Black currant fell in love with the summer residents of due to its unpretentiousness to the soil and the ability to survive freezing to -25 degrees without preparation.
But you can count on getting a full-fledged harvest only with timely care of berry bushes.
Table of contents
- Do I need to prepare black currants for winter in the Moscow region, in the Urals and in Siberia?
- How to help the berry bush to winter?
- Bending the branches of the bush
- Pruning in the fall
- Fertilizing and caring for the soil as a preparation for hibernation
- Properly prepare without making mistakes
Do I need to prepare black currants for winter in Moscow, the Urals and Siberia?
With proper care, it can produce yields of up to 15–20 years of .The first few seasons of active fruiting summer residents can count on picking large berries without extra work.
But over time, the bush grows, the old branches give a scanty crop and prevent sunlight from reaching the young shoots.
Together with this , the soil is depleted of , and there is a shortage of nutrients in the plant. Branches and roots are damaged by pests and fungal diseases.
Comprehensive preparation of black currants for winter carries a number of advantages:
- Increase in yield.
- The absence of old branches allows young shoots to receive a sufficient amount of light. Berries grow larger and more rich in vitamins.
- Digging helps get rid of pests, smooth out the effects of frost and retain moisture.
- The plant will be able to safely winter.
- It is much more convenient to harvest from a refined bush.
- Thanks to regular "rejuvenation", it is able to bear fruit for up to 15-20 years.
How to help the berry bush to winter?
This will require to cut the bushes, prepare the soil, apply fertilizer and bend the branches to protect them from freezing and damage during strong winds.
Bending the branches of the bush
Despite the high frost resistance of this garden crop, , as the temperature drops below -25 degrees, its shoots freeze and begin to die. This can lead to a significant reduction in yield or even death of the plant.
To avoid this, you need to bend the branches to the ground. This can be done in several ways.
The easiest way is to pin the shoots to the ground with bricks. To do this, you need to group the branches in 3-5 pieces, alternately bend the bundles to the ground, put a board on them and press it with a brick.
to the ground with bricks or non-metallic tiles. But it is better to use non-metallic tiles for this , placing the stems in its furrows. The branches grow in different directions, they need to be bent in that direction, having no more than 2-3 shoots underneath one load. Otherwise they may be subject to excessive fracture.
Instilling .This method is used by gardeners who are faced with frosts below -35 degrees, when there is no snow layer on the soil. In this case, the plants need to be covered with a layer of soil at 10 cm.
But since the bush must be able to breathe, icing up this protective cushion can damage it.
Pruning in the fall.
This procedure is carried out after the leaves fall off .The following branches are subject to removal:
- dried and diseased;
- old dark brown thick stems;
- superfluous, least strong young shoots. Thin branches will be harder to winter, they will become an extra burden on the root system.
saws. For cutting off old and thick branches, you may need to use an wood saw, and a shears or garden shears will be enough to remove the young shoots.
It is necessary to leave the strongest, fruitful, non-shadowing stems, and young zero( root) shoots located near the main trunks.
Excessively thin branches will hardly survive the winter and will not delight the gardener with high yields, but will only load the root system.
Pruning needs to be done at the very ground. When the stumps protrude above the ground by more than 2–3 cm, they often start growing again.
The entire bush should contain about 14-16 shoots.3-4 stalks from 1 to 3-4 years old. Timely replacement of old stems with new growths will help maintain yields for many years.
The tips of zero shoots need to be shortened by , as are the dying tips on older shoots. This will contribute to abundant spring branching.
Pruning is also needed as a preventive measure against fungal and other diseases. Deleted residues are recommended to burn.
Pruning black currant bushes in the fall:
Fertilizing and caring for the soil as a preparation for wintering
First you need to prepare and clean the soil around the bush from old mulch and leaves that are a breeding ground for pests, fungal and viral diseases.
The leaves will need to be burned or placed in a compost pile away from the berry bushes.
For disinfection of soil , you can use the solutions of the following drugs:
- copper sulfate;
- 0,3% solution of copper oxychloride;
- potassium permanganate;
- 1% Bordeaux liquid.
If, before the foliage falls off, the currant bush should be abundantly sprayed with a solution of urea( urea), you can get rid of a variety of bacteria and fungi. For its preparation, it will be necessary to dissolve 100 grams of urea in 10 liters of water.
After cleaning the soil from organic remains and disinfecting it, can proceed to digging .If you do this before frosts, you can get rid of many pests that hibernate in the upper soil layer.
The digging is carried out with garden forks. It should be combined with the introduction of 10 kg of organic matter. Light soils can be “fluffed up” with special rippers.
Immediately near the base of the bush, the ground can be dredged to a depth of 5-6 cm, along the perimeter - up to 15 cm. It is important not to damage the roots.
If the soil is dense, its clumps need to be crushed with pitchforks and rakes. Then the soil can be disinfected again by spraying it with one of the previously described solutions.
Fertilizing with mineral fertilizers is done before digging, together with it, or sprinkling fertilizer around the bush before precipitation, putting it in the ground with a ripper or a rake. In the fall, only phosphorus and potassium can be applied to the soil.
Superphosphate( 50-80 grams) can be used as a phosphate feed. Potassium sulphate is also introduced( 20-40 grams).
Wood ash contains potassium, phosphorus and many other elements, so you can replace it with mineral fertilizers or supplement them. Under the bush during digging you will need to make 100 grams( 250 ml) of the substance. It can be diluted in water and immediately pour liquid over the ground.
Ash must be ground before entering into the soil. It cannot be used together with nitrogenous fertilizers: carbamide, droppings, manure. Ash can be stored for many years, but only in a dry state, being, for example, in a closed bank.
The fertilized and loosened soil needs to be covered with fresh mulch: compost, sunflower husk, rotten sawdust or leaves of non-crop crops that do not contain pests that threaten currants. It will save the bush from frost and prevent rapid loss of soil moisture.
When snow falls, it is necessary to throw it on the berry bush and around , and slightly tamp. In the absence of it, the plant can be sprinkled with forest foliage, needles or covered with agrofiber.
Properly prepare without making mistakes
It is worth highlighting several common mistakes gardeners, which they make at the same time:
- The introduction of fresh manure under the bush. Excess nitrogen contained in it, will make the plant thrive, which will adversely affect its preparation for the winter. This will make the bush more susceptible to cold weather. Manure can be spread under currants only after the onset of stable cold weather.
- Covering the bush with plastic wrap and other synthetic materials. Without air access, the plant often dies.
- Breaking off branches with hands, nippers and cutting them with a knife weakens a bush.
- Late currant application, when it has already completed fruiting, of high doses of organic matter. This leads to an abundant build-up of green mass and the laying of a small number of flower buds. The plant develops rapidly until the beginning of frosts and do not have time to prepare for them.
In the Moscow region, in the Urals and in Siberia, with the first signs of the onset of spring, it is necessary to release the bush and allow its stem to develop and dissolve the buds.
Excessively finding a bush under cover will make it impossible to produce enough organic matter to produce a bountiful harvest.
Preparing currant bushes for wintering: