- №1. Advantages and disadvantages of a concrete pool
- №2. Do you need a permit for the construction of a concrete pool?
- No. 3. Preparatory work and designing
- №4. Site preparation and digging
- №5. Arrangement of sand cushions and waterproofing
- №6. Reinforcement and arrangement of formwork
- №7. Features of pouring concrete
- №8. Alignment and waterproofing
- №9. Pool of concrete rings and blocks
- №10. Decoration of pool walls
- Finishing with tiles
- Decorating with mosaic
- PVC film
Lovers of water procedures sooner or later come to the idea of building a suburban or suburban area of their own pool. There are lots of options for its arrangement, and there are inflatable and frame pools on the market, which are inexpensive and very quickly installed. If the main requirement for the basin isdurability, strength and ability to withstand frost, temperature changes and mechanical damage, it is better to chooseconcrete bowl. You can not buy ready, so you'll have to get drunk and pour a pool of a certain shape. This can be done by using the services of specialists, and you can do it yourself - the process though laborious, but it is quite feasible with some skills, and the savings are substantial. So, what stages consists of the installation of a pool of concrete and what materials can be used to finish the walls and the bottom of the pool? We study the subtleties of the process and
Before proceeding with the construction of a stationary concrete pool, once again make sure that this is the best option, and it fully meets the requirements of the family and the periodicity of rest by the water:
- if you go to the countryonly on weekends, and that is not always, it is better to stop your choice on the inflatable pool;
- if the pool will be operated throughout the summer season, and the family is large, it is better to pay attention to the more solid prefabricated pool-type pools. After the swimming season,dismantle and deposit;
- if there is space, facilities, skills and high requirements for the strength of the pool design, the best choice is to create a concrete bowl for it. It will be more expensive than buying an inflatable or frame pool, but this is a capital construction that can be operated for years.
№1. Advantages and disadvantages of a concrete pool
Owners of summer residences and suburban areas make a choice in favor of concrete pools due to theirnumerous advantages:
- durability. The design will last at least 25 years, and during this time, about a dozen inflatable pools and 3-4 frames will become worthless. The benefit is obvious;
- aesthetics. To finish the walls and the bottom, you can choose a material of any color, and tile or mosaic will serve a lot;
- possibility to equip a swimming poolany size and shape;
The main disadvantages arecost of construction and labor intensity of the process. In addition, the functionality and longevity of the basin will largely depend on properly drawn up project, selection of finishing materials and quality of all technological processes.
№2. Do you need a permit for the construction of a concrete pool?
In most cases, you can do without reconciliationwith government services, but if it is planned to erect a large-scale construction, it is better to arrange it in the BTI, otherwise the pool will not be in the certificate of ownership. In the future the already constructed object can be legalized, but it is easier and cheaper to agree everything in advance.
If a pool of more than 4 m in depth is constructed, a length of more than 4 m and a width greater than m, which will be equipped with a starting cabinet or will be used for diving from the side,resolution of the Ministry for Emergency Situations and Consumer Protection. In those cases when the pool has a decent depth and is equippeddiving platform, it will be necessary to approve the project in the sports authorities, and the construction of the task is entrusted to specialists, but it is understandable - it is impossible to erect such an independently constructed structure. A small pool for family use by own strength is easy to erect, and you will not need to make out any documents.
No. 3. Preparatory work and designing
The first stage on the way to the construction of a concrete pool is the creation of a project and the thought over of all the technical trifles of the future facility. It is important to immediately determinesize and shape of the structure: these parameters directly depend on what place is allocated for the construction, and how many people will swim in the pool. For a comfortable rest, the swimming pool is quite suitable, depth, m and length, m, but in the case of arrangement of the diving tower, the depth of the bowl must be not less than, m. Do not forget to take into account that there should be a place around the pool for normal access to it or for arranging a recreation area. In addition, it is necessary to provide a place for the installation of all necessary equipment.
It is not recommended to place the pool too close to the buildings, so that the shadow does not interfere with the natural heating of the water. Under the tree crowns, the construction should also not be erected in order to facilitate further care of the pool.
