Insufficient or inefficient ventilation garage promotes the formation of condensation on the vehicle units. Exhaust gases and evaporating working fluids do garage atmosphere unsafe for vehicle owner.
To avoid these problems, you need to take care of normal circulation of the airflow. Moreover, that the improvement of the microclimate in the automotive box often does not require special engineering and construction skills and considerable financial investments.
We'll show you how to calculate and to make natural ventilation garage more effective, as well as offer alternative methods of motivation air.
The content of the article:
- Features garage ventilation
- Working conditions and the calculation of natural ventilation
Ways to improve the natural ventilation
- Warming up the exhaust air duct
- Installing the vents
- Combined ventilation Carports
- Construction of a mechanical ventilation system
- Organization of temporary ventilation
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Features garage ventilation
At the dawn of avtolyubitelstvo machines needed fenced shelter to perform routine maintenance. Later cars have become a value to be protected against theft - secure garage with protected against the penetration of the perimeter.
The experience of previous generations of car owners need to protect the machine, store it vgarazhnom box.
But the garage is good, if it is ventilated. Stopping in the parking lot after many kilometers of travel on rainy and snowy slopes, the vehicle brings with it moisture. The room for the machine is traditionally low - moisture quickly saturates its atmosphere.
And if the volume of moist air in the garage did not change 6 times per hour (preferably 10 times) the car will certainly rust.
The ventilation system in the garage is required for the formation of normal conditions for the owners of structures and equipment stored there
Ventilation will eliminate the causes of the formation of condensation on the hood of his loss, and other metal surfaces, warn them rusting
Regular ventilation provided by the ventilation system, will bring the garage exhaust air, which is replaced by a fresh batch will go
When constructing multilevel parking garages Building ventilation system each level must be provided
Ventilation systems for garages, divided according to the general principles on the natural and mechanical. In natural air circuits in the room itself enters through vents and openings, drainage is carried out on the basis of gravitational forces
In embodiments, the mechanical motion of the air is caused to the fan, which are equipped with or blowing, or suction side of the system
Exhaust air, harmful chemical compounds, volatile toxins produced deduced outwardly through vent pipe
If the fan is equipped with the inflow portion of the system, the air forcedly blown into the garage, displacing the spent mass in exhaust port
Providing good conditions in the garage
Ventilation in order to avoid condensation
Supply of fresh air into the room
Ventilation in multilevel garages
Ventilation apparatus natural ventilation
The fan on the exhaust pipe
The exhaust ventilation pipe on the street
Duct system supply option
SNIP 21-02-99 sets winter storage temperature of the machine at the rate of 5aboutC, if heated box. By the way, the SNP also allows not to heat the garage premises.
Comfortable to motorist temperature (e.g., 15aboutC) in the winter garage "uncomfortable" for the machine due to the melting of ice and snow adhering to it. Rational to adhere to regulations 5aboutFROM.
The ratio of air in the garage is installed by ONTP 01-91 in a volume of 150 m3/ H for each parking place. Outwardly simple task - to determine the diameter of the duct, set one on pritochku second update to the hood and the atmosphere occurs.
However, in the Russian cold climate supply and exhaust system indoor closed car park is necessary to design more closely.
For uniform ventilation of the garage premises most suitable combination system year-round. It does not depend on the weather and the temperature outside
Working conditions and the calculation of natural ventilation
The scheme it must take into account the volume of air change, seasonal changes in temperature and wind rose to built with his own hands worked in the garage ventilation.
Natural ventilation Carports directly depends on such parameters:
- Air temperature difference indoors and outside. garage atmosphere should be hot and therefore easier to external air. Then heavy and fresh air will penetrate into the garage through the air intake duct by gravity, seeking to replace the less dense the volume of the internal atmosphere.
- the pressure difference between the vertical positions of supply and exhaust. Requires drop more than 3 m between the supply air inlet and an exhaust air output.
- Pressure moving air mass (Wind). On the windward side of the garage is set high pressure in the lee - reduced. You must place the air intake duct on the side of the prevailing wind direction.
