Two-chamber septic tank of concrete rings: the rules of construction

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Questions disposal of sewage in the suburban areas of concern both truckers and owners of private houses. Most suburban arrays and a lot of small towns in the country are not provided with the ability to connect to the centralized networks. With this situation it is difficult to accept, is not it?

Get rid of the problem will allow dual-chamber septic tank made of concrete rings, for the construction of which would require a minimum of money and effort. To build such a system can be their own hands without any problems. However, even if you plan to attract workers, know the rules and features of the device is necessary. After construction is obliged to work flawlessly.

We invite you to read with reliable information on the construction of concrete septic tanks, the basics of designing an autonomous treatment plant and about its organization. In addition to the valuable information we have chosen photos, diagrams and video tutorials.

The content of the article:

  • Two-chamber apparatus design
  • The use of concrete rings: Pros and Cons
  • instagram viewer
  • Calculation of tanks
  • Selecting a location for the treatment plant
  • septic tank installation technology
    • Purchase of materials and components
    • Earthmoving
    • Pouring base and walling
    • Measures to ensure the waterproofing
  • Especially the creation of the filtration compartment
  • Conclusions and useful videos on the topic

Two-chamber apparatus design

Septic consisting of two chambers, a practical treatment plant, capable of engaging in the processing of organic waste.

cleaning mechanism is constructed on the two communicating compartments, in which there is separation of the liquid component and the insoluble solid component by settling.

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Autonomous sewerage treatment facilities

The device independent sewage from entering into the scheme of their own treatment facilities will relieve owners of a country house on the weight of the problems

Apparatus settling the two-compartment septic tank

Constructed of concrete rings septic septic tank will allow to utilize the predominant amount of wastewater into the ground, which is ten times reduce the number of scavengers calls

Construction of a septic system with two compartments

Incoming sewage in a septic tank and fermented oxidized, resulting in settling the solid separated from the water insoluble fraction and settle to the bottom

Nonvolatile wastewater treatment system in the country

In the septic tank, septic tanks are not involved equipment that require power, maintenance of the system takes a minimum of time, effort, money

Installation of concrete rings in the pit

Constructed of concrete ring septic tank - septic tank is the least expensive options for treatment facilities for autonomous sanitation. It can collect his own

Construction of manholes sewage treatment plants

Everything for manholes concrete manholes produce overlapping rings with hole for firmly closing the hatches

Standard scope of dual-chamber septic tanks

Two-compartment septic tanks assembled from concrete rings, for constructing houses, which are home to 3 to 10 people, the costs of up to 250 liters per day. Septic tank may be filled to 2/3 of the total volume that is on average 5 - 8 m³ / day

The process of pumping the insoluble residue

To remove insoluble residue from septic vacuum trucks cause twice a year. Evacuated yl use in compost heaps

Autonomous sewerage treatment facilities

Autonomous sewerage treatment facilities

Apparatus settling the two-compartment septic tank

Apparatus settling the two-compartment septic tank

Construction of a septic system with two compartments

Construction of a septic system with two compartments

Nonvolatile wastewater treatment system in the country

Nonvolatile wastewater treatment system in the country

Installation of concrete rings in the pit

Installation of concrete rings in the pit

Construction of manholes sewage treatment plants

Construction of manholes sewage treatment plants

Standard scope of dual-chamber septic tanks

Standard scope of dual-chamber septic tanks

The process of pumping the insoluble residue

The process of pumping the insoluble residue

Each compartment of the two-chamber construction is responsible for specific tasks:

  • The first chamber. Accepts input from the drains of sewer pipe extending out of the house. Inside the chamber drains are asserted, causing the solids sink to the bottom fraction, and the clarified waste flow through the overflow tube to the second compartment. Accumulating at the bottom yl be periodically pumped.
  • The second chamber. Is responsible for the final disposal of the settled effluent clarified. Passing through the dirt filter, the power of which is 1 m, sewage is purified to a degree that allows them to flow freely into the environment without the threat of upsetting the natural balance.

Further purification is achieved within the second chamber due to the ballast or a gravel pack. It prevents the penetration of the insoluble impurities in groundwater reservoirs.

Past a clarified effluent purification significantly reduces the total amount of sewage mass, It is making it possible to significantly less likely to cause vacuum trucks for emptying autonomous sewer objects.

Scheme of the septic tank

The circuit operation of the two-compartment septic tank is as follows: the sewage initially fall in the first compartment, and after standing the first chamber liquid component flows into the scavenging well from which is discharged through the precoat filter in the underlying layer (+)

often, instead of filtration wells place filtration fields. They are laid several parallel trenches, the bottom of which is covered with rubble-dumping sand.

Top filtration dumping stacked pipes with perforated walls. The entire structure is covered with gravel and sand and sprinkled with soil.

Where leaks clarified liquid

Treated and clarified water, percolated through the filtration material penetrates into the underlying soil layers. Between the level of the ground water and conventional bottom wells absorption should be at least 1 meter ground stratum

The use of concrete rings: Pros and Cons

Basically, the "bribe" septic tanks of concrete rings - reasonable price with high performance parameters. After concrete is considered one of the most durable materials.

Option finished purifier of the rings

Septic tanks made of concrete rings are known for reliability and durability; correctly constructed structure has high strength

Among the indisputable advantages of concrete septic tanks, consisting of two compartments, we should mention:

  • Resistance to shifting of dirt, A sharp volley discharges of sewage and aggressive action of a sewer environment.
  • The ability to process cubic meters of waste water. In the process of multi-stage purification of the bulk of the waste is excreted as clarified liquid beyond the structure. At the bottom settles only a small portion of the sludge formed by processing the organic constituent bacteria, always present in the sewage masses.
  • Ease of operation and maintenance. Attract scavengers to clean the walls of the spacious design of the layers need only once in two-three years.
  • Long service life. The operation period of concrete rings can reach more than half a century, and with proper care - even longer.

Sewage treatment plants are made of concrete rings, do not "float" on the surface under the action of frost heaving of soil as this often happens with lightweight tanks.

Luke under each chamber

To be able to control the operation of a cleaner, timely evacuation of the contents and if necessary perform repairs each compartment is provided with a separate hatch

But this design has its drawbacks:

  • The need for the involvement of construction equipment for installation. Heavy ring placed in position and is immersed in a pit without the use of construction equipment is practically impossible.
  • Allocation under the arrangement of a large areaThat is not always possible in a small area sites.

Tanks made of concrete rings, during operation may lose leak. The reason for the construction of depressurization can be the appearance of cracks and leaks in places interfacing elements.

Elimination wall defects

master task - to periodically check the inner walls of the tanks for cracks and joints in low tightness and, if necessary, to eliminate the defects

Among the "cons" structures, some users are isolated and the point that even with the correct installation of a septic tank in the area of ​​accommodation soars unpleasant odor exuded content.

But this defect is easily remedied by employing biological products, which are present in the composition of bacteria, organics processing. They are easy to resolve the problem, but it does not damage the concrete surface and sewage pipelines.

Calculation of tanks

One of the key conditions for the smooth operation of the treatment plant is literate calculate its volume.

To properly calculate the volume of a septic tank, it is necessary to focus on three parameters:

  • The number of people who live in the house constantly.
  • The total daily amount of sewage per person.
  • The period of time for which the organic substances have time fully recycled.

In calculating the charge for the basis that the average daily wastewater per household is 200 liters. And the processing of organic matter within the waste water treatment plant on the average it takes up to three days.

Dimensional Table w / w products

Dimensional table with marking manufactured concrete products with their diameter simplify calculation of the required number of items (+)

Knowing that one person per day on average to 200-250 liters of water consumed, it is easy to calculate three-day that the volume of waste per household would be approximately 600 liters. The resulting value can only be multiplied by the number of family members residing in the house.

In the calculations, we should also take extra margin of 15-20%. He will avoid overfilling the norm in the case of a temporary increase in the number of households and staying in the house guest for a few days.

So for a family of four persons require building capacity of 200 liters x 3 days. x 4 people. = 2.4 cu. m. Rounding value and we find that for a family of 4 persons needs a septic tank capacity of 2.5-3 liters.

Option two-compartment with drain cleaner compartment

For plots, well water dispersion, it is necessary to select a variant arrangement septic, involving retraction of the clarified liquid through the drain chamber wall

If the area of ​​accommodation mini-sewage treatment plant a high level of underground water, which is able to provoke slowing retraction process waters and even the flooding of the structure, consider arrangement of a septic tank, discharge drains on draining field.

