Groundnut, or peanut, is a member of the legume family. It belongs to the few plants whose fruits develop and grow underground .It is considered a valuable oilseed, widely used in the food industry.
Table of contents
- Description and history of the origin of the ground nut
- General aspects of the subsection of the subsectionThe number of yellowish seeds enclosed in them is usually from 1 to 3, the maximum can reach 6 pieces. The seed coat accepts various shades of : dark purple, red, pink or variegated.
As a result of pollination of flowers and subsequent fertilization, the lower part of the ovary grows. It forms a gynofor - a shoot that penetrates the wet layers of the soil and forms a fruit. If the flowers are located at a height of more than 20 cm from the ground, then they have no chance of seed formation.
Translated from the Greek, peanuts mean spider. The plant owes its name to the similarity of the mesh pattern on the surface of the pod with the cobweb. And is often called peanut due to its fruit ripening method.South America is considered the historical homeland of the valuable product. It was from there that he began his journey through the world. At the beginning of the XVI century, the Portuguese brought the seeds of peanuts to India, the colony of Macau and Japan. On the Philippines and Madagascar walnut came from Spain.
At the end of the 16th century, Portugal founded a colony in Canton. The plant turned out to be in China, where the locals appreciated it. Peanuts helped solve the problem of hunger in the country and was named Chinese walnut .
The next destination was Africa, where it settled down well on practically infertile soils. Sown areas of peanuts grew rapidly, and oilseeds were grown for export.
Mass distribution of nuts in the United States began in the XIX century after the Civil War of 1861 .On the advice of the American agricultural chemist George Carver, farmers alternated the sowing of peanuts and cotton, often dying due to a cotton weevil. Soon, nut yields exceeded cotton income many times and became the main crop in the southern United States.
D. Carver has developed hundreds of varieties of products and products from the plant. Peanuts are part of drinks, dyes, cosmetics, medicines.
Russia was able to appreciate all the benefits of culture at the turn of the XVIII-XIX centuries. The most suitable for climatic conditions of the territory for the cultivation of peanuts are located in the Caucasus , Central Asian republics, in the southern part of Ukraine, in the North Caucasus.
Calories and Vitamin Composition Peanuts are high in calories: 100 g products contain 551 kcal .People who are prone to obesity, it is not recommended to get involved in nuts, especially roasted.
product. Despite the peanuts belonging to the legume family, it is closest to nuts in the content of nutrients and vitamins.
The chemical composition includes:
- the main nutrients - proteins( 26.3 g / 100 g), fats( 45.2 g / 100 g), carbohydrates( 9.9 g / 100 g);
- fiber , sugar, starch;
- vitamin complex ( B, C, E, PP);
- micro and macronutrients - phosphorus, zinc, iron, copper, calcium, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium, selenium.
Useful properties and disadvantages of
Specialists who studied the properties of peanuts, concluded that the benefits and harms of the product are about the same. If to consider contraindications to the use and to observe a measure, then unpleasant consequences can be avoided.
The benefits of groundnut are as follows:
- The proteins and fats contained in peanuts are easily absorbed by the body. Rich vitamin and elemental composition puts the nut on a par with products recommended for healthy eating.
- The presence of linoleic acid reduces the risk of developing sclerosis. With sufficient content of this important component in the body, the synthesis of essential fatty acids - linolenic and arachidonic - takes place. They allow you to maintain a normal level of cholesterol in the blood.
- Peanut fruit helps to increase blood clotting , which reduces blood loss from injuries and in patients with hemophilia.
- Because of its high antioxidant content, walnut( especially roasted) is a useful prophylactic agent for heart and vascular disease. Slows aging processes and cancer cell division.
- Natural fiber in the composition of peanuts helps to improve the digestion of , the removal of pathogenic bacteria from the body.
- Tryptophan, an amino acid that is part of the peanut, produces the serotonin hormone in the body. Its high content removes people from depression, restores the nervous system after stress.
- Has cholagogue action .
- Is a good helper in the fight against infections, improves the immunity of .
