Laying ceramic tiles


  1. Tools and materials
  • The minimum set of tools for laying ceramic tiles
  • Tools for more complex tile works
  • Materials
  • Base requirements and temperature limits
    • On what grounds can I put ceramic tiles?
    • Fresh Foundation
    • Temperature limits for laying ceramic tiles
  • Preparation of the surface of the base for laying ceramic tiles
    • Primer base for laying ceramic tiles
  • Layout of the surface for laying ceramic tiles
  • Preparation of materials
  • Laying ceramic tiles on the wall
  • Laying ceramic tiles on the floor
  • Features of laying ceramic tiles in the bathroom
    • The order of the correct waterproofing in the bathroom
    • Sealing of the seam between the bathroom and the wall of tiles
  • Removal of the adhesive from the trowels and from the face of the tiles
  • Grouting of ceramic tile seams
    • Choice of grouting
    • Preparatory work
    • Progress
    • How do I remove the grout?
    • If the grout crack

    Tools and materials

    The minimum set of tools for laying ceramic tiles


    After all the preparatory work before laying the tiles are carried out, and when it is time to take up the very laying tiles, any master will need the minimum required set of tools, among which mandatory are:

    • a hammer;
    • tape measure, metal ruler;
    • chisel (it is useful for removing some irregularities on the surface);
    • mallet;
    • a simple pencil;
    • bucket (preferably a few, because they will be needed to dilute the glue and grout);
    • Toothed spatula, the size of the teeth is selected based on the characteristics of the tile;
    • 100-mm spatula spatula and a 350-mm façade spatula;
    • Tile cutting: it will be needed to cut individual pieces of tiles. However, if the material of the tiles is strong enough, then, most likely, have to use the Bulgarian;
    • plumb and level: they, of course, serve as a maximum level laying tiles. And as time does not stand still, special laser levels can be used, which can simplify the whole process much.

    For grouting interlacing seams you will need:

    • rubber gloves;
    • brush;
    • rubber spatula;
    • trowel for leveling joints;
    • sponge for tiles;
    • rags.

    Tools for more complex tile works

    • perforator or impact drill: if the surface is painted, it must be cut with the help of these tools;
    • Drill with mixer for mixing glue;
    • a container for stirring the glue;
    • A Bulgarian or a metal hacksaw will be needed for tile samples;
    • crowns on a drill of strong material, so that it is possible to make holes on the tile in those places where it contacts pipes or other elements;
    • lighthouses;
    • File to remove sharp spots on the cut tile;
    • nippers;
    • scraper: they clean the intertitic seams from the solution;
    • platen for priming;
    • Painting tape;
    • Cardboard, from which the templates will be made;
    • silicone (well, if it will have antifungal properties).


    • Glue.It is needed, naturally, in order to fix the surface and tile to each other. Depending on which tile is used, which surface, what functions the room performs, and where the work is done, different types of glue can be used.
      • Common earliercement-sand mixUnfortunately, it has a lot of minuses: it does not provide reliability and durability, and The surface may be damaged by mechanical influences, as well as by action of moisture.
      • More stable and reliable will beSpecial types of glue for laying ceramic tiles.
        So,cement-polymer mixtureIt makes it possible to firmly adhere the tile and perform grouting, it is used in dry rooms.
      • AIn rooms where there is always high humidityor other damaging factors may occur, it is better to use polymer mixtures.

      Thanks to special additives, specialized mixtures for laying ceramic tiles can have specific properties, for example, be able to fix the tiles to complex surfaces, be used in wet rooms or vice versa - be heat resistant etc.