To create a correctproject basinit is necessary to know the characteristics of soils, the level of groundwater, and also take into account the load on the walls and bottom of the pool, which determines their thickness. In the calculation it is worth taking the proximity of finding the nearby foundations, as well as the depth of underground communications, the distance to the points of supply and discharge of water and many other points. If it is planned to erect a more or less large swimming pool, it is better to consult with specialists or even to order a future pool design from them.
At the preparatory stageit is advisable to decide on the budget, choose the facing material for the walls, and also think about purchase of a filtration system, an electric heater, a chlorogenator, the arrangement of a staircase, a canopy and backlight. Also at this stage, think throughwater exchange system, which can be:
- skimmer. Good for swimming pools with straight angles. The water line passes through the middle of the skimmer window, and the contaminated water enters it under the action of the circulation pump and through the bottom draining enters the filtering equipment, where it is cleaned of mechanical impurities, disinfected, heated and returned to the pool;
- overflowing. It will cost more than skimmer, but it will be more effective. Water under such a system reaches the edge of the basin and through the tundish passes into the tank with an automatic topping device. From there, the water comes for cleaning and heating, and then returns to the bowl.
№4. Site preparation and digging
The selected place for digging the pool is enclosed by a strong rope, the margin at the sides should be 1 m to accommodate technical equipment, arrangement of sand and gravel cushion and formwork. Average,wall thicknessdo about 40 cm - this is for not very large pools. For the smallest structures it is allowed to erect a concrete bowl with a wall thickness of 30 cm.
Excavationcan be produced on its own, if it is necessary to dig a small pit. Otherwise, you will need to seek help from friends, a special team or use the appropriate technique. The walls of the excavation should not be ideally vertical: it is better to make a slope of 5-7 degrees to avoid soil shedding. The bottom of the bowl is also made with a slope towards the future plum, it is approximately 3-4 cm by 1 m.
№5. Arrangement of sand cushions and waterproofing
Gravel-sand cushion provides uniform load distribution and high-quality concrete pouring. To create a reliable foundation for the concrete bowl of the pool, first poursand layerthickness of 20-25 cm, or better all 30 cm and carefully tamped it. Then pourbed of crushed stonethickness of 10-20 cm and a fraction size of 20 * 40 mm, it is also carefully rammed. Important for backfilling and tampingnot break the bottom angle. If desired, between the layer of sand and gravel, you can use reinforced concrete piles, which will serve to further strengthen the structure.
Next stage -creation of a concrete foundation. To do this, use ready-made concrete, which is delivered to the site by a special mixer, or self-made. Since it will take a lot of it, it is better to use a concrete mixer. For concrete, concrete B25 can be used. Independently it is possible to prepare a suitable concrete composition at the rate of 325 kg of cement, 625 kg of sand, 1250 kg of crushed stone and 170 l of water per 1 m3. Thickness - 10-15 cm, and the concrete base should be 2-5 cm more from each edge of the future concrete bowl. If the level of the concrete foundation is below the groundwater level, then it will be necessary to equipdrainage, for which the perimeter is digging a trench 25-50 cm wide and covered with gravel.
On top of the concrete arrange layerwaterproofing, which is suitable for roofing paper (stack with a lap of 15-20 cm), bitumen, liquid rubber or PVC membrane. Waterproofing material should be on the wall 25-30 cm. Over the waterproofing lay a cement-sand screed.
№6. Reinforcement and arrangement of formwork
In fact, the construction of a concrete basin bowl is the creation of a typical reinforced concrete structure, consisting of reinforcing metal and concrete. For reinforcement chooseRibbed steel rod section 8-14 mm, to form an oval shaped bowl, you can use a rod with a diameter of 10 mm, which is sold in coils and is not limited in length. A mesh of reinforcement is equipped with 20 * 20 cm cells. Reinforcement is carried out in two tiers, under the bars of the bottom of the bowl, it is desirable to put fragments of bricks so that when pouring the concrete they remain in the thickness of the solution. Do not forget to make releases of the reinforcement for fixing the frame of walls.
