- №1.Mineral wool
- №2.Expanded polystyrene( foam)
- № 3.Linen plates
- №4.Polyurethane foam
- № 5.Ecowool
Even the most powerful and reliable walls of a house are often unable to provide an optimal indoor climate. That is why it becomes necessary to warming, which not only helps to keep warmth and comfort in the house, to protect from the negative impact of street conditions, but also to save decent money on heating. So, it has long been considered that about 40% of the heat loss of a house falls on walls, which is why it is so important to insulate them properly. What materials can be used for this?
Immediately it should be noted that the insulation can be external and internal. Internally, although it does not spoil the facade of the house, it still takes up the useful space inside the room. External insulation has a lot of advantages: it preserves the useful area of the house, protects the walls from external influences, so they remain in their original state for a long time. Such insulation does not affect the foundation, but the main thing is that external insulation protects the walls of the house from freezing and from the formation of mold, fungus, which can occur if you use internal insulation. And, of course, outdoor insulation can still save home owners from unnecessary sounds, which is important for those who live near busy streets or highways. All this is a common advantage of outdoor insulation, but there are many options to organize it, since the modern market offers a huge amount of such materials. What are their main features, advantages and disadvantages, and what insulation will be optimal in each particular situation?
Mineral wool is very often used as insulation, which is associated with a number of its advantages. mineral wool is made from artificial mineral fibers, and depending on the raw materials used in its production, mineral wool may be stone, slag, etc. The material can be sold in the form of plates or mats, but in any case, it retains all its advantages.
So, mineral wool is characterized by high thermal insulation properties , in fact, because of what is used in the insulation of external walls. The coefficient of thermal conductivity of this material is very low, comparable only with foam, so it is a reliable barrier to all cold weather. In addition, the mineral wool has an excellent vapor permeability , which allows you to maintain an optimal microclimate in the room. Another useful property of this material is the incombustibility of the , so even when the house is ignited, you can be sure that the mineral wool will not ignite, and therefore will not release toxic substances formed during the combustion process. The ignition temperature of this material exceeds the mark of 10000C, so there is nothing to fear.
Due to its porous structure, mineral wool perfectly absorbs the extraneous noise of , therefore it protects the room from unnecessary sounds. In addition, this material is very resistant to mechanical damage and deformations of various kinds, and that is why it is durable and practical, which can not be said, for example, about the foam. And the fact that rodents will not touch the mineral wool can also be considered a huge plus. The list of these advantages can also be supplemented with a low price, which makes mineral wool one of the most popular insulants on the market.
Depending on the material from which mineral wool is made, it can be of several types: glass wool, basalt wool and stone wool .Each of these species, with the general advantages of mineral wool, has several disadvantages. For example, glass wool is very fragile and fragile, and fragments of fibers easily get into clothes, skin, and human respiratory tracts, causing harm. That is why it is necessary to work with it only in special protective equipment.
Slag is much less commonly used for wall insulation than other types of mineral wool, due to its numerous features: it is fragile, does not withstand high temperatures, and is hygroscopic. Stone wool has a minimal set of drawbacks, and that is why this type of material is often called builders mineral wool.
№2.Expanded polystyrene( foam)
Polyfoam, as polystyrene foam is popularly known, can only compete with mineral wool in popularity. This is a reliable and proven insulation, the use of which is often resorted to, if necessary, to optimize the indoor microclimate.
Foam plastic consists of small granules, which are sintered into a single mass in the manufacturing process under the influence of high temperatures. Between them there are air spaces, micro cells, therefore, in general, foam plastic is 98% air. Today on the market there are two types of expanded polystyrene, which differs by nuances and manufacturing techniques: extruded and expanded .The first one has smaller granules, it is often used for warming garages, basements, and other outbuildings, the second one is distinguished by the presence of larger granules, and is used for warming residential buildings.