    • Mixtures for grouting joints.For the preparation of grout used mixtures that include white cement, pigments and special polymer additives. The latter attach to the trowelling of specific properties, so that it does not crack, does not pass moisture, does not crack, etc.
    • Protective equipment.They are usually needed for unpolished tiles to protect it from the influence of destructive factors. Such funds are applied to the tile, and they are quickly absorbed by its upper layer;
    • PrimerIt is necessary to improve the quality of the work performed, as a result of which it is possible to obtain a greater degree of adhesion of the surface and tiles. Depending on which type of surface is removed, use a different type of primer. If the surface has a property to absorb, and this is brick, concrete, plaster, then the primer simply strengthens the base, and for non-absorbent surfaces, the primer is needed to increase adhesion.
    • Crossesfor tiles. They are used to ensure that all tiles have the same distance. It is recommended that if the tile is not exactly level, use more crosses so that the irregularities in the dimensions are not so noticeable, however, making a distance of more than 5 mm does not make sense. For quality smooth tiles, it is best to choose crosses 3 mm in size. As a rule, two packages of such crosses should be enough for the lining of an average bath or kitchen.
    • Corners.They allow you to accurately decorate the edges of the tile and protect it from the possible effects of moisture, mold, etc.
    • Tile leveling systemcan help to lay her even not quite experienced in this area of ​​the person, and the result will be the one that professionals receive. This system helps to achieve an even laying on the floor and on the walls, prevents the subsidence of individual slabs, helps to make all the seams of the same size, allows you to reduce the time to work, increasing at times productivity labor.

    Base requirements and temperature limits

    On what grounds can I put ceramic tiles?

    On the old tile

    • On the old tile new is better not to put, but, if necessary, remains, then you need to carefully check whether this is good.
    • Old tiles for strength of fastening to the wall can be checked, for example, by tapping, and each tile should be checked. If the sound from tapping is deaf, then everything is fine, and if it is voiced, then there is a high probability that again glued tiles soon fall off along with the old, so it is better to dismantle it immediately and fill the space solution.
    • Before gluing it is necessary to thoroughly wash the old tile with soapy water, degrease and primer.
    • Adhesive is best used for non-absorbent surfaces. But it's better not to go to the unjustified risk of laying a new tile on an old tile.

    On drywall (gypsum)

    If you need to lay the tile on this type of surface, you only need to use a moisture-resistant plasterboard. This is required to ensure that the tiles do not exfoliate from the plaster together with the cardboard. Of course, the gypsum board must be treated with a primer before finishing.

    On plywood

    For this type of surface, the tiles should not be placed, but if there is an urgent need for this, before layingit is necessary to cover the plywood with a sheet of plasterboard (for walls) or DSP (for the floor). It should be noted that before it is better to cover it with waterproof varnish or primer, or with oil paint.

    On the paint

    Paint before tiling is best removed, and it can be done with the help of both a mechanical method, and a construction hair dryer, or special paint destroyers. But if the paint is strong enough and strong, then you can glue the tile directly on it. But it is better to make notches on the wall at a distance of about two centimeters, so that it becomes more rough, and the grip with the tile is improved.


    At the foam concrete

    On such a foundation it is not recommended to put the tile, as it can quickly collapse, negating all efforts. If the tile is laid on the facade, then it is better to use as a base ordinary concrete. If you still decide to take a risk, then such material must be well primed and plastered before laying.

    On the plaster

    On the old plaster it is possible to glue the tile only in the case, if it is securely attached to the wall. If the surface has been leveled using plaster, then the tiling should take some time - as a rule, at least two weeks.

    Brick surface

    Before gluing the tile to a silicate or concrete brick, it must be plastered. If the wall is laid out of ceramic bricks, then, perhaps, it will be necessary to level the surface: the protruding parts to be repelled, and the cavities are filled with mortar. Strike off some parts of the hammer, and then pour the solution will need to be and in the presence of unstable parts in the masonry, cracks, etc.

    Fresh Foundation

    Laying tiles on surfaces that already have some kind of coating, of course, is more difficult than using a new base, but there are certain nuances. For example,concrete surfacesshould be kept for several months, and you can check the readiness in a simple way: you need to make a small scratch the nail, and then see if the edges of scratches are crumbling - if not, then the surface is completely ready for laying tiles.