- With constant use of fruits in small quantities in people, showed an improvement in hearing, memory, and increased attention concentration.
Products derived from nuts have practically the same beneficial qualities:
- peanut butter preserves the complex of necessary vitamins and elements;
- peanut milk has a positive effect on the gastrointestinal tract;
- peanut paste provides the body with energy.
- The seed coat can cause allergic reactions , usually expressed by itching and redness of the skin. In rare cases, vomiting, laryngeal swelling is possible.
- In diseases of the joints, consumption of foods high in protein is contraindicated.
- If the seed treatment, transportation or storage technology has been impaired, the nut can accumulate toxins. Therefore, when buying, you must make sure that there is no mold on the shell. Foreign smell is also unacceptable.
- People with varicose veins should not eat peanuts due to its ability to make blood thicker than .
The famous peanut diet raises many questions. On the one hand, the nut promotes fast splitting of fats. On the other side of the scale - high calorie product.The decision to use peanuts for prophylactic purposes or for the treatment of any disease should be made only after consulting a doctor. It is necessary to strictly adhere to the recommendations of experts. Abuse of any product can cause irreparable harm to the body.
Application of peanuts
The taste of nuts is familiar to everyone. Roasted, salty, sweet, honey-sesame - you can buy them at any store. In a crushed form, peanuts are a part of various bakery products , chocolate pastes, halvah, creams, coffee drinks.
Most of the crop is processed for the manufacture of vegetable oil. The highest grade is used in canning and confectionery production. The lower grades of peanut butter are used to make high-quality Marseille soaps.
Nut protein is a component of various types of glue, plastic .It is used in the production of vegetable wool - ardila.
The plant's plant goes to feed the cattle.A curious fact - in the USA, peanuts are even found in dynamite, in Russia this function is performed by soybeans.
To grow a really high-quality product and harvest a rich crop, should strictly follow the recommendations of :
The soil moisture is of great importance for the growth of a crop, especially during flowering. The main thing is not to overdo it with watering. Stagnant water will adversely affect the crop - rotting of the roots and the appearance of spots on the leaves will lead to the death of the plant.
- Pre-sowing treatment with fertilizers allows you to double the yield. Growing peanuts requires good lighting and warm soil. The optimum temperature for germinating seeds is 25-300C.The lower limit at which their germination is still possible is not lower than 140C.
- Landing is best done at the beginning of June. .At this time, the risk of frost on the soil is minimal. For sowing, dried seeds and beans are used. Gardeners recommend choosing large seeds, otherwise you can not wait for germination.
- ( sometimes a little more) put 3-6 pieces of nuts into the well of depth of 7-10 cm, the distance between the sowing rows is not less than a meter. On wet soils, sow seeds 3 cm from the surface.
Given that the nut ripens underground, it is difficult to establish the exact date of harvest. On average, it is 3-4 months for early varieties and up to half a year for late ones. You can estimate the degree of their readiness by trying a few pieces to taste.
Collect peanuts in dry weather. .Shrubs should be easily pulled out of the ground. When the soil begins to freeze, most of the crop risks remaining underground.
The beans are then dried in the sun for several weeks and taken to storage or processing.
Rules of care
For a good harvest you need to take care of the seedlings.
Cold water should not be used to water bushes, especially in hot weather.
- To create the necessary moisture for , peanut must be watered every 2 weeks with .In a dry time, this period is reduced by half.3-4 weeks before harvesting, watering is stopped.
- After the appearance of the inflorescences, conduct regular hilling of the bushes .
- Mandatory weeding .
- Application of fertilizers at least 3 times during the ripening period. Top dressing can significantly increase the yield, reducing the number of underdeveloped beans.
It is not recommended to grow peanuts in the same area more than 2-3 times in a row to avoid contamination of the culture with pathogenic organisms that persist in the soil and plant residues.
Peanuts are a unique culture. As a representative of leguminous plants, it ripens in the ground, like potatoes. It carries many benefits as a preventive and therapeutic agent .And the wide scope of the nut in various types of industry makes it a universal product.