The flora of our planet is diverse and amazing. It would seem that everything has long been studied and known. But from time to time, each person discovers something new and unusual from the plant world.
One of such discoveries for many was water chestnut - a unique plant with a long history and healing properties.
Table of contents
Botanical description of the water nut, ripening season
Area and habitat of the Chilim
Composition and nutritional value of water chestnut
Useful properties of the
Botanical description of the water nut, the schedule of the ripening season, the age of the ripening season, the ripening season, the ripening season, the ripening season, the season of ripening, the season of ripening, the season of ripening and the season of ripening Chilim and floating rover.
The fruit of the water nut is a small : up to 2-2.5 cm in diameter, up to 4 cm in length. It has from 2 to 4 long processes that look like curved horns, so the people of the plant are also called as hell-nuts .
Flowering plant in early-mid-summer white small flowers. Chilim flowers bloom just a few hours. In the place of flowers ripen the seeds of fruits in the autumn - from 5 to 12 pieces on each plant.
One seed is formed inside the black-brown fruit, which occupies all the internal space. Surprises the property of the seed to maintain its viability for a long time.
Most seeds germinate in the first two years, some of them can take root in 10-12 years, and according to some information - in 50!
The reproduction and distribution of the chilim occurs precisely with the help of fruits that spread and extend the area of the plant.
The spread of seeds also occurs with the help of animals - the horns of fruits cling to the fur of animals that have come to drink, and are transferred to other places.
Devil's nut belongs to the aquatic annuals, being a representative of the genus Rogulnik and the family Derbennikovye. Its stalk grows in spring from a pond that fell to the bottom of the reservoir.
The length of the flexible stem reaches 3.5-5 m, and when the water level rises, the stem can separate from the bottom and develop in the water column. When the water level drops and the roots sink to the bottom, the plant takes root again.
On the stem of the chilim, two types of leaves grow. Linear opposite leaves are formed throughout the stem, located in the water column. The second type of leaves is a beautiful multi-tiered socket, floating on the water surface.
Leathery oval or diamond-shaped leaves with teeth on the edges are very similar to birch leaves. The length of the petioles is 5–9 cm, and by the time the fruit is ripening, air cavities( swimming bubbles) are formed on the petioles, which provide the socket with additional buoyancy.
In the autumn season, ripe fruits fall to the bottom of the , and the plant dies. With the onset of spring, the growth of water nut begins on a new one.
The habitat and habitat of the Chilim
The history of the appearance of the water nut has more than 25 million years. Paleontologists have discovered the fruits of chilim in the layers of the earth, whose age corresponds to the Neogene era.
Even primitive people ate relic nuts in food .According to some sources, three thousand years ago in China, the plant was specially bred for medicinal and culinary purposes.
In ancient times, the croaker played the role of one of the staple foods. Archaeologists during the excavation of settlements dated X-XII centuries., Discovered large reserves of bloody nuts.
In Russia, they were eaten raw, boiled, dried or baked on fire, from dried fruits were ground flour. The plant was distributed on the territory of present-day Russia and Ukraine almost until the end of the XIX - beginning of the XX century.
Since that time, the Chilim began to fade gradually due to the massive catch, climatic conditions and the qualitative composition of water bodies.
Nowadays, chilim is growing in the vast expanses of Africa and Asia, .The Asian area includes Japan, India, Pakistan, China, Vietnam and Turkey.
On the territory of the former Soviet Union, the plant is found in Georgia, Kazakhstan, the European part of Russia, the Far East, the south of Western Siberia and in the waters of the Dnieper basin.
The water nut lives in standing lakes and marshes, floodplains of slow-flowing rivers with fresh water and a muddy bottom.
grows in ecologically clean water bodies of Chilim, forming continuous thickets, the plant dies out in polluted plants. Rogul is sensitive to fluctuations in water temperature and light and is a kind of marker that characterizes the state of lakes and rivers.
Repeated attempts by nerds to grow water chestnut in "home" conditions ended in defeat. It is listed in the Red Book and environmental lists of different states.
Composition and nutritional value of water chestnut
The white kernels of bloody nuts are not just tasty, but also useful. The calorie content of fruits is relatively small - 200 kcal per 100 g of , which allows them to be eaten by supporters of proper nutrition and those who care about the figure.