    Temperature limits for laying ceramic tiles


    For such works, there isThe optimum temperature range for laying ceramic tiles: so, the best result can be obtained if the work is doneat a temperature of 18-24 degrees, but this does not mean that in other conditions it can not be done, simply the result will be worse the lower or higher the temperature from the "ideal" one. If it is too low, the glue will dry for a long time, and at high moisture the moisture quickly evaporates, preventing the glue from seizing.

    Therefore, it is important to create an optimal microclimate in the room where the work is carried out: in winter it is necessary to heat with different ways of heating, and in summer such work is carried out in the morning or evening, when the temperature a little decreases. As for the use of air conditioning to create the right temperature, then this way to solve the problem should be abandoned due to excessive drying of air in the room.

    However, to ensure the optimum temperature for the process of laying ceramic tiles is one thing, but the further conditions in which the room will be operated are completely different. thereforefor rooms where low temperatures are observed(dachas and other unheated buildings) it is better to use a frost-resistant tile. It is characterized by low porosity and low water absorption. Therefore, granite tiles, porcelain tiles and clinker tiles are ideal for such premises.

    Preparation of the surface of the base for laying ceramic tiles

    The surface quality plays a decisive role in the tiling process. Thus, an uneven surface can lead to deplorable results, so both the floor and the walls must be level before starting work.

    • Used by someThe method of comparing the surface by applying a glue layer of different thicknessesgives poor results due to its uneven drying.
    • The best wayis to level the floor to the required level and plaster the walls so that they are exactly perpendicular to the floor.
    • If the room is constantly high humidity, it is necessary to carry out a number of additional works, namely the waterproofing of the ceiling or walls, so that moisture does not seep through them, as well as a primer for better adhesion.

    Primer base for laying ceramic tiles

    Applying primer to the absorbent surface of the substrate

    Before commencing work on the primer of the surface, it must be cleaned of dust and dirt, and remove flaking pieces of paint. For the priming, you will need a roller, a tray for it and a fly brush, as well as the primer itself.

    Work begins with the dilution of the concentrate in the proportion that is indicated in the instruction, pouring it into the tray and applying it to the surface itself. Apply the primer gently from top to bottom, carefully making sure that a thick layer does not form, since it can then simply peel off. After one layer is applied and dried, it is necessary to hold a hand and check for soiling: if the hand is smeared, it is necessary to cover the surface with one more layer of the primer.

    Priming the non-absorbent surface of the substrate

    Priming for non-absorbent surfaces is usually sold in branded buckets, and it is important to mix it before use to prevent delamination of the constituent components. Apply primer as well - gently from top to bottom. Do not forget to wash your brush well after the work done, otherwise it will be possible to say goodbye forever.

    Layout of the surface for laying ceramic tiles

    Each tile has equal identical sides, which is required from the walls, they must also be even. If this is not the case, then it is better to arrange the tiles in such a way that the side where the skew is located is the most inconspicuous corner or is hidden by furniture objects.

    Before you start laying the tile,what kind of masonry will be used. So, you can choose the stitch "seam in the seam diagonal masonry and masonry "in the dressing." All of them have a place depending on the preference and type of tile.

    • Floor marking before laying ceramic tilesstart from the very far corner. First, the flatness of the floor is checked, and then they begin to draw lines: one - parallel to the wall, and the second - perpendicular to the first. In the resulting right angle and put the first tile, if of course chosen such a marking. Ifthe tile needs to be laid diagonally, then a line is drawn from the far corner at an angle to the wall of 45 degrees, and already along it begin to lay a row of tiles: first the whole, then the pieces to fill the space.
    • Layout of walls for laying ceramic tilesshould begin with a flat fastening of the rail or bar, which are fixed at such a distance from the floor, which is equal to the height of one tile, taking into account the short distance to the joints. Check the evenness of laying the tiles can be done with a plumb line, which will show an ideally smooth vertical line. If there are pipes or sockets on the wall, then the tile is cut off appropriately.

    Preparation of materials

    This stage includes preparation of both glue and tile itself.

