Due to its comparative simplicity, the ability to plant a plant in the summer, a high survival rate, with the help of budding, most of the seedlings of apples, pears and other fruit and ornamental plants coming out of nurseries are obtained.
Budding is performed during the period of active movement of juices. In the spring, this happens when leaves are massively blooming on the plants. And the second is a suitable period in the summer - the second half of July and August.
At the time of the procedure, it is important that the bark for the apple tree can be easily separated from the wood, and the vaccine itself can be carried out in two ways:.
Practice shows that the best survival rate of eyes on fruit trees is observed if the budding was carried out 2–3 weeks before the average daily temperature drops to 15 ° С.
The graft will be less painful for a tree in cool, dry weather. If it is sunny outside, apple budding is carried out in the summer from dawn until 10 am or after 4 pm until sunset. If the sky is covered with clouds and the plant is not threatened with a burn, during the daytime vaccinations are done without restrictions. At the same time, first of all, those trees in which the growing season ends earlier will be grafted.
To activate the movement of juices and create better conditions for future wintering two weeks before budding, in any weather, the rootstocks for the apple tree are well watered. And also in advance, and better still in early spring, 25 cm above the place of the supposed budding of the stock, whether it be wild or skeletal branches of an apple tree of another variety, are cut.
Budding, as a rule, is done on the northern side of the rootstock, choosing a convenient area 5–6 cm above the root collar. If, due to the rainy climate, there is a risk of scorching, an apple tree is grafted on:
On the root collar, budding of an apple tree is done closer to autumn, when it is no longer possible to separate bark from other areas. A height of 10 cm from the ground surface is considered optimal.
When carrying out budding in this way, a thin piece of wood is cut with a graft, thickening in the area of the bud. In this case, the vascular fiber bundle going to the eye is cut, and the shield itself has a length of 15 to 25 mm and the width is the same throughout. Keep this inoculum should be behind the leaf stalk, but if it is absent, it is worth cutting the shield 1 cm longer to hold the upper tip and cut it after the shield tab on the stock.
On the stock do:
As a result, the peephole inserted into the T-shaped incision should be tightly pressed against the wood of the apple rootstock, and the bud is located closer to the lower part of the slot in the bark, which contributes to a better accretion. When the shield is inserted, it is compressed from the bottom upwards and the grafting site is tied around, closing or leaving the scion kidney in the air, however, if the entire surface of the shield with the kidney is under the tape and does not dry out, the intergrowth is more effective.
This summer budding of the apple tree is a bit more complicated than the method described above, but the lack of wood increases the chances of tissue growth of the stock and scion. In this case, the cut starts at a centimeter above the kidney and ends no less than 0.7 cm below it. To separate the area of the bark with the kidney and the vascular fiber bundle, the eye is pressed from the side, as if shifting from the cutting.
If during removal it turns out that the bundle on the back side of the cortex could not be maintained, the kidney is not suitable for budding, and the procedure will have to be repeated.
The technique of cutting on the stock and subsequent insertion of the eye does not differ from the method described above. However, in the case of budding without wood, it is somewhat more difficult to fix the kidney due to the collapse of the drying bark. Therefore, the skill is especially important here. In order to have a vaccinated apple tree without complications in the summer with a kidney, the video clearly explains all the details of the process, the techniques for working with the grafting knife and the methods of tying the insertion point of the eye.
Many gardeners know that grafting various fruit trees does not always give the desired result. How to plant an apple tree with a poor survival rate and be safe in case of freezing or other causes of the death of the scion? It is in such situations that it is useful to use budding with two buds, where the gardener deliberately creates a reserve and the opportunity to choose the best spring in the spring.
If two buds are circulating at the same time, eyes are grafted onto the stock one above the other on opposite sides of a trunk or branch.
Such budding of an apple tree in the summer can be useful if:
Making a cut for the rootstock, in this case, the inoculation knife is set at an angle and, by analogy with budding, make a semicircular cut, but with the bark, cutting a thin layer of wood. The bark from the site of the rootstock is cut, making a second cut higher by 25–30 mm from the first cut. The shield with the scion is cut off approximately the same size as the prepared area on the stock, after which it is inserted directly from the knife into the place allocated to it and the place of inoculation is wrapped.
Two weeks later, after budding the apple in summer, you can determine how much the buds have taken root. To inspect the vaccinations, the strapping is loosened, trying not to disturb the eye, and then the winding is done again, which should last until September.
The well-being of the peep of the leaf and the shiny surface of a slightly larger kidney indicate the well-being of the peephole. If the procedure was unsuccessful, but the weather allows you to repeat the budding, the vaccination is repeated in any suitable way, but already above or below the dried slice or on the other side of the shoot.
The key to a good accretion of graft tissues and rootstock for an apple tree is not only proper budding and correct timing, but also how well the plants are compatible. As close as possible are related species, but is it possible to plant an apple tree on a pear? Since both plants belong to the Rosaceae family, the gardener has a chance to see pears ripening on Antonovka or Belfleur. But as practice shows, many of these experiments still ended in failure. But the budding of the eye of a pear on an apple-tree, a quince, and also on a hawthorn and mountain ash passes without serious problems.
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