Are planning to build a system of sewage disposal in the suburban area, equipped with a hole? Agree that the cottage or house permanent residence with all the facilities will be much more comfortable. But you do not know how to drain the pit constructed of brick and any supplies required for this?
We can help you cope with this task - in the article describes the popular varieties of brick raking. As well as a step by step process of construction of a sewage system, from the choice of location for pits and calculating its dimensions.
Material is provided with visual pictures. videos are also matched with useful tips for self-construction of the brick waste container. The advantages and features of its operation and periodic maintenance.
The content of the article:
- The operating principle of a drain hole
- Species of pit constructions
- Features brick buildings
- An example of the construction hole shower and toilet
Subtleties construction pit of brick
- Step # 1 - conducting preliminary calculations
- Step # 2 - excavation work
- Step # 3 - Installation of the concrete base
- Step # 4 - Implementation of the masonry
- Step # 5 - waterproofing and top floor
- Features of operation of the device
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The operating principle of a drain hole
Drain or cesspool - one of the oldest versions of sewer collection points and primary processing of waste on the ground. It is possible to build even without any experience of construction work.
Moreover, such a device is often created on the site at the beginning of construction work to provide builders a minimum set of facilities.
Construction of a drain hole can do yourself or hire a team of workers - will have a large amount of earthwork
Technically, the drain hole is a simple septic tank or storage of human waste. This tank located under the ground, fed sewer pipe leading from the house.
To her well fed and the tube detached toilet, bath and other facilities available on site.
One common sinkhole in the area - not the only variant of the organization of such a system. If desired, you can make a separate small container for each room.
Such a decision may be convenient, for example, if the room is at a considerable distance from other buildings.
Waste progressively accumulated and partially recycled, depending on the type of facilities. As you fill the hole drains need to make it clean, to prevent overflow facilities.
Modern means allow utilization of waste with a high degree of efficiency. We recommend to familiarize with the best methods of cleaning cesspools.
Species of pit constructions
Of bricks you can build a cesspool of any type:
- with permeable walls;
- without a bottom;
- divided into several sections.
Each construction has certain characteristics. For example, sealed tank used in areas with high groundwater levels. This design prevents the likelihood of pollution sinks.
Permeable drain holeIntended for processing and recycling of gray waste water, arranged to meter sand-gravel filter on the bottom of.
In case of insufficient capacity of the underlying rocks are fitted with small holes in the walls through which the liquid part recycled waste.
If the capacity of the drain holes divided by brick partitions and insert the tube-play, you get almost a homemade septic tank
In the so-called bottomless pits the lower part is not concreted. Walls of buildings erected on a concrete base with the lumen in which the ground is laid directly on the sand-and-gravel filter.
Liquid effluents will slowly seep through this natural filter, and then fall into the underlying ground layers where they pass their final purification. Using the bricks lets you create as a sealed drain hole and its pervious version. Most of these buildings do with a rectangular base, is the most simple scheme.
Divided into several sections. A big hole can be divided by partitions into two or three sections, which connect the modulations.
Such a device, like the sewer septic tank, allows multiple separate bulk solid and liquid waste and increase their processing by bacteria.
The use of brick in the construction of a drain hole provides the opportunity to build a sewer issue with permeable walls. Through openings in the second compartment supernatant water will be discharged into the ground
A drain hole comprising two or more sections, performs the functions of a septic tank in which the liquid component of the effluent settles and disinfected before disposal into the soil
The construction pit from multiple cameras will allow much less likely to cause vacuum trucks to pump sludge
When the device for overlapping multi drain hole should be remembered that on each compartment must have its own separate hatch
Drain tank with filtering walls
Brick septic tank of three chambers
Features of arrangement of multi-objects
Features brick buildings
Using brick for erecting walls of the sump has several advantages. This material is perfectly keeps impurities and has a long service life. With the structure can be created of any size and configuration, using the brickwork.
When using concrete rings have to adjust to their sample sizes. Pouring mass concrete - it is no less time-consuming process than laying bricks.
For raking is not necessary to use high quality material, fit and bricks that had already been used previously.
Brick for creating the drain holes and other structures of any configuration. Moreover, such devices can be put on an area with a high water table
Masonry jobs require certain skills, it is currently the art of building. To develop such operations is the best in the construction of sewerage facilities because all the flaws in the future will be hidden under the ground.