The nutritional value per 100 g of the product is:
proteins - 11.9 g;
fats - 3.4 g;
carbohydrates - 55.4 g;
water - 10.4 g;
ash - 2.4 g.
The healing properties of chilim are explained by the content of a wide range of beneficial substances. All parts of the water chestnut contain :
minerals: manganese, calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium and chlorine.
Useful properties of
If water chestnut in our regions is not so popular as a remedy, then in the vast expanses of Asia traditional medicine cannot do without .
There is probably no disease for which Tibetan monks and Chinese healers would not use a rodent.
The list of indications for medical use is quite large:
diuretic( diuretic) remedy - used to treat kidney and urinary system;
antimicrobial and antiviral - helps get rid of gonorrhea, herpes, follicular and purulent tonsillitis;
fixing - fresh fruit or fresh juice is eaten with diarrhea;
antitumor - treats tumors of various nature;
choleretic - activates the liver and gallbladder;
astringent - accelerates wound healing;
antispasmodic - relieves pain and cramps;
toning - increases vitality and performance;
sedative - soothes and helps fight stress;
Tonic - helps to recover from severe ailments.
. Rogul-based medicines have proven themselves in the treatment of atherosclerosis, impotence, eye diseases, dental pain, insect bites and snakes.
For medical purposes, is used not only for the kernel of nuts, but also for the stems, flowers and leaves. Chilim is used to prepare fresh juice, spirit tinctures, tinctures on the steam bath and decoctions.
Chilima vodka tincture is used to clear blood vessels. To do this, pour 10 kernels of walnut with a glass of vodka and insist for 10 days.
Tincture is taken three times a day and 1 tbsp.lThe course of treatment lasts 10 days, repeated treatment is carried out after 10 days break.
has been squeezing cold sores of herpes on the lips and itchy insect bites. The juice diluted with water( 10: 1) rinses off the throat during inflammations of the throat and oral cavity.
Beauticians use watercake extract for the treatment of acne and skin inflammations.
Doctors warn that individual tolerability of chilim is possible, but such facts were not officially recorded.
As already mentioned, the tasty and juicy fruits of are eaten raw or boiled in salted water .When baking, the delicacy reminds roasted chestnut to taste.
Flour obtained by grinding dried fruit is added to bread, tortillas and pancakes. Seed pulp is used in salads, snacks and confectionery.
Hazelnut cooking is available mainly for people in Asian and African countries. Those who are lucky to get these unique fruits can try the most popular recipes in their kitchen.
Hazelnut in bacon .This dish is more complicated, it needs 240 g of canned water chestnuts.
Dry bacon( 1.5 kg) cut into slices, wrap in each nut and fix with a toothpick. If the fruits are very large, they can be cut into two halves. Bacon put in a baking dish.
In a saucepan, mix 1 cup of ketchup, 1 cup of brown sugar and 1 teaspoon of worcester sauce, heat to boiling. Pour the hot sauce over the bacon, put the form in a preheated oven to 180 ° C.Bake until ready 45-50 minutes.
salads Puree. For making mashed potatoes, 200 g of fruits should be peeled and cut into slices. Put sliced fruit into a saucepan and pour 150 g of milk. Cover the pan with a lid and cook for 30-40 minutes.
At the end of cooking, rub the nut pieces through a sieve or crush with a tolkushku, add milk, in which fruits, butter and sugar were cooked to taste. The resulting mass is heated, stirring so as not to burn.
Prepared mashed potatoes are used as a side dish for meat dishes.
Stewed Chilim with apples .Clean 100 g of chilim, add boiled water and stew under a lid.100 g of apples peeled and cut into slices.
Add apples to chilim, put butter and sugar to taste in a saucepan. Simmer everything together until the fruit is soft.
Fruits of nuts are added to fresh cucumber, radish and cabbage salads. Spicy herbs, celery, onions and garlic enhance the flavor of the rosary.
Store the fruits of water chestnut in a cool place ( refrigerator or cellar), previously wrapped in cotton cloth.
Peeling nuts is immediately prior to the preparation of , otherwise the peeled fruits quickly lose their taste.
Having seen a spectacular rosette leaf rosette on the water surface, you know, this is not some kind of aquatic weed, but a wonderful plant with nourishing fruits and unique healing properties.