    • Glue must be prepared according to the instructions, indicated on its packaging, as it is sometimes advised to dilute it in small portions due to rapid setting. In most cases, the glue is prepared in a bucket or basin, stirring it with a drill with a special mixer attachment.
    • Tileadvised to leave for a while in that room (for the material to take room temperature), where it will be laid, also recommend it wetting, since after that it will better grasp with glue, but, in any case, wipe it before gluing with a damp rag anyway have to.
    • Also it will be necessarytake care of the trowel wetting, so for this procedure you will need to prepare a separate container.

    Laying ceramic tiles on the wall

    Tiles on the wall are placed from the bottom up, letting the place for laying one of the lowest row. This is done in order to detect the slope of the floor cut pieces from the bottom row, which is not so noticeable, than from the top, uneven tiles which immediately struck the eye. As for the place from which to start laying, then there is an opinion that it is betterPut the first tile in the corner that is furthest from the door, because it is, first of all, that catches your eye and should be performed perfectly. If this part is closed with curtains or furniture, then it's better to startfrom the corner that is most noticeable in the room. If, however, the whole wall rushes at once, and this happens in small rooms, then it is better to lay the tileto begin from the middle of the wall. This also applies to the case if an equal number of tiles does not cover the entire planned area in a small room, then it is better to start from the middle, and on the sides lay tiles, in which case the finished work will be more aesthetic and symmetric. From the middle begin also, if the tile has some kind of pattern.

    Further we considersequence of processes for laying tiles.

    1. Application of glue. All glues are applied according to a similar scheme: glue with a smooth edge of the jagged comb or a spatula is applied either on the tile or on the wall - there is no difference, the main thing is to find the way that will be maximized convenient. It is aligned with the toothed side of the same comb to create uniform combs, so that the tile is glued as best as possible and held, and the glue is evenly distributed. In this case, the larger the size of the tile, the more the teeth should be at the comb.
    2. Bonding tiles, which must be followed by a tapping with a fist or kiyankoy. A spatula handle can also be used.
    3. Checking the smoothness of the stackingwith the help of a level.
    4. Adhesion of the next tile, which is done in exactly the same way as the previous one, but it is necessary to remember the installation of special crosses if the gaps between the tiles are planned.
      • For a more even laying on each of the tiles is betterinstall 8 crosses;
      • There is an opinion that you can installone cross at the center of each side of the tile(this option is preferable to use if the tile has significant unevenness at the ends), so that the joints are as flat as possible;
      • Also possible optioninstallation of crosses in the corners of the tile.
      • There are also combinations of the listed installation options for crosses.
    5. Removal of excess gluesponge.
    6. We finish the series with whole tiles, leaving room for a non-integer.
    7. Checking the top line of the row for horizontal alignment.
    8. We report non-integer tiles. When all the whole tiles are laid, measure the required size of the pieces of the tile and prepare them with allowance for the gap, and then glue.
    9. Mounting of a special decorative corneron the extreme vertical and horizontal rows. It is worth not forgetting about this corner, gluing the tile, since it is partially mounted under it and is supported by tiles and glue. No additional fastening is required, but if you forget about it, then after all the tiles are laid, it will be impossible to attach it.
    10. Removing Crosses, which can be carried out an hour after laying the last part of the tile. Take them out carefully, with a knife. If the cross does not want to be removed, then it is cut and pulled out in parts.
    11. After removing the crossesremove adhesive residues.
    12. Removing the bar, attached earlier, and gluing the bottom row. You can remove this bar depending on the setting time of the glue, but it is better to do it the next day.
    13. Grout joints.

    Laying ceramic tiles on the floor

    Tiles on the floor should be laid after the walls have been finished, in particular tiles. This is due to the fact that fresh tiles on the floor should be protected in a certain way from damage, which can greatly hamper the process of laying the tiles on the walls. Therefore, to preserve the ideal surface of the floor tiles, it is better to start laying it after the walls are ready.