Yet it is not worth doing masonry absolutely casually. Uneven brick wall may collapse with time.
Drive brick is another useful feature - it is stable at virtually any level of groundwater, soil resists swelling during freezing in winter.
This drain hole can be arranged on the light sandy soils and heavy clay.
Helpful hints for the construction of the brick pits are shown in the photo galleries.
Use in the construction of sewage object piece of material allows to build a cesspool of any required volume
Of bricks can build a small engine capacity of the drain pit for receiving sewage from 1-2 people and a large hole for a cottage or mini-hotel
Optionally, to sewer construction was strictly circular shape in cross section. It is much easier to construct a rectangular object
The building is permissible to use a second-hand bricks, especially if constructed collection point and recycling of waste water into the soil of a kitchen, pool, baths
The construction of a large drain hole
Small sewage item
The rectangular version of the sump
The use of old bricks
An example of the construction hole shower and toilet
As an illustrative example, consider the example of Structures pit of bricks for receiving waste water from the shower and toilet holiday. This decision is justified by the small size and lack of ability to locate objects separately.
Pit will be located directly under the toilet and shower from the gangway to be grown in it.
Before the construction of the drain pit choose the optimal location for the shower and toilet and divide the future pit
Roy required trench depth, which advance forward, based on water consumption of a family
Choosing a location for the drain the shower stall. For this purpose lockers frame put on the estimated location, if necessary displace in the right direction
Building brick wall of the drain hole. Lower rows put a gap between the elements, they are required to infiltrate into the soil supernatant
Install drain sewer ladder. Pipe from the drain unit to the pit laid with a slope of not less than 2 cm by 1 m
For devices of the concrete base shower and toilet arrange pillow. First paved areas of the future location of the concrete slabs and sand ramming his
Above the sand layer backfilled gravel backfill aligned surface
For pouring concrete monolithic slabs on the pit floor drain and shower stall are building formwork
Step 1: A breakdown of the pit before the construction pit
Step 2: Excavation desired depth
Step 3: Positioning the drain
Step 4: Laying brick wall drain hole
Step 5: The supply of sewage ladder from the shower to the pit
Step 6: Stacking sand cushion under the ceiling
Step 7: Filling of the gravel layer on top of the sand
Step 8: The construction of the formwork for concrete slabs
The main work has been done. Now you have to pour concrete into the formwork and put vital sanitary facilities:
In order to reduce the consumption of concrete mortar, spread the bottom formwork second-hand bricks. Laid reinforcing mesh
Concrete pouring must rest at least 28 days, at the end of which you can proceed to finishing work
If it is not expected to finish the concrete surface in the shower, floor grind and cover waterproofing impregnation
Above the concrete floor of a brick pit toilets are building the frame, then sheathe both of the frame and the door hung
Step 9: Fill base plates for toilet and shower
Step 10: Waiting time for curing
Step 11: Grinding the bottom of the shower stall
Step 12: The construction of the toilet frame over brick pit
Frame shower better waterproof sheathing material such as honeycomb or monolithic polycarbonate, plexiglass. For covering the toilet you can use any particle or fiber board, board and similar materials.
Subtleties construction pit of brick
Before you begin the work, it is necessary to determine the size of future raking, and find a suitable place for the construction.
Step # 1 - conducting preliminary calculations
The simplest version of the calculation - based on the average norm. Number of permanent residents in the house of the person multiplied by the rate of 0.5 cubic meters. meters.
Then you need to calculate the parameters of the sump depending on its configuration. Capacity is usually done in the form of a cube or cylinder. The first option is preferable, since the lay bricks container with straight walls easier.
The depth of the pits should not be more than three meters, but practice shows that serve sewage depth of less than two meters or less. The volume of the pit now need to share the selected height. The resulting figure will be the base area.
By the choice of the place should be taken very carefully - the minimum acceptable standards for the distance of the pit from the accommodation depends on its scope
It remains to choose the length and width of the container with a rectangular base. If you decide to dig a cylindrical hole, it is necessary to use the formula of the circle area:
S = πr2
S - area of the construction;
- π - the number of "pi", equal to 3.14;
r - the radius of the plant.
The resulting area to be divided by 3.14, i.e., the number "pi". From the result, which is the square of the radius of a circle need to remove the root radius actually receiving the cylinder base.
