content of the article:
It is a noble and popular tree would have on their sites, many gardeners. The problem is that not everyone knows how to plant a walnut in order to harvest it for many years. If you understand the features of this procedure, it becomes clear that this is not such an impossible task.
Basic breeding methods
Walnut is an unpretentious, cold-resistant plant that grows best in a temperate and mild climate. The tree has the ability to heal itself, as a result, instead of the shoots that died in severe winters, new ones almost always grow.
To learn how to plant a walnut, you should familiarize yourself with the main ways of its reproduction. You can spread this culture:
When planting a sapling, it is rather difficult to foresee what kind of fruits it will bring in the future, and whether they will be received. Therefore, cultivation from seeds is preferable, with about 80% of varietal traits guaranteed to be transmitted. You should pick nuts for planting from those trees that grow in your area.
If the uterine plant is correctly selected, growing the walnut tree in a vegetative way also ensures that the traits of the offspring and the mother tree are identical. An effective method of such reproduction is considered budding in open ground.
Cultivation of walnut from
seeds. Planting a walnut with seeds is considered one of the easiest ways to grow. This procedure can be carried out not only in spring, but also in autumn.
Fruits intended for planting must be large and ripe. Usually they are green with a light yellowish tinge and moderately firm shells.
It is best to collect the nuts intended for planting in the fall, when the tree actively fructifies and independently dumps ripe fruits. A reliable symptom of the ripeness of nuts is a crack in the pericarp or lagging behind the shell.
How to plant a walnut seed? First of all, the selected seeds should be soaked in warm water for 2-3 days, after which they undergo stratification for 2 months. To do this, they are placed in wet sawdust or sand contained at a temperature of 2-5 degrees. At the end of the stratification period, the seeds are placed in a warm room, where they are germinated. To this end, they are placed in containers filled with peat or wet river sand, and kept at a temperature of 5-7 degrees.
Observations show that the seeds that are free of pericarp are the best germination.
Autumn planting is done at the end of October, if climatic conditions allow, the seeds are placed in open ground. Practice shows that during the autumn planting it is possible to obtain more viable seedlings. Walnut planting in spring comes at the beginning of May.
The seeds will immediately be planted in a permanent place of growth, so it must be thought out in advance. This area should be protected from the wind and well lit. Depth of placement of seeds is 15-20 cm, put them in the hole with the seam up.
Planting walnut saplings
Efficient tree cultivation with the help of seedlings is achieved by observing all the subtleties of technology. In addition, for successful walnut growth will require the presence of such factors:
- good soil;
- sufficient illumination;
- required amount of moisture;
Usually the planting pit has a size of 70x70 cm, but if this is not enough for the root system, it is enlarged so that the roots of the future tree fit in the flattened state. In equal parts, the pit is filled with earth and humus.
Seedlings with a stem thickness of at least 1 cm are selected for planting, their height does not matter.
How to plant walnut seedlings correctly? Preliminary, their root system is recommended to be processed with the help of growth stimulants. Then the roots are straightened, placed in a hole and covered with earth, which is then slightly tamped.
The root neck of a seedling should be at ground level during planting.
After the end of the procedure, future trees are watered, and at least 3 buckets of water are required for each seedling. Pristvolnye areas mulch with leaves or sawdust.
Vegetative propagation method
Propagation by cuttings is also favored by many gardeners. A vegetative method is used to improve the properties of an existing variety.
The cuttings required for vaccination are cut from this year's shoots located on the southern side of the trunk at a height of at least 5 m. Before cutting, the tree should be watered well and the soil should be dug under it.
Using a sharp knife, several sharp cuts are made around the cutting, and then removed along with a 3x2 cm shield with an eye in the center.
To preserve moisture, the place of future vaccinations should be wrapped with a film. After 2 weeks, the shield with the kidney just cuts into the bark of a new tree and is fixed with tape. They take it off after 3 weeks, during which time the shield and stock have time to grow together.
Cultivation and care
In different climatic regions, select the appropriate varieties of seedlings with the desired properties. For example, the cultivation of walnut in the suburbs requires varieties such as Sadko, Ideal, Moscow region, which calmly tolerate low temperatures and do not need shelter for winter time.
Although some Belarusian growers consider growing walnuts on the territory of this country to be useless, their compatriots successfully practice planting such varieties as:
- Minova’s memory;
The successful cultivation of walnuts in Belarus is based on the correct selection of suitable varieties that can tolerate the characteristics of the climate. This example suggests that this tree can grow on almost any soil, but they must be loose, drained and fertile.
Whatever way a plant is planted, it grows slowly. Growing walnut requires care and patience. The tree needs constant feeding, pruning branches, and in strong heat it needs abundant watering.