Ignoring these conditions will lead to the complete ineffectiveness of natural extracts. winter should therefore be set in the car box at a higher temperature relative to the outside and to reduce the breathability by adjusting the opening degree of the air ducts.
In the summer you want to open supply and exhaust air ducts completely relying on the wind rose.
Location of the supply air intake and exhaust tubes relative to each other has to be either on the box length, either by its diagonals
The main parameter of air - its multiplicity, ie, the number of total volume of the atmosphere changes in the garage "street" with air.
Knowing the normalized multiplicity of supply and exhaust ventilation (6-10 times) and the internal volume of the car box, you must calculate the air consumption per hour:
L = n • vz, Where
- L - air consumption per hour, m3/ч;
- n - numerical value of the specification for air exchange rate;
- Vr - the air volume of the garage, m3.
To determine the volume of air that can accommodate a garage, it is necessary to multiply the internal dimensions of width, length and height.
For example, box width of 4 m, a length of 6 m in height and 2.7 holds Vr = 4 6 • • 2,7 = 64,8 m3. When selecting, for example, the seven-time air changes per hour to this garage is required L = 7 • 64,8 = 453,6 m3.
Knowing the flow rate and speed, can be found at this diagram, the optimum diameter of the circular duct for intake and exhaust system of the garage
For selection Ducts pritochki and hoods, the obtained value L to be rounded upward, achieving its multiplicity to 5.
Therefore, the resulting value in our calculation of air flow must be increased to 455 m3Because this number is divisible by 5 without a remainder - 455: 5 = 91.
Further - look duct diameter chart image and select the appropriate setting.
Given that air speed natural ventilation channels in the order of 0.5-1 m / s, calculated for the above "exemplary" garage necessary circular ducts with a diameter of 500 mm. Either shaped, with the inner section from 450h500 mm.
To improve the air inflow can be installed at a height of up to half a meter from the garage floor is not a pipe, duct and the air intake grill. Moreover, its cross section should be two to three times greater than that of the exhaust pipe. Improve ventilation, but Carports chilled winter.
It is necessary to equip the supply air grille and the hood sliding or removable lids that allow to reduce the cross section at the air inlet needs.
Pay attention to the sequence of the partial overlap of the supply and exhaust openings - first pritochka, then extractor.
To select an appropriate cross section rectangular duct, it is sufficient to find a matching them with the diameter of a circular pipe
It is important that the cross-section of the chimney was no longer the fresh air intake section - will rollover traction. Therefore, in the partial closure of the air intake duct must necessarily decrease the exhaust pipe section.
The exhaust duct must be output vertically and at least 500 mm above the plane of the garage roof.
Above the gable roof hood must be raised to a height corresponding to the proximity to her roof ridge (see. diagram of the image).
If the garage facilities arranged inspection pit for repairs and a cellar for storage product, the ventilation underground facilities require the installation of separate ducts and pritochki hoods.
Thus, the need for a separate air supply pipe in the cellar and second vertical - in the hood.
The simplest embodiment of the organization of ventilation is in the garage wall installation of the valve, which, besides ensuring ventilation function can do the job of heating and filtering stream
Ways to improve the natural ventilation
Without using mechanical tools enhance ventilation, to achieve a stable updates the atmosphere in the room of the garage in two ways - by heating the exhaust pipe and install on it deflector.
Warming up the exhaust air duct
The heated air is lighter than cold air mass flowing through the supply inlet. Aspiring to the highest point, it goes through Fume ventkanalAnd is replaced by fresh air from the outside - the internal pressure (in a garage) and external (outside) must equal atmospheres.
Building a natural ventilation in the car boxes, enough to follow the recommendations of the scheme
To improve the air heating in the upper layer of the atmosphere inside the cold garage need to paint the exhaust channel black. As a result, the duct wall will absorb a maximum amount of solar energy, and will heat the air inside the channel, urging it to move rapidly upwards.
Planning natural ventilation based on the black color, do not carry out insulation ventkanala. However, the method of "warming bulb" insulated exhaust duct is essential.
Since the fall in the garage gets cold. For the car is not a problem, but for ventilation - very bad.
If the engine is hot the first hour following entry into the box will still heat source for air, then after a few hours in an unheated garage established temperature substantially equal to the street. And natural ventilation will cease to operate.