Before performing marking all the parameters necessary to increase the size of the brick masonry and concrete base. This role is normally performed by a concrete slab thickness of 30-40 cm.
Roughly the same size should have a concrete screed. The thickness of the brickwork to the sewer facilities must be 25 cm in outer contour, and for interior walls 12-13 cm is enough.
Choosing the parameters capacity, it should be remembered that its filling more than two-thirds is undesirable, so the depth of the excavation under the sump should be increased to the required size. When choosing a place for the construction, should take into account a number of sanitary norms.
For example, the distance from the drive to the sewage dwelling house must not be less than five meters, to guardrail - at least two meters, to a source of drinking water - at least 25 meters, etc.
Furthermore, it should be positioned lower than the water source in areas of nonuniform sewer relief device. Finally, it should be possible for the entrance assenizatorskaya machinery.
The machine does not need to be in close proximity to the cesspool, but the distance between them should not exceed the limit of four meters.
Step # 2 - excavation work
After the counting is made possible to start digging excavation. The easiest way to order excavator services, but if you need a small capacity and a desire to save money, it is possible to handle manually.
The technology works is very simple: the land of the bayonet digging shovel, and the deepening of the pit - is selected by a bucket on a rope. Handy ladder to get out of the pit, as well as the normal level of the building to monitor the quality of work.
If you want or need, a trench for a drain hole can be done manually with a shovel and a bucket on a rope
The walls of the pit is usually made vertical, but the bottom attach a small slope to the contents of the containers accumulate in the corner, which will be located on the door for service.
Hereinafter, this point will facilitate pumping the waste from the container. In light soils walls may need to be protected from fraying, for example via temporary wooden structures.
Step # 3 - Installation of the concrete base
If the bottom of the pit is supposed to make tight, then you need to put down a concrete slab, or perform concreting works. In the first case is simple: choose the concrete structure of suitable size and place it at the bottom.
If the decision concrete floor, then first laid down sand bed thickness of about 15 cm. Sand is necessary to level and compact the observing slope made earlier.
Then put on the bottom mesh reinforcement and poured cement-sand screed. Then you have to wait until the concrete hardens base.
When pouring concrete mixture it is important to wait for the base screed complete drying, and then can continue further construction raking
For its full drying need about four weeks, but in the construction of sump operation usually continues after seven days after the casting base.
If it is assumed construction of the sump without a bottom, pour concrete screed should only space on which will be erected wall.
In the center is left open ground, which subsequently placed sand-and-gravel filter. To ensure proper casting of the concrete base in this case will need to build a wooden formwork.
Step # 4 - Implementation of the masonry
For sump it is recommended to use a solid red ceramic brick, but the lime and white is considered to be the best, too.
need the following ingredients for the preparation of masonry mortar:
- cement brand M400 - 1 part;
- building sand - 3 parts;
- water - 0.8 parts;
- slaked lime or clay - 0.5 parts.
Sand and cement to sift, to avoid solid inclusions, it will make a homogeneous solution and bring it to a liquid cream consistency.
First, on the basis of doing a clay castle, it put the first row of bricks. The clutch is immediately aligned by means of level. The thickness of the clay lock is inhomogeneous, since the bottom formed with a slope.
When constructing a drain hole with permeable walls of bricks placed with clearance in the places where the vertical joints should be
First exhibited at the corners of the bricks beacons, their position carefully aligned. Next, operate the clutch by a rope beacons which are tensioned for each row.
Skilled craftsmen can perform the laying of three rows, or use a special rail-poryadovkoy. Beginners are advised to first check the level of virtually every brick laid.
Control the quality of masonry plumb vertically to the wall was smooth.
Laying the bricks of each row should be carefully checked with a spirit level. Special thread stretched along the row, facilitate masonry work
Depending on wall thickness selected circuit brick masonry. If you want to make a wall thickness of 25 cm, then perform a laying "one brick", and if 12 cm - "in a half-brick." The length corresponds to the width of the wall of brick.
Of course, pervious cesspool do not. Usually it is put "in a half-brick", while between the individual bricks make gaps, so that through these holes could leave liquid effluents.
Scheme bricklaying selected depending on the wall width. For cesspools often use a half-brick masonry (12 cm) or in a brick (25 cm)
In any case, you should follow the rule: the vertical joints between the bricks in adjacent rows do not match. The clutch operates as follows: on a base surface with a trowel applied to a small amount of solution.