For the construction of the frame, the armature is knitted with a wire with a cross section of 2-3 mm -Welding can not be used. Weld seams become a hotbed of corrosion, as in the welding process the structure of steel is broken and carbon is burned out. In addition, in the absence of backlashes in the joints, a strong stress on the frame occurs during the pouring of concrete, which can lead to a disruption in the integrity of the frame. It is very importantwaterproofing of carcass, since water can penetrate concrete and damage the reinforcement. After the assembly of the frame, it is treated with polymer paints, double staining can be used, sometimes multilayer staining or polymer mastics are used. After that, you can pour the bottom of the bowl of concrete, well tamped it and getting rid of excess air in its mass.
Reinforcing framework of wallsis constructed in exactly the same way as the bottom. When assembling the frame it is important not to forget to leavewindows for placement of embedded parts of the pool equipment. To fill the walls you needformwork, which determines the shape of the bowl. It is most convenient to do it fromwaterproof or laminated plywood- the material is well bent and will allow to create any shape of the pool. An alternative is a unified metal formwork. Between themselves, individual elements of the formwork are connected by screws, metal corners or nails. Internal spacers and external supports are carefully fixed, since the weight of concrete is considerable, the distance between them is about 50 cm. Filling is carried out by belts on 50-60 cm with obligatory vibrocompaction and deaeration.
№7. Features of pouring concrete
Since water will constantly influence the bowl of the concrete basin, the choice of concrete is especially meticulous. is hemustto withstand the impact of water, to be frost-resistant and very durable. Suitable concrete grade B25 and higher in strength, W6 and higher for water resistance and F100-150 for frost resistance.
The concreting of the basin is done in one of the following ways:
- continuous filling;
- casting in two stages.
Continuous Fillallows you to get a monolithic cup - this is a big plus. But for the implementation of the venture will require a well-coordinated work of several units of equipment, including an auto concrete mixer and an auto concrete pump.
Most often usedconcrete pouring in two stages: first make a bottom, then the walls of the bowl. The most dangerous place in this case is the junction point through which water can flow. To avoid such consequences, use a self-expanding cord with a cross-section, When immersed in water, such a cord significantly increases in volume and closes all the cracks. During the hardening of concrete it is best to periodically moisten with water.
Do not forget that for the embedded elements you need to equip the windows and do the formwork. The inlet of the fill and drain pipes and other elements are attached to the frame by means of wires, otherwise they can be shifted when pouring concrete. If the project involves arranging a smooth entry into the water in the form ofsteps, then to their arrangement pass after the concrete thicket is ready. The principle is the same: installation of plywood formwork and pouring concrete.
№8. Alignment and waterproofing
After hardening of the concrete, it is possible to remove the formwork and carry out the ironing with cement milk, for which 3-4 handfuls of cement are dissolved in a bucket of water. The solution is constantly shaken and applied to the surface with a plaster brush.Unevenness must be alignedusing plastering, which is carried out in one of the following ways:
- mesh plaster. In this case, it uses a conventional sand-cement mixture, which, for better adhesion and strength, is applied to a pre-attached steel plaster mesh;
- plastering on adhesive. The method involves treating the concrete surface with special impregnations with deep penetration. Due to the components that are included in their composition, the adhesion to the applied plaster layer, into which the adhesive polymer enters, increases.
After the plastering is carried outgrinding and cleaning. Then thewaterproofing, for which you can use:
- acrylic and epoxy resins, which after application upon solidification form a continuous polymer film;
- penetrating waterproofing. Such agents are distinguished by the presence in the composition of active chemical components that penetrate into the mass of concrete, react with calcium hydroxide, forming insoluble compounds on its basis. They fill the capillaries and all the microcracks in size up to, mm;
- two-component cement-polymer compositionsUsed for waterproofing large pools. They include cement and elasticizers, so they can even isolate cracks up to 1 mm;
- sealing tapescan be used to seal the joints of the walls and the bottom.
Particular attention in the performance of waterproofing is given to the places of joints of the walls and the bottom, the seams that appeared when pouring concrete, grooves, cracks and places for entering communications. The choice of the method of waterproofing depends largely on the final finishing material: for tiles and mosaics it should be ideal, and when using PVC film all the work on waterproofing is reduced to minimum.
№9. Pool of concrete rings and blocks
To simplify their lives, many summer residents go on tricks. Not wanting to deal with the formwork and concrete solution, some applyready-made concrete blocks. In this case, the installation process is reduced to pouring a flat base and mounting the walls of the blocks. They are held together by a solution, and every third row is strengthened by a grid. After all this, it remains to waterproof and finish.
Another option - to use a ready-made concrete ring, designed for the arrangement of wells or sewers. It is mounted on a layer of cement mortar, further, as usual: waterproofing and finishing.
№10. Decoration of pool walls
For finishing the walls and the bottom of the concrete pool, the following is usually used:
- PVC film:
- less often with wood or natural stone.
Finishing with tiles
For facing the walls and the bottom of the pool is not suitable for conventional ceramic tiles used in the bathroom, and porcelain, which is much less water absorption coefficient.Porcelain tilesmore frost-resistant and heat-resistant, does not absorb dirt, has good plasticity. At the bottom of the pool is better to lay the tile with a rough surface.
Tiling is carried outfor special adhesives. If the bottom and walls are decorated with the same tile, then you can start the finish from the bottom. When the sink is on one side, the tile can be laid in rows, taking into account the angle of inclination. If the drain is located in the center of the bowl, then the installation is carried out at the corners of the triangle. To do this, first determine the lines leading from the corners of the pool to opposite corners of the drain hole. The bottom will be divided into four conditional triangles, according to which the tiles are assembled, in order to better take into account the slope. The tiles begin to be laid from the wall row, then the lighthouse row is laid perpendicular to it, and then they move on to mounting the horizontal rows.
Onwalls of the poolThe tiles are mounted in the same way as on the walls of the apartment, checking the level and making identical seams. Lay the tile in horizontal rows, and if symmetry is especially important, then start from the middle of the row. The only difference is that the seams must be made thicker so that the water pressure does not cause cracks on the tile. Work seams with a frost-resistant and moisture-resistant grout.
Decorating with mosaic
The installation of the mosaic is much like the installation of a tile. It is a wear-resistant, durable material, characterized by its excellent appearance. The best choice -glass mosaic, which absolutely does not absorb moisture and has a record longevity, true, and this material is not cheap. A more affordable solution is ceramic mosaic. With the help of the mosaic, you can create interesting ornaments, spread out panels, and some to reduce the cost of combining the tile with a mosaic.
PVC film is characterized by low price, excellent waterproofing qualities, lightness and relative simplicity in laying. It withstands the influence of sunlight, temperature changes, chemicals, it is easy to clean. Among the minuses - not a record longevity, it will last for an average of 7 seasons.
The thickness of the film, as a rule, reaches 1 mm, it consists of 4 layers, one of which must be necessarily a strong synthetic material, for example, polyesterol or Kevlar. At present, such types of films are used for the arrangement of swimming pools:
- polyvinylchloride, which is based on plasticized PVC. The material is treated with special impregnations to protect against fungus and bacteria, the appearance is diverse;
- butyl rubber filmit has better indicators of durability and strength, it easily tolerates temperature changes, severe frosts, it can be cut with scissors and glued together. Ideal for large outdoor pools.
It is important to use geotextile under the film. The material itself is mounted with overlapping, fixed by hot welding, seams are sealed with hot PVC. Then follows the stretching of the coating over the walls of the bowl and welding it to a preassembled fixing strip. The final stage is the welding of the film in the inner corners of the pool. Everything is clearly described in the visible.
№11. What else to consider?
Consider the needshed: it not only protects the pool from some pollution, but also allows you to keep the heat of the water. You can choose a ready-made folding canopy - these are not very expensive designs, which you can create on your own. An alternative is the construction of a metal frame and the installation of a polycarbonate, as a result, something like a greenhouse will turn out.
After the erection of the concrete bowl and its cladding, all the necessary equipment for filtering and heating water is installed. Hydrotechnically, the pool is similar to a bath, but the sink is slightly different. It is equipped with a damper and a multi-turn stop valve: when water is released, move the damper, and then open the valve, the siphon on the sink does not equip, the discharge pipe must be at least 60 mm in Dimeter. As for the heating of water, the boiler is usually used, sometimes for saving - specialHelio heaters for swimming pools. Also think about lighting the pool.
The construction of a concrete basin is not an easy task, and if a small bowl is still fully equipped with its own hands, a massive structure will require professional help. Before the start of construction, appreciate your own capabilities and budget - this will help keep your nerves and time.