Foam plastic has gained wide popularity today, which is associated with the collection of its advantages .So, it is easy to carry out insulation with it, as it is easily cut and weighs a little, the material is inexpensive, but it has excellent thermal insulation properties, is resistant to the effects of moisture , does not absorb it, therefore it cannot form on its surfacedevelop a fungus. In the general list of advantages, it is also worth adding the high soundproofing properties of , resistance to heat, frost, temperature changes.
But even such material as polystyrene cannot do without as well as .So, it has a low resistance to mechanical damage, so after installing the insulation it is necessary to provide an additional layer that will protect it from all sorts of deformations and mechanical effects. In addition, paint and other coatings on this basis can easily destroy the foam. Well, and, finally, rodents are not indifferent to expanded polystyrene, and it itself easily ignites and burns, therefore, unlike mineral wool, it cannot become a barrier to the spread of fire.
Insulation of exterior walls with linen plates is not so popular due to its high cost, but still this method can be called one of the most environmentally friendly , since installing such a material has no danger to humans, and toxic substances are not released during operation, because the basis of such insulation - natural materials. Linen plates are durable, fireproof, because they do not support combustion, they have high sound insulation, absorb external noise. Naturally, the thermal conductivity coefficient here is very low, which provides reliable thermal insulation. These plates are resistant to temperature extremes, they are characterized by good vapor permeability, ease of installation and low weight, so they are not able to create a strong load on the foundation.
The disadvantage of is only one, and it has already been mentioned - the high price to pay for eco-friendly materials, but in return you can get a warm and safe home. If we add such insulation to the windproof plates presented on the website www. E-T1.ru, the building will receive additional protection from wind, noise, besides, the insulation will improve, but the main thing is that it is the same eco-friendly material as linen plates.
polyurethane foam Under a polyurethane foam heater understand a mix of two substances - a polyol and an isocyanate. At warming, either spraying or pouring into molds is used, but when it comes to warming external walls, only the first option is used, and the process itself is very similar to spraying paint.
A similar method of insulation differs with a lot of advantages .So, the material has low thermal conductivity, excellent waterproofing properties, is resistant to various chemical aggressive means. In addition, even a thin layer of such insulation can become a reliable sound insulation for the home, and the material itself does not lose its stated properties in a wide range of temperatures: from -15000С to + 20000С.This heater fills all cracks and cavities on the surface of the walls, allows you to create a single monolithic coating, and at the same time perfectly adheres to almost any material, and metal surfaces due to such insulation get corrosion protection. In addition, polyurethane foam will not become a habitat for rodents or insects, and the installation of the coating is performed as quickly as possible.
Despite all the advantages of this material, it remains not very popular due to its high price. You will have to spend money on the services of professionals who use special equipment. Self-installation is better not to perform, since the quality of insulation largely depends on the skill of the work performed. In addition, this insulation is better not to use on an industrial scale, but only in small areas. It is worth noting that he is very afraid of direct sunlight, so you have to tinker with reliable protection: sheet materials due to the need to mount will destroy the solidity of the material, so there are two options - plaster or ventilated facade. But only the plaster can reliably protect the material from the influence of the rays, and this is the only option for finishing the facade.
Such material as ecowool is still new for the domestic market, as few people have heard about it a couple of decades ago. Now, this insulation begins to enjoy its well-deserved popularity. Ecowool itself is 80% made of cellulose fibers, which means that the result is a seamless material with high insulation performance. The main disadvantages of wood in the form of flammability and instability to the effects of certain biological factors are eliminated by the addition of some natural ingredients. Thus, boric acid in the composition protects the material from the effects of rodents and fungus, and borax helps to improve the resistance to fire.
Ecowool as a heater allows you to get a seamless final layer, which means that there will be no cold bridges that can break the insulation of the room. In addition, the material has excellent sound insulation properties, and most importantly, it is as safe and environmentally friendly as possible and does not emit any toxic substances during operation. Ecowool is prone to moisture absorption, but even in this case, it almost does not lose its insulating properties, unlike, for example, from some other insulants.
Among the drawbacks of this type of insulation can only be noted that the installation will require special equipment, and it is difficult to do without the help of professionals.