Selecting a location for the treatment plant

Sanitary zone when designing the treatment plant is placed in a distance from the relevant objects in the area so that the organic waste is accidentally put in the drinking water.

When choosing a location for placement of structures are guided by two standards: snip 2.-4.3.85 and SanPiN 2.2.1 / 2.1.1200-03. They spelled out the rules of building of outdoor sewerage facilities and lists the requirements for the arrangement of the zones, which can be an environmental hazard to the environment.

Scheme distance purifier according to the specifications

distance from important objects Compliance is a guarantee that the insufficiently treated waste water does not harm the state of the environment

In the presence of nearby ponds with running water, the distance to them should be kept at least 20 meters. If portion is vegetable planting, the distance to trees should be about 3 m, while the bushes - no more than 1m.

Sanitary arrangement planning zone is clarified place underground pipe laying pipeline in order to sustain its distance is 5 m.

Place for maneuvering construction equipment

Equally important in choosing a site is to provide conditions for free access to the building and equipment assenizatorskaya

It is important to provide a space for access and maneuvering assenizatorskaya construction and engineering. In this case, keep in mind that just above the burial place of the septic tank to put it is impossible, since the ponderous machine is able to destroy the wall of the treatment plant.

septic tank installation technology

When you install a dual-chamber septic tank made of concrete rings, be prepared for the fact that it is quite difficult and laborious work. To ease the problem, use of specialized equipment or services attract to perform the work of two or three assistants.

Raise ponderous ring even more employees will be problematic. Well, set it exactly at the place - even more difficult.

Purchase of materials and components

Concrete collars on the market in different sizes. The height of the products is always the same and amounts to 90 cm, but the diameter may vary from 70 to 200 cm.

Displacement of the ring depends on its diameter. Thus, w / w ring section 70 cm has a volume of 0.35 cubic meters. m. And the erection tank volume 2.5 7-8 cube need of such rings.

If the use of the ring 100 cm in size, each of which has a volume of 0.7 cubic meters. m, for the construction of reservoirs same tonnage require only 4 such rings.

What is the best size of the rings

Optimal variant for the construction of a functional two-compartment septic tank - using concrete rings with a diameter of 100, 120 or 150 mm

The price of the product depends on its size. Therefore, it would be not to lose before buying rings always calculate the total volume and the required number.

When calculating the tonnage treatment plant and selection rings for its construction in mind that the actual volume of the tank should be higher than calculated. This is because as the liquid filling can not rise above the level of the overflow openings are arranged in 20-25 cm below the upper edge of the column.

When choosing rings required diameter must take into account the level of groundwater. The higher the ground water, the large size is to choose the ring. After all, with increasing diameter of their quantity decreases, and hence reduced installation depth and the entire WWTP.

From the materials also need:

  • D110-120 mm tube;
  • tees for spillovers;
  • calcareous gravel three different fractions;
  • river sand.

Precoat filter in the second chamber is formed of three layers of gravel or crushed stone, grain size of each of the underlying layer should be smaller than the previous fraction.

Also it needs to stock waterglass cement to prepare the site for the solution and the mounting foam for sealing compounds.

The tools needed for work:

  • bayonet and shovel;
  • building level;
  • punch;
  • stairs;
  • bucket with a rope;
  • mixing well;
  • narrow spatula;
  • broad brush.

For laying sewer and septic tank to create iridescence is acceptable to use various types of pipes. Most equip polypropylene or asbestos cement pipe.

Technology the construction of a septic tank of concrete rings includes a number of standard steps:

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Step 1: An apparatus for mounting septic pit

Work begins with the formation of the desired depth of the pit, which is calculated according to the needs to accept waste

Step 2: Construction of Kolovai before installation

Before installing the sealed chamber is produced septic waterproofing bottom - is laid and compacted pug layer of 10 cm. The walls of the pit are strengthened wooden facing, if necessary

Step 3: Immersion of the bottom of the well sealed

At the bottom of the pit with arranged thereon clay lock set with monolithic concrete ring head

Step 4: Assembling shaft concrete septic tank chamber

After checking the horizontality of its starting end rings treated with a solution, then it is set on the next shaft member

Step 5: Construction of the absorbent chamber

The second chamber is designed for disposal of waste water into the soil, without the ring being constructed with a monolithic bottom. Instead of clay under the base of the castle slept dirt bed of gravel and sand

