains the differences in the properties of different types of bricks. At the moment, we can identify suchtypes of bricks:
The first two are divided into ordinary and facing, depending on the appearance, as well as full and hollow, depending on the structure. The brick also differs in size, color, strength, frost resistance and other parameters.
№2. Ceramic brick: pros, cons, production
Ceramic bricks are made by burning clay in furnaces at a temperature of about 1000 ° C. Since clay is often used in red, the brick gets a characteristic shade, so its second name -Red brick. Clay varieties with a different shade can be used or pigments can simply be added, and then the color of the product will be completely different.
As a raw material, high-quality clay is used with a minimal admixture of sulphates and marl. After molding, the product is sent for kiln firing:properly baked brick will havered-brown shade and ring at the impact. Undressed material has a mustard color and a dull sound when struck, it is afraid of moisture, does not retain heat. The burned brick has a dark core and melted edges, it is not used in the construction of walls.
In the production of ceramic bricks, one of the following is usedmethods of formation:
- plastic. The initial clay mass has a humidity of 15-21%, the brick is produced by extrusion. Hollow brick is made on vacuum installations. Brick plastic forming is more resistant to frost and is excellent for building a house;
- dry and dry. Clay has less moisture (7-12% depending on the characteristics of production), it is ground into powder, from which in presses without drying or with reduced drying, a raw brick is formed, which is then fed to burning. The main advantage is the accuracy of geometry.
Ceramic brickapplied universally: when laying the foundation, the erection of load-bearing walls and partitions, facing the buildings, to perform interior decoration. To the mainadvantagesinclude a variety of colors, sizes, shapes, ease of installation, long service life, environmental cleanliness, good heat and sound insulation and reasonable price.Minusescaused by improper production, as a result of which products with low durability and irregular geometry, so trust only the products of responsible manufacturers.
No. 3. Lime brick: the pros and cons
Silicate brick was the most widely distributed in the Russian space, andthe main reason for its popularity is the low price. It is made from a mixture of quartz sand (90%), lime (about 10%) and additives.White color, but by adding color pigments you can achieve other shades. The brick is formed by the method of dry pressing, and setting is obtained due to the chemical reaction of quenching of lime. The reaction is accelerated in autoclaves at elevated temperature and pressure.
Among the mainadvantagessilicate brick:
- low cost;
- ecological compatibility;
- excellent geometry and good aesthetic qualities. Facing silicate brick is widely used for finishing facades of buildings;
- good strength and sound insulation;
- sufficient level of frost resistance.
- heavy weight and brittleness, so it is difficult to handle the material;
- a high level of thermal conductivity - you need a thorough warming of the walls;
- low moisture resistance and the ability to break down under the influence of moisture and chemicals, so for the construction of foundations and socles the material is not at all suitable;
- instability to high temperatures - silicate brick is not used for furnishing furnaces and chimneys;
- small variety. Silicate bricks are always rectangular blocks with precise straight lines, without roundness and complex elements.
If you do not know which brick to choose for the construction of partitions and walls, and the budget is limited, then you can stop on silicate. It still remains the most popular in private construction, but it is better not to use it for the foundation.
№4. Hyperpressed brick: production technology and features
Hyperpressed brick, if you look, is more like an artificial stone. It is based on cuttings of calcareous rocks, shell rock, dolomite, marble, the proportion of which reaches 90%. To bind limestone, cement is used to impart color to the material-iron oxides or other natural components. The usual water acts as a solvent. Homogeneous in structure, the mixture is sent under the press, and under the influence of high temperatures, individual particles are fused together, which makes it possible to obtain a sturdy material with an exact geometry. After that, the brick is steamed and sent to rustirovanie.
- high strength, durability, ecological compatibility;
- Aesthetic appearance, variety of shapes, colors, sizes;
- frost resistance, the brick can withstand up to 150 cycles of freezing / defrosting;
- low moisture absorption.
- high price;
- heavy weight;
- high thermal conductivity.
Hyperpressed brickIt is used exclusively for facing facades and socles, can be used forfacing fireplacesand forinterior decoration.