    As for the process of laying ceramic tiles on the floor, it is in many respects similar to the process described above. You should also start from the far corner, or from the center, if the tile has a certain pattern.

    Separately it is necessary to tell about stacking of a tile over a warm floor. Whatever the system of warm floors, you need a screed based on a cement-sand mortar or using a gypsum fiber sheet. When the coupler dries, you can proceed to the process itself.

    Features of laying ceramic tiles in the bathroom

    Before you start laying ceramic tiles in such a damp place as a bath, you need to carefully consider its choice, since not all tiles will do. It is necessary to pay attention to such an indicator as the class of moisture absorption (from I to IV), which for such conditions should be either I or II. There is also a classification according to the method of production of tiles, and for bathrooms it is better to choose with marks a and b, which means the production by extrusion and pressing, respectively.


    However, in the bathroom, due to high humidity, it is required to carry out waterproofing works.

    The order of the correct waterproofing in the bathroom

    Preparatory work:

    • the base of the floor is cleaned of debris;
    • The old screed is checked for tight fitting to the floor base. If cavities are found during tapping, then the screed should be disassembled, and then the remaining surface should be covered with a primer;
    • After the primer layer has dried, beacons are exposed along the perimeter, and then a new screed is prepared and pulled out;
    • about a week later a new screed needs to be primed, preferably in two layers;
    • waterproofing corners at the junction of the wall and floor with one layer, and after it dries, this surface is covered with a self-adhesive waterproof tape.

    The main stages of work:

    • the whole surface is thoroughly greased with waterproofing, while walls are captured at a height of about 30-50 cm. Do this work better in three layers, making a break between applying every day and using a paint roller or a wide brush;
    • When all the layers of waterproofing have dried, you can apply a primer, and choose one that will have quartz sand in the composition to ensure better adhesion;
    • beacons are exposed to the height, cm and the filling floor is filled;
    • after the drying of the flooring it needs to be primed and only then you can start laying the tiles.

    Sealing of the seam between the bathroom and the wall of tiles

    As a rule, it is between the bathroom and the wall that there are problems with increased humidity and, as effect, with a fungus, so this distance is better to seal, in order not to have in the future similar troubles.

    Options for sealing this seam can be several, the most popular are:

    • groutingcan be used if the distance from the bathroom to the wall is not more than 5 mm. Such a grout has excellent moisture-proof properties, retains color for a long time;
    • usingcurb- the simplest, but also not the most reliable way. A special adhesive tape is used, the length of which can be absolutely any, but over time it can be peeled off under the constant influence of moisture;
    • usingspecial curbs, which are made of plastic or ceramic. They fit into a pre-sealed seam and can be attached to liquid nails;
    • seam sealingplastic cornerassumes the use of skirting boards or corners with a special rubber gasket, but such corners can eventually lose their aesthetic appearance;
    • usingsilicone sealantremains the most reliable method, which can be applied at a distance of up to 3 cm. The sealer quickly freezes, fills the gap well and fits well.

    Removal of the adhesive from the trowels and from the face of the tiles

    Before starting the grout, all remaining adhesive particles should be removed, as they can significantly impair the quality of the whole work: the very grout on such untreated stitches does not lie well, it looks unaesthetic, and subsequently can give cracks. Therefore, it is better to get rid of the glue residues, and the faster this is done, the better. If the excess glue is still fresh, then you can remove it even with a knife. But if the glue has frozen and dried, then there can not be a universal tool, since there is a high probability that it will not be removed. Nevertheless, you can try to use a special knife for trowels, which make a cut in the middle of the seam, and then cut off the edges of the remaining parts of the glue.

    Grouting of ceramic tile seams

    Choice of grouting

    The choice of modern grouts offers us two options of possible bases for grouting:

    • epoxy base. Such a grout has a rather viscous consistency, so its penetrating power is limited, so that it can only be used if the width of the intertice joints is greater than 6 mm;
    • cement basemore versatile, can have slightly different properties depending on the additive used. In any case, when using this grout, you need to use individual means of protection.