Is placed on top and pressed brick, gently tapping on it with a trowel, so he took the correct position.
If you want to make cylindrical brick drain hole, the bricks have to be laid in an arc. It is important that the joints in adjacent rows do not match, it could weaken the structure
Then excess solution is selected trowel. There is another technology: the solution is applied to a single brick, then it is put in place.
Here are some tips for the masonry works:
- Dimensions filled seam between bricks solution should be about 6-8 mm.
- The seam should always be the same size everywhere, it will improve the quality of work.
- Brick should be spread along the walls in small portions, to reduce the time of work (no need to bring each brick from the general pile).
- Before laying the bricks are watered with water, it improves the adhesion of the surface to the solution.
- Every fifth row recommended stack using a special reinforcing mesh.
Of course, to the sump is necessary to bring the sewer pipe. entrance place should be carefully treated with a solution that was not leaking.
The tube must be adequately insulated, it is stacked below the frost line to meet the required bias. For more information about the material for thermal insulation of the sewer pipe Recommend in this article.
After the masonry work is finished, the walls need to be plastered.
Sewer pipe must enter the sewer device at a slight angle to ensure optimal movement speed of sewage and waste
Step # 5 - waterproofing and top floor
In the plaster layer was put waterproofing material, such as bituminous mastic. These measures will help to extend the life of the sewer device.
When applying the waterproofing materials should strictly follow the instructions. For example, a mastic requires dry basis.
Now you can set the upper ceiling. To do this, it is best to buy ready-made concrete slab with a hole and cover - manhole.
Alternatively, one can consider the manufacture of concrete structure or ceiling own timber. The latter option is no different strength, every few years, this overlap will have to be replaced.
If you decide to make the overlap of concrete on their own, should start to do it simultaneously with the foundation and similar technology. Casting is carried out in a wooden formwork.
Upper overlap parameters must exceed the dimensions of the holes which it will close not less than 30 cm.
Opening for maintenance drain hole should be large enough that could get through a person to inspect the facilities in it
First, the solution is poured in a layer several centimeters, and then mounted armature core layer is poured. This item should dry for four weeks. The upper ceiling is necessary to make one more hole - vent.
Drainage device needs proper venting, as eventually begin to excrete waste water methane, which is hazardous gas.
For the organization of natural aeration use plastic tube about 100 mm in diameter. Top cover tube protection device, its lower part is also not interfere equip lattice.
After setting the overlap should be applied over the design layer waterproofing, roofing and suitable even thick polyethylene film.
Top usually laid top soil to elevate portion and secure the sump from freezing in winter.
Features of operation of the device
Basic care for the cesspool is to ensure that in due time it emptied and cleaned. Substantial assistance in the processing and disposal of waste can become special bacteriaIntended for cesspools.
These preparations are generally provided with detailed instructions and very easy to use. They need a simple flick / pour into drains or pre-mixed with some water.
Pumping the waste from the drain hole is best done using a special technique. Remove waste water should, where their number takes two-thirds of the container
These microorganisms are capable of handling sewage, decomposing them into harmless components. Thus it disappears and the characteristic smell of sewage devices.
But it should be remembered that contact with certain types of household chemicals is harmful to bacteria, so you have to check the composition of funds for washing and cleaning, which are available in the house.
After cesspool has been emptied, it can not hurt to examine and verify the integrity of the brick walls. carry out minor repair facilities as necessary: replace damaged bricks intact, restore the damaged waterproofing, etc.
Furthermore bricks as the material for manufacturing the sump can serve as a concrete ring, tires, etc. barrel.
Detailed guidance for the production of raking from different types of materials can be found in the following articles posted on our website:
- Cesspool of barrels: step master class on arrangement
- As constructed cesspool of concrete rings: + scheme step by step guide
- How to build a cesspool of tires: a turn-based independent technology facilities
- Cesspool of plastic: how to choose the right capacity and equip a plastic pit
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Clearly the process of laying bricks to create a permeable sump is presented here:
In this video describes the process of creating the sump on an area with a high ground water:
Brick cesspool - a safe and convenient construction. To make such a device is not easy, but the effort will pay off, because the subject of technology, such a device can last for many years.
You use as a storage brick pit wastewater, made with his own hands? Or just planning the construction of raking? Maybe you still have questions after reading this material? Ask them in the comments to this article - will try to clarify difficult points.