№5. Fireclay refractory brick
Fireclay bricks are made of chamotte clay (about 70%), which is burned to a loss of plasticity, then crushed and form the product. In fact, it is the same ceramic brick, but due to the unique properties of the clay included in its composition, it receivesresistance to temperatures up to 1700 ° C. Fireclay bricks differ in straw color, can have brown and reddish blotches, is produced as a regular shape, and wedge-shaped, angled and other forms for the convenience of laying.
Despite the fact that ordinary ceramic bricks easily withstand temperatures of up to 800 ° C, forfurnishing furnacesusually use fireclay brick, as it accumulates and slowly gives heat. It is used not only for interior furnishing of furnaces, but also formasonry chimneys.
№6. Clinker brick
Clinker bricks are made from special refractory clay varieties, including shale clay. In the production of the material, the temperature rises to 1100 ° C, so the individual particles are sintered, and all voids are filled. The choice of raw materials are carefully considered, so the result issolid monolithic brick, which has resistance to negative temperatures, ecological purity, heat resistance and high durability. The variety of shapes, colors and types of surface is enormous, which makes it possible to use clinker bricks for facade cladding, for paving garden paths and furnishing stoves and chimneys. Amongminusesmaterial high cost and thermal conductivity.
№7. Building and facing brick
Depending on thefrom the area of application the brick is divided into:
- construction or private;
- facing or facial, facade.
Building bricks, as the name suggests, is used to build foundations, walls and partitions. After the construction of the external walls they must be protected and insulated. Such a brick may contain small chips, but it must have an exact geometry. Building can beceramic and silicate brick.
Facing bricksis characterized by the most precise geometry and interesting appearance, it is used for decoration of facades, socle, can be used in interior decoration. Facing can be ceramic and silicate bricks, as well as hyper-pressed and clinker. Appearance can differ in significant limits. It is accepted to divide the facing brick ontextured and shaped. The first differs in the standard form, but has a decorative surface, the second has complex profile configurations and is used to arrange arches, windows and other non-standard architectural forms.
Type of surface of facing brick:
- smooth matte or glossy;
- rusted, when unevenness of convex form is created on the surface;
- Corrugated with uneven dents;
- broken, when the surface has chipped or broken (often found in hyperpressed bricks).
As for theshades, then each manufacturer offers its own set of colors, and there are also bricks with an interesting color transition. Gamma is represented almost all colors of the spectrum: from light colors to almost black.
№8. The nature of the filling of bricks
Depending on the filling, the brick can be:
- full body;
- porous - a separate kind of brick.
Full bricksdo not have holes or chambers. They are more durable, so they are used to build a foundation, walls, columns and other responsible structures. Such material has a high bending strength, frost resistance, but has a high thermal conductivity, so the walls necessarily need to be insulated.
Hollow brickdiffers by the presence of chambers or openings of round, rectangular or square shape, they can be through or closed on one side, horizontal or vertical. The hollow of sand-lime bricks can reach 30%, ceramic - can reach up to 45%. Due to the emptiness, raw materials are saved, so this brick is smaller, and due to the low weight it is more convenient to work with it. But its main advantage isthermal insulation properties, since air is contained inside the voids. Usually, such a brick is used for erecting interior partitions and facade cladding, rarely for laying lightweight external walls and never for furnishing furnaces and chimneys. It is worth remembering that this is a fairly fragile material, and the masonry solution must be thick so as not to flow into the voids.
Separately worth mentioningporous brick. These are blocks of sufficiently large sizes, the thermal conductivity of which is 4, 6 W / m ° C, and the larger the block, the less its thermal conductivity. Similar indicators bring brick closer to foam concrete, wood and even gas silicate, and record values are reached due tospecial production technology. From the usual ceramic bricks the porous is characterized by the addition of wood chips to the clay, which in the firing process burn out, forming voids, and they, in turn, contribute to thermal insulation. Depending on the desired thermal conductivity and the grade of strength, this or that amount of sawdust is added.
Working with a porous brick is not very convenient, but the walls are erected very quickly. Moreover, there are special channels in such products where vertical reinforcement can be poured, and this is an excellent solution for constructing warm houses in a seismically dangerous area. At first glance it may seem that porous brick is too expensive, but if you calculate the price per cubic meter, you can find that it is not much higher than for a conventional ceramic brick.