Blowing wind flow deflector (Scheme a) drawing air from the duct is divided into several areas (B circuit). Thus there are multiple zones of low (-) and high (+) pressure
Save breathability and to prevent icing of the exhaust air duct (it will be accumulated condensate) will allow normal 40 watt incandescent bulb.
Suffice it to suspend its cartridge opening under the vertical passage hoods and left enabled. Heat generated by the lamp, will suffice for air movement at a speed of 0.2-0.4 m / s.
Moreover, the duct channel necessarily need to wrap insulation material and make sure that the insulation is not received moisture. Heat from incandescent bit, the full length of the chimney it may not be enough and the air quickly cools.
Note that the use of fluorescent or LED lamp does not contribute to improvement of air - they generate much less heat. Only suitable incandescent lamp.
Installing the vents
This arrangement helps to increase the exhaust thrust up to 20% without applying any mechanical means - through the formation of a low pressure zone at the air headband.
Based on Bernoulli's law, deflectors changing movement of air flows due to its structure (cross section).
The parameters of the deflector elements TsAGI linked to the diameter of the exhaust ventkanala. The numerals in the diagram denote: headroom hood (1); glass diffuser (2); an outer housing (3); strut cap (4); a cap (5) (+)
Wind forced to bend around a curved deflector body, which leads to the formation of miniature zones of the relative vacuum inducing mass of air in the tube to move up.
structurally vents (Example TSAGI project) consists of elements:
- diffuser (Glass) having the shape of a truncated conical pipe. Narrow side he put on the chimney. It contributes to the establishment of the air pressure difference and increased traction.
- hood (Umbrella) protects the air duct passage against the ingress of dust and volatile precipitation.
- outer casingHaving a cylindrical shape. It creates a low pressure zone by dissection of the wind flow.
Type deflector TsAGI is widely used to enhance the natural draft ventilation pipes in Russia. Along with them are known Belleville, Vane, H-shaped and rotary deflectors.
By the way, the domestic extraction of natural ventilation most often equipped with deflector Grigorovich.
The efficiency of the exhaust vents of any design is directly related to atmospheric conditions - namely, the presence of wind.
That is, when a strong wind this unit develops maximum traction in the system of natural ventilation, and completely does not work when no wind.
The determining factor is the proximity of the ridge of the roof. The closer it is to the pipe, the better it should be raised (+)
The deflector can not only improve traction, but also to prevent "corking" chimney in strong winds, low current to overcome that natural ventilation can not.
Also equipped with a deflector device most complex ventilation protected from tipping traction.
We draw attention to the need to raise the headband hood equipped with a baffle, above the plane of the roof on two feet or more. There are also locations in terms of the proximity of the roof ridge, considered in the diagram above.
Combined ventilation Carports
The advantage of combining natural ventilation with mechanical low-power system is guaranteed update atmosphere garage in any weather.
Neither calm nor summer heat does not weaken the performance of the supply and exhaust of the complex.
Scheme combined ventilation completely similar to a natural ventilation system device. It applies the same arrangement of supply and exhaust air ducts, the same section of air pipes and a deflector at the upper end of the suction channel.
One difference - installation in the exhaust duct or axial cavity centrifugal blower.
Ventilation air in the basement garage with a viewing hole from the common ventilation system does not fall - too low. It is required to have a separate and extract pritochku in this room (+)
Power ventilation system should not exceed 100 watts, this is sufficient. Embed fan required insulated duct segment, otherwise it will go condensate.
To control the operation of the fan handy electronic timer built into the adapter between the wall outlet and plug hood power.
Keep exhaust fan activation time is disadvantageous because of its energy consumption, and the need for this. Besides winter combined garage ventilation will be too effective and highly vystudit boxing.
Adapter with timer allow to set the frequency and the duration of the fan within 24 hours and a few days ahead.
Placing the electronic timer between the outlet and plug the fan power to the hood can be controlled cycles on / off electromechanical elements of the exhaust system
Note that when selecting a sufficiently powerful centrifugal installation for ventilation may require larger cross section for the exhaust duct. We remember that the choice of the cross section of the conductive pipe air depends on air flow rate.
