- №1. Basic types of ceiling lighting fixtures
- №2. Types of luminaires for light distribution
- No. 3. Type of lamp for ceiling light
- №4. Features of the ceiling and the type of luminaire
- №5. How much light will a lamp give?
- №6. Style and material of performance
- №7. Ceiling lamp and room type
Spots, spot lighting, suspended chandeliers, chandelier-plates - the offer of ceiling lights is able to drive anyone crazy. Resist the huge assortment is not always easy, so many make the mistake and make a spontaneous, impulse choice, focusing only on the external attractiveness. Nevertheless, when choosing a ceiling light, you need to take into account a lot of other factors, take into account the size of the product, its design, the direction of the light flux, the type and height of the room, where it will be used. We get the most real multifactorial dependence, but it is not so difficult to solve this equation if we discard emotions and even before buying make it clear what kind of lamp is needed.
№1. Basic types of ceiling lighting fixtures
The main task of artificial lighting is clear even to the child. However, the light is not enough just to give light - it is important that this light helps create a comfortable environment. It should not strike in the eye, distort the colors of objects or make it difficult to perceive space. For the organization of some areas, bright illumination is required, while for the rest areas a soft diffused light is required. Obviously, one lamp can not cope with such different tasks, therefore, mankind came up with different designs of lighting devices.
Ceiling lamps can be divided into the following types:
- suspended. The most striking example is the usual chandelier. Such fixtures are fixed to the main ceiling by a chain, a spring or a bar, and are located at some distance from it. Bysizependant lamps can be very different: luxurious crystal chandeliers, for example, will fit well into large tall rooms. For rooms with low ceilings, suspended lights are not the best choice, but compact models can also be found. Chandeliers can create bothscattered common light, and directional- it all depends on the design of the plafond. Often a group of several suspended fixtures are installed above the dining table, the height of the suspension in some models can be adjusted. The number of lamps in such products is from 1 to tens;
- invoices. This includeschandelier-plates, they are often called plafonds. Such products are attached to the ceiling and are characterized by a flat compact design, due to which they are well suited for low spaces. Due to the variety of shapes, size, material of manufacture and other design features, the overhead lamps are not inferior to the outboard ones;
- built-in. Can be mounted in the construction of suspended or stretched ceiling, allow you to create an interesting lighting system, occupy a minimum of space, are installed on a level with the ceiling, can beturning. With the growing popularity of rack, gypsum plaster ceilings and other suspended structures such lamps are used more often. Often the concepts of embedded and spotlights are confused.Spot lightsIs a system of single compact luminaires, they can bebuilt-in ceiling or overheadand slightly protrude over its surface;
- spotsor soffits were obtained when the advantages of spotlighting and overhead lighting were combined in one design. Spots give a narrow beam, they have a swivel design, they are installed in several pieces on one guide. An excellent option if you want to enjoy the advantages of spot lighting, and suspension or stretch ceiling for some reason can not be done. In addition, it is worthwhile to make minimum efforts - and the direction of the light can be changed, creating the necessary atmosphere in the room;
- separately it is necessary to selectFlexible fixtures. This LED strip, less commonly used neon tubes and duralite cords. They take on the role of decorative lighting, located along the contour of the ceiling and in the ceiling skirting.
The choice of the type of ceiling light depends on what kind of lighting you need to create, what is the ceiling height in the room, and what technology they are made of. On the page http://gammasveta.ru/catalog/svetilniki_potolochnye/ There is so diverse assortment of ceiling lighting that everyone can choose the option that fully meets his requirements.
№2. Types of luminaires for light distribution
Depending on the design and material of the lamp, it can give light of different directions.By light distribution, the luminaires can be divided into the following types:
- directdistribution. This is a directional light flux for lighting a specific area, for example, a desk or a work surface in the kitchen. Such light is provided by spotlights and spots;
- mainly direct.In this case, light falls on the illuminated surface, and only a small part of it is scattered upwards, allowing to create in the rest of the room a pleasant uniform illumination. Such light is provided by lamps with shades of transparent material;
- predominantly diffuse lightingIt is created by the direction of the flow of light into the ceiling and the reflection of the rays from it. The design of many chandeliers ensures the creation of just such a light;
- diffuse lightingIt turns out when the light is directed to the ceiling and walls. The rays reflected from the surfaces create a pleasant and quiet lighting.
Naturally, to say how the type of light distribution is better, it is impossible - the choice of a particular type depends on the tasks assigned and the need to create coverage of a certain character.
By functionality, lighting can be:
- basic. It is necessary to navigate in space and comfortably engage in activities that do not require strong visual concentration;
- business, or zonal. Used to highlight places where brighter lighting is needed (for reading, work, sewing, etc.);
- ornamental. It is used for illuminating paintings, niches, arches, plinths or other interior elements. Can be used to create a certain atmosphere.