№9. Brick size
After the color, type and nature of the filling are determined, the following question arises:what size of brick is needed. According to GOST 530-2007,The standard brick measures 250 * 120 * 65 mm,and all types are determined with respect to it:
- single brick- this is the same standard, it is the most versatile, it is used for both masonry and cladding, so it is convenient to work with it, since it fully corresponds to the hands of a person;
- one and halfsize 250 * 120 * 88 mm is used when laying massive structures and can save a lot of time;
- doublesize 250 * 120 * 138 is rarely found full-bodied, and the hollow is used in lightweight clutches;
- narrowsize 250 * 60 * 65 is used only for decorative purposes;
- thinsize 250 * 22 * 65 mm - this is, in fact, a tile, the scope of which - facing works;
- still have a brick "Euro»(, From the standard thickness),modular(, from the standard thickness),incompletebrick and other exotic standard sizes, which are rarely used in construction.
Historically,brick edgescalled the bed (the largest part of the product), the spoonful part (the long side face) and the poke (the smallest side). Some manufacturers and stores operate with these concepts, so it will not be out of place to remember them.
Knowing which structure (or finish) to be performed, given its size and size of the most suitable type of brick, you can easily calculate how much material is required, but it's still better to take with reserve.
№10. Brick grade by strength
When it comes to the construction of foundations and walls of buildings, the first place is the brick figure, such as strength, which is determined by the mark. By strength is meant the ability of the material to withstand the load, or in other wordsweight, which can withstand 1 cm2 of bricks, without deforming. This parameter is reflected in the mark. For example, a brick that can withstand a load of 100 kg / cm2 is the M100. Today the brick is produced from M75 to M300:
- M75, M100 and M125suitable for the construction of walls of small private houses up to 3 floors;
- M150can be used to build walls of multi-storey buildings and foundations of country houses;
- M200-M300suitable for the construction of foundations of apartment buildings.
Data on strength should be indicated in the technical data sheet of the product.On the eye to determine the brand is difficult, and if possible, it is only approximately. So, for example, if a brick, when struck by a hammer, crumbles into pieces the size of crushed stone, then this is a low-quality product. If several strokes are required to break the brick, then this is a medium-strength product. When hammering against a brick of the brand M150 and higher, it will spark, the maximum will be able to repel a few small pieces. To surely choose a quality, durable and durable brick, it is better to refer to products that have proven themselves manufacturers who provide honest information about the product and produce a brick in accordance with all requirements. It is also worth noting that the final strength of the erected wall will also depend on the masonry mortar.
№11. Frost resistance of bricks
Since the climate in most regions of the country is severe, when choosing a brick it is necessary to take into account the index of frost resistance, it is designated as Мрз and measured in cycles of sequential freezing and thawing, which in no way affect the basic properties material. For the central strip of Russia it is better to take a brick with a frost resistance indexnot less than 30-50 cycles, for the harshest regions with a cold climate and changeable winter weather there is a brick with Мрз 100. If the winters in the region are mild, then you can stop at minimum rates.
№12. What else to consider when choosing a brick?
When buying a brick, take sufficient time to visual inspect it and study the accompanying documentation:
- high-quality ceramic bricks on impact producessonorous sound, and unbaked - deaf;
- largechips, cracks and unevennesseson the surface should not be. Building bricks with a splinter depth of more than 6 mm are not suitable for use, and facing bricks should not have any defects at all;
- small whitishcalcareous inclusionsmay in the future destroy the brick. They enter it as inclusion in clay, and if they were not sufficiently crushed, they become a focus of absorbing moisture. Lime begins to increase in size and deform the brick;
- samples of bricks are better not seen indoors, but on the street, it is advisable to generally see a pattern of using the material (house, fence, facade, etc.);
- forfacade claddingit is better to take a brick from one lot, because then it can be difficult to pick up exactly the same shade;
- all important technical characteristics are indicated in the product passport.
With such a variety of products and a huge number of possible areas of its use, it is difficult to deduce the only true formula of the ideal material and clearly answer the question which brick is better choose. The main thing is that the products are of high quality and meet the declared characteristics, which largely depends on the honesty of the manufacturer (large companies value by its name), and it is easy to determine the necessary strength, fullness, color, shape and size independently, based on the purposes of use and the resulted councils.