With insufficient inner diameter hood will be a loud noise and pull the air is bad.
Construction of a mechanical ventilation system
Its main advantage is the independence from environmental factors. Two main disadvantages: the dependence of the electric power; fairly high cost. Air supply and removal of exhaust air volume centrifugal fans operate.
The following mechanical ventilation systems are installed in a car Boxing:
- Modular. Supply and exhaust a complex assembled from several independent blocks, providing injection and preparation of the supply air and discharge of contaminated atmosphere. Such units operate independently, for their collaboration necessary control sensors.
- Monoblock. Each such block is completed mechanical ventilation unit, he is responsible for and extract pritochku simultaneously. Among the one-piece air handling units are considered to be cost-effective model, equipped with a recovery plates. Recovery to minimize the energy consumption for heating supply air.
Monoblock mechanical ventilation easier to set up, preparing a single hole in the wall of the garage. However supplying air complex stocked of required modules is more productive.
The possibility of constructing a complex with the required "air" characteristics - the advantage of the modular supply and exhaust Complex (+)
Fresh air before it enters the air ducts and filtered in the cold season, warm. His pitch to the garage space is conducted through the air passage through the barred openings at the floor or in the walls of almost flush with the floor and in the walls of a viewing hole.
Fence exhaust air comes through the exhaust pipe, in which the channel is of sufficient capacity fan mounted.
In the large car boxes, designed for several cars, the hood to perform more efficiently through the air ducts and ventilation using the channel settings.
Organization of temporary ventilation
If the garage is expected to carry out repairs with welding and painting of metal parts, it requires a serious extractor, which is optionally used continuously.
How to build a system for temporary use? Let's look at a very interesting option:
In the exhaust openings, which in the example two on each side of the gate, the plastic set angular bends. mechanical exhaust system will be connected to them
Since the device is planned mechanical exhaust system for its fan wiring organize and summarize the power line to connect to a secure site
Above, practically from the ceiling, fasten scrap board on which fixed channel fan
In fact we measure the distance duct from the exhaust port to the fan and from the fan to the desired place to work
Paving the corrugated duct to the fan, connect it to the exhaust hole, fasten the straps to the wall
For the rolling stock segment of the duct, which is scheduled to clean, so as not to interfere with the movement in the garage, put an arm with a metal rod to the ceiling
On the basis of the connecting piece, intended for joining of corrugated segments, making a wire frame for exhaust funnel
Foil vapor barrier wrap frame, the material being attached to the connector tape
Step 1: Install Elbows on the vents
Step 2: Wiring Device fan connection
Step 3: Set channel fan
Step 4: Prepare for air bellows device
Step 5: Connection of the duct to the fan
Step 6: Mounting bracket for rolling segment
Step 7: Production of exhaust funnel frame
Step 8: Wrap foiled material hopper
Technical essence of the original engineering ideas will help to evaluate the next photo selection:
Working part of the duct can be lowered to the work place and to remove, when there is no need for his work
The movable section of the corrugated duct is fixed on a metal rod, which is the completion of repair work simply snap in the receiver to the ceiling
Here is the duct in an assembled state in which the movable part is fixed on the ceiling
Undock the mobile segment of the system, the funnel can be fed directly to the place of work, it is possible to hold on to it a viewing hole
Duct system in the assembled state
Fastening of the movable part of the duct
Preparing for an observation pit
Submitted to the consideration of the decision allows to repair the car in the winter, without opening the gates wide open.
Wizard can work in normal temperature conditions, for him, not putting on the movement impairing warm robe. Extractor hood will output harmful toxins into the vent closed doors.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
An effective system of natural ventilation in real garage with basement:
How to insulate a chimney above the garage to stop the accumulation of condensation and frosting:
Mechanical supply and exhaust systems are used in the heated indoor garage. For unheated car boxes better suited complex natural ventilation. Underground garages allowed to ventilate solely by means of mechanical ventilation, connect the controller CO.
Look for a way to improve ventilation in the garage? Or have experience with mechanical ventustanovok? Leave, please, comment on the article and ask questions. Communication unit located below.