Step 6: ustanokoy overlapping concrete chambers

In concrete, both cameras are overlapping the rings with openings for the neck extension or direct installation manhole

Step 7: The construction of the neck concrete manholes

To reduce costs and increase the height of concrete ceiling mounted cameras on the narrow concrete rings that fasten the hatches

Step 8: Contact with the pit dumping septic tank

After treatment, septic pit filled with waterproofing compound selected in the development of the breed. The filling can be made an excavator, it is unlikely to damage the concrete trunks

Step 1: An apparatus for mounting septic pit

Step 1: An apparatus for mounting septic pit

Step 2: Construction of Kolovai before installation

Step 2: Construction of Kolovai before installation

Step 3: Immersion of the bottom of the well sealed

Step 3: Immersion of the bottom of the well sealed

Step 4: Assembling shaft concrete septic tank chamber

Step 4: Assembling shaft concrete septic tank chamber

Step 5: Construction of the absorbent chamber

Step 5: Construction of the absorbent chamber

Step 6: ustanokoy overlapping concrete chambers

Step 6: ustanokoy overlapping concrete chambers

Step 7: The construction of the neck concrete manholes

Step 7: The construction of the neck concrete manholes

Step 8: Contact with the pit dumping septic tank

Step 8: Contact with the pit dumping septic tank


The optimal time for the start of the excavation works - in most sultry weather, or the time after the first frost when the ground water level has the lowest.

Under the arrangement of the two-chamber cleaner is better to dig a common pit at once for the two wells. Although some experts are of the opinion that it is better to create two independent pit under each tank facilities.

Driving distance drive and filter feeders

Reservoirs set at a distance of 1-1.5 diameter from each other so that the gap between them served as a buffer at the time of lot progress (+)

Dimensions of excavation determined by the diameter of the selected rings.

When calculating the dimensions of the pits should take into account such points:

  • The depth of the pit should be 30-40 cm lower than the height of the rings used. This is necessary in order to equip the dumping on the bottom or pour the concrete floor.
  • The length and width of the well It should be such that the distance from the well wall to the rings has at least 50-70 cm. This is necessary in order to simplify the installation and to be able to produce waterproofing exterior wall construction.

Dig a pit, you can manually shovel, removing soil bucket. But it is much easier to use for this special equipment, whose efforts will not be difficult to dig a hole just a few hours.

In confined spaces it is most convenient to use a small excavator. Primer extracted from the pit, it is better to output the off-site, using for these purposes the same machine as that brought ring.

The manual way of digging pits

But even with the use of special equipment during the excavation work will still have to work with his hands, lining the walls and bottom of the pit

When you create a common pit under two reservoirs as a result of a two-level tank should get to the fact that the first compartment was half a meter deeper than the first.

At the same stage paving a trench sewer pipe. They lay below the freezing ground layers that mid-latitude regions of the order of 1.2-1.5 m.

Keeping the slope when digging a trench

To provide fluid drift at leading to septic tank bottom trenches do sloped 5 degrees, which is 20 mm per meter

The bottom line the trenches, focusing on the construction level, and tamped. Sleep leveled base layer of crushed stone or sand on top of which is laid and subsequently feed pipes.

Pouring base and walling

The bottom of the pit dug carefully leveled and tamped. Poured sand leveled base layer, forming a "cushion" of 15-20 cm thick. Formed by dumping good ram, creating a smooth and devoid of surface changes.

To create a concrete base under storage tank bottom of the pit is filled with cement mortar.

Pouring concrete base

To improve the stability of concrete in compression and bending, by pouring the screed is desirable to build a metal reinforcing frame

The size of the concrete screed must be 20-30 cm larger than the diameter of rings used. On hardening cement mortar, depending on the temperature and weather conditions, it may take four weeks or more. Only then proceed to install the first ring.

To bypass the step of pouring the concrete base and simplify your work is better to use ready-made bottom manholes. They, like the rings, manufactured concrete products plants.

Factory manhole

Rings with bottoms are structures, an upper portion having a through hole, and the bottom - is equipped with a closed bottom in the form of a circle

With a crane mounted first ring so that its walls are placed vertically. This is necessary in order to ensure the stability and structural strength. Top second hoisting him. And so on.

To enhance fixing strength in locations engages at the outside of the metal rings mounted bracket. Point "input" covered with a layer of concrete and sealed.