    Preparatory work

    Before applying the grout itself, you need to make sure that the surface of the tiles and seams are clean, the remnants of the glue are removed, and all the crosses are removed. If grouting unglazed tiles, then its edges must be moistened with water before the start, but it should be done moderately, so as not to create excessive humidity. A damp need to ensure that such a tile does not absorb water from the grout.


    Grout can be done with a trowel, or with a rubber spatula. The choice of method depends on personal preferences and convenience, but also on some features of the tile.

    How to wipe interlacing seams with a spatula or float?

    First, grout prepared according to the instructions, which is indicated on each package of this material. To cook it at once in large portions and in such quantity that it is enough for all the seams, it is not necessary, since within 15-20 minutes it usually freezes. You can apply the finished grout with a spatula or with a trowel. Gathering the grout, it densely fill the seam, holding the instrument under a 30-bumpy angle to the tile, while doing the best diagonal movements. If the trowel particles hit the tile, they must be wiped off, but it should not be done immediately, but after about five minutes, at the same time Use a slightly damp rag to prevent water from entering the grout itself, as it can cause it to blur and change colors.

    How to clean the seams on the tiles with a trowel?

    The method of applying the grout using a trowel is good if the trowel is difficult to remove from the tile, since very precise application is provided. This tool itself is somewhat like a pastry syringe: it is equipped with a nozzle, the width of the end of which corresponds to the width of the seam, and the grout is applied through it.

    Such a grouting seams are not filled near each tile, but immediately the entire seam in length or width. Beginning is recommended with horizontal, moving to vertical, which fill from the top down gradually filling with a grout, until it completely fills the entire seam. By the way, it is better to place a grout in the seam a little more than you need, because, after ramming it with a metal tube, it will become slightly smaller in height.

    However, before you start removing the possible surpluses, you should wait about 20-30 minutes.

    How do I remove the grout?

    The whole process can be divided intoseveral stages:

    1. dry removal: it is carried out by a special grater, which has a layer of porous rubber, after all the seams have been sealed. Movement should be done neat and in a diagonal direction in relation to the seams, which will not allow you to damage the still fresh grout. When everything has dried up, you can move on to the next stage;
    2. wet removal: to check whether it is possible to proceed with such removal, it is necessary to hold a small piece of the seam with a damp sponge, and if the seam stretches slightly behind the sponge, then it is too early to remove the grout from the tile. When everything is completely dry, it is worth starting to remove excess surplus with a damp sponge with rounded edges, carefully comparing the seams;
    3. deletingwith the help of acid-containing substances: if after the previous stages there are spots of grout or plaque, then it is necessary to use another type of means - acid-containing, for example, Litokol or Deterdek.

    Sealing joints with sealant

    The use of sealant will help prevent stains on the tile and moisture penetration into it. Among the sealants there are different types, based on different substances, and their selection is based on the type of tile and, of course, grouting.

    You can cover them as the entire surface of the tile, and only the seams between the tiles. On this depends also on what instrument this will be produced: in the first variant it is possible to use a roller, and in the second it is better to take a brush. If the second option is chosen, it is better to remove the sealant on the tile immediately.

    The option of applying sealant to joints or tiles after a few years, if necessary, is not excluded.

    If the grout crack

    If, after some time after the application of the grout, it began to crack, this can be facilitated bya few reasons, among which:

    1. improper preparation of grouting: excessive water could be used;
    2. non-observance of the instruction in part of the width of the seam, which can be sealed by a specific selected trowel;
    3. tile absorbed moisture from the grout, which led to the appearance of cracks;
    4. The surface on which the tile was laid could not be quite flat.

    Options for correcting the situation:

    There can be several options, among which the most popular are the following.

    1. If the grout was used in white, then it can be restored, gently scraping the cracked layer and covering this place with a new layer of grout.
    2. However, the above method is not suitable if a colored grout was used, since it can give a slightly different shade. In this case it is necessary to scrape completely the entire grout and seal the seam again.
    Tags:Ceramic tile
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