In one room, you may need a different kind of light, so in modern dwellings it is necessary to usemultilevel lighting. For this purpose, ceiling lamps of various types will be useful, which will be supplemented with LED ribbons, floor lamps, table lamps, sconces and lighting in cabinets.
No. 3. Type of lamp for ceiling light
Although the choice of a light bulb type is a completely different topic, we can not bypass it, since the lighting organization and the nuances of choosing a ceiling lamp design to some extent depend on which lamp will be is used.There are several options today:
- incandescent lampsare inexpensive, they have a pleasant warm light, but they also do not last long, are uneconomical, have low efficiency and high heat output, and therefore their scope of use is limited. If it is a question of choosing a ceiling light for a tension film ceiling, then it is better not to use incandescent lamps - they can damage the film with their heat;
- halogen lampsare similar to incandescent lamps, but in them the flask is filled with halogens, which allows to extend the service life somewhat. With dimmers such lamps can last up to 8 thousand hours, but they can not be called economical anyway. In addition, the heat transfer from them is also high;
- fluorescent lamps5 times more economical than incandescent lamps and 5-20 times more durable. The surface of such lamps is not very hot, the temperature of light can be almost any. The main disadvantage is the content of mercury vapors in the flask, so it is necessary to handle them carefully during operation. Problems are also associated with the disposal of such products. Among other drawbacks is the sensitivity to voltage drops, flicker and the need for some time so that the lamp starts to shine for a maximum;
- LED lamp- the most modern for today. They are 6-10 times more economical than incandescent lamps and 2-3 times luminescent lamps, they are durable (they shine up to 20-50 thousands of hours), are safe, do not require warm-up time, are not sensitive to voltage surges, are durable and do not heated. These are the most expensive lamps of all, but they are guaranteed for a couple of years, and they serve for years. For rooms where lighting is switched on every day for several hours - this is the best option.
№4. Features of the ceiling and the type of luminaire
Going to the store for a lamp, do not forget to take into account the features of the ceiling structure:
- low ceilingsand massive chandeliers - absolutely incompatible pair. Comfortable life can be ensured ifthe distance from the floor to the bottom edge of the luminaire is 2 m. In Khrushchev, where the ceiling, according to the project, m, it is better to use spotlights, spots and built-in lighting. At a ceiling height of more than 3 m you can look in the direction of beautiful hanging chandeliers, but do not forget to measure the size of the lamp with the area of the room - a small chandelier in a large room will look just as ridiculous as an excessively large lamp in a small premises;
- for concrete and wooden ceilingsMortise type of lamps is not suitable. It will be necessary to be content with different types of chandeliers, and if the ceiling height is small, then overhead lights and spots will come to the aid;
- for suspended ceilingsall kinds of lamps are suitable. It is important only when installing the structure to leave the required size of the technological gap between the main ceiling and hanging, and correctly cut openings for future lighting objects. Suspended ceilings give the maximum scope for imagination, allow you to organize a complex lighting scheme and hide all the wires;
- stretch ceilingAlso, you can create complex multi-level lighting. If you choose a film ceiling, it must be taken into account that it is afraid of strong heating, therefore incandescent lamps for built-in and overhead lamps are taboo. They can be used at a distance of 30-40 cm from the ceiling surface, the maximum power of incandescent lamps - 60 W, halogen lamps - 30 W. It is desirable that such lamps were directed not to the ceiling. For stretch ceilings, energy-saving lamps (light-emitting diode and luminescent lamps) which allocate a minimum of heat are best suited.
№5. How much light will a lamp give?
To create in the room a sufficient level of illumination, you need to choose the right design of luminaires, their number and lamps of the required power. For eachtype of premises requirements for the level of lighting are different:
- forbedroomsand other rooms with dimmed light, it is necessary to provide 10-12 W of lamp power per square meter;
- forchild, a bathroom and rooms with an average level of illumination - 15-18 W / m2;
- forkitchensand other rooms, where the light should be bright, - 20 W / m2.
We note at once that all the norms presented below concern general (not working and decorative) lighting. Parameters are given for incandescent lamps. When using lamps of a different type, you can use power level conversion tables.
For example, for a kitchen area of 10 m2 it is necessary to provide 200 W of lighting power. These are 5 incandescent lamps of 40 W, 10 incandescent lamps of 20 W or 2 per 100 W - all depends on the design of the luminaires and their number. If LED lamps are used, then 5 lamps will be needed for 4-5 W or 3 for 10 W.
Much, of course, depends on the nuances of the design. To light does not blind, choose opaque fixtures in which the plafond completely closes the lamp.
As for thespot lighting, then one lamp illuminates an area of about 2 m2. If such light will be used as the main one, and not as an additional one, then a lot of lamps will be needed - they are installed in steps of 1 m, the distance to the wall is m.
№6. Style and material of performance
Describe all the range of fixtures presented in the stores is not possible - literally every season, designers surprise us with new functional findings. This means that each of us gets a chance to equip the room exactly the way you want. On the other hand, the interior should be harmonious, thereforeThe luminaire must fully meet the chosen stylepremises.
Ceiling fixtures can beare made of such materials:
- metalallows you to create bothclassicalForged chandeliers, and ultramodern spots that will become an integral part of the interior instyle hi-tech or minimalism. The design can be made of different metals and alloys, have a shade from almost black to chrome. Metal is a plastic material that allows to form a lamp of any shape. Simple recessed metal fixtures fit inmodern interiors, unusual chrome chandeliers and spots - in stylemodern, whimsical forged - inclassic interior.There are options forLoft and even Provence;
- wooden fixtures- this is mainly chandeliers and overhead plafonds. They are diverse in size and shape, will be an adornment of the interior inethnic style(Japanese, country). Use such lamps better in dry rooms with a stable temperature regime;
- glass- a plastic material that allows you to create both exquisite suspended chandeliers and compact overhead lamps. In terms of shape, degree of transparency and color, the products can be radically different, but the general advantages areuniversality, effective appearance and resistance to various negative influences. To maintain the lamp in its proper condition, it will only be necessary to periodically wipe it from dust;
- textileas a rule, chandelier-plates, there are also suspended chandeliers with fabric shades. Textiles make it possible to realize any design idea and effectively dispels the light. Despite the fact that for the manufacture of such luminaires use strong fabrics with special impregnations, they do not have a place in kitchens. Textile lamp - a good option for interior in styleclassic, provence, country, boho- it all depends on the type of fabric and shape;
- plastic ceiling lights- it's hanging chandeliers and chandeliers-plates. Of plastic sometimes create very unusual products, they are not afraid of moisture, they are easy to clean, but with them it is better not to use ordinary incandescent lamps, which are characterized by high heat emission. Plastic lamp - a good option for an interior in stylemodern.
Also there are paper lamps, but this is an option for an amateur. If you do not find a suitable design, you can always create a plafond yourself.
As for thedesign of spotlights, then it does not differ by its special variety and delicacies, because the very essence of such constructions does not imply their underscore. Spot lights are needed to create bright local lighting, and for beauty it is necessary to take a chandelier.
The luminaire must match the style of the room not only with respect to the material of execution, but alsoform. So, for example, the modern style assumes the presence of smooth curved lines, which can be used in the luminaire. Classic interior is a chic crystal or forged chandelier. For hi-tech, both modest point lights and futuristic chandeliers made of metal and glass are suitable.
№7. Ceiling lamp and room type
We have no right to dictate to you the conditions and impose your opinion on the lighting of different rooms, but some rules still have to adhere to:
- in the living roomit is better to create multi-level lighting, so that in a few seconds it was possible to adapt the room to perform a particular function, the presence of dimmable fixtures is welcomed. You can provide a central hanging or an overhead chandelier, it all depends on the height of the room and the chosen style. It can be supplemented by dot illumination along the contour of the room and in separate zones. If you can not integrate the fixtures, the spots will work. Do not forget about LED ribbons, floor lamps and sconces, which will make the rest zone more cozy;
- kitchenequipped with a common diffused light, separately highlighted the working area with the help of bright directional light. Above the dining table can be placed several pendant lamps, the distance from them to the surface of the countertop - at least 60 cm. Preference is given to moisture-proof and easy-care materials. For small kitchens, a good solution will be spots, light from which you can send in different directions;
- hallway- this is often a compact room, but the light here needs to be quite bright, because the sun's rays do not penetrate here, and to discern yourself in the mirror before the exit somehow it is necessary. You can use a ceiling overhead lamp, spotlight or spot;
- atbedroomThe central luminaire should give a muffled soft light. If there is a closet in the room, then the area around it should be additionally highlighted. It is necessary to provide lighting in the bedside area;
- forbathroomselect compact, moisture-resistant lamps with a high radiation intensity;
- roomit is better to equip with a common ceiling lamp, which gives a minimum of shadows, and a table lamp. All original ideas of lighting design should be left for other premises - in the office lighting should be calm, monotonous and adjusted to the working process.
Finally, we note that it is better to draw up a lighting scheme at the repair stage, in order to advance the wiring or create the necessary holes. Competent planning will save you from a lot of problems and troubles.