Measures to ensure the waterproofing

To reduce the impact of damage to concrete underground water, while protecting from percolation structure, all joints between the bottom and the walls should be repaired from the inside cement mortar. Processing subject both the inner and the outer tank wall.

To improve the water resistance of the composition and to accelerate the hardening, the solution is added water glass. Home - adding waterglass cement sustain ratio, which is 25%.

Above this indicator capable impair adhesive properties of the cement, increasing the risk of hardening solution directly into the kneading container.

Preparation watertight solution

In preparing the composition of the silicate is made in a ready-made mixture in small portions, continuously stirring the contents of the container

To improve the properties of waterproof design masters recommend to use 2-3 types of waterproofing materials.

For the treatment of concrete wall elements are used:

  • impregnation deep penetration;
  • bituminous waterproofing mastic.

The only condition - not to use toxic compounds that can kill helpful bacteria settler. For insulation on the outside surface is coated with a bituminous mastic or web material having a similar composition derived.

An alternative and rather reliable option - plastic insert into the septic tank of the rings.

On top of the well establish a concrete lid with a hole inside which is mounted a cast-iron hatch with removable cover. In order to prevent freezing of the system, the upper part slicing tanks insulated styrofoam.

Especially the creation of the filtration compartment

The second well construction construct in the same way. The only difference - the creation of the filter bed. His pave the bottom and along the sides of the tank.

To this end, the bottom of the pit dug strew:

  • a first layer of sand - 10-15 cm thick;
  • a second layer of gravel small fraction - 15-20 cm thick.

In the formation of dumping it is necessary to carefully seal. To this end, the rammer "cushion" is alternated with filling it with water.

If it is assumed lateral discharge effluent, absorbing the well wall made of special perforated rings aperture size which is 30-50 cm.

Crushed stone-dumping sand in the bottom

Rubble and sand dumping ensure the immobility of the tank even when the ground shifts, when he "spree"

In the upper part of the tank installed with neck openings for ventilating and manhole riser. Vent stack must be above ground level by 70-80 cm.

For mounting an overflow pipe between the tanks dug trench. Overflow construct so that the height difference between the inlet and the first outlet compartment to the second tank was 15-20 cm.

The input and overflow pipe between the cameras should be fitted tees.

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Connecting a second septic tank chamber

The second chamber septic tank, the filter performs the function of the well is connected to the column sealed tubes which slope towards the need to arrange the settled water flow

Device absorbing filter chamber

Between the bottom conditional filtering chamber and a mirror must be ground water the soil stratum capacity of at least 1 m. At the bottom of the precoat filter is filled

Rules backfill soil filter

Precoat filter formed rocks with high filtration properties. Fractional composition of filling should be reduced to the bottom, ie, first poured 40 - 50 cm of sand, and then 30 - 35 cm of fine gravel or gravel, after 30 - 45 cm of gravel or rubble,

A method for increasing the filtration rate

If the absorption chamber is recessed in GRUN with insufficient filtering ability, for example in sandy soil, starting from the chamber element satisfied ring with perforations. It will provide the outflow of effluent through the walls

Connecting a second septic tank chamber

Connecting a second septic tank chamber

Device absorbing filter chamber

Device absorbing filter chamber

Rules backfill soil filter

Rules backfill soil filter

A method for increasing the filtration rate

A method for increasing the filtration rate

Make a hole in the vessel wall under the overflow easiest puncher. Having got the tube edge in the drive wall, fix it by blowing with foam. Cured foam will serve a dual purpose: to act as a damper pads and retain moisture.

Making sure that the design integrity, proceed to its backfilling. For this purpose, the gaps between the outer surface of the well and a pit covered with earth, pre-mixed with sand. To create additional waterproofing, is used in filling the clay.

Conclusions and useful videos on the topic

An overview of one embodiment of the device a dual-chamber septic tank:

Secrets of proper installation:

How to build a septic tank at the lowest cost:

In general, the installation of two-chamber septic tank made of concrete rings, though troublesome, but it is quite feasible task.

The main thing - a responsible approach to the choice of place for its arrangement and stick installation technology. And then, the treatment plant will regularly serve more than a decade, making the countryside life more comfortable.

You have experience in the construction of a septic tank of concrete rings? Please share the information with our readers, tell us about the features of construction and operation of battery drain. You can post comments in the form below.

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