Currant is a very useful berry, most often it is used to make various compotes and juices, it is also included in various jams and preserves.
To grow such a plant at the dacha is quite simple. Also, red currant rather unpretentious plant.
Table of contents
- How to grow red and black currants?
- Dates for planting at their summer cottage
- Planting and growing currants
- Soil Preparation
- planting methods
- individual planting
- Ordinary landing
- Landing on the trellis
- planting rules
- prevention of diseases and pests
- Preparing for winter in the country
How to grow red and black currants?
In order for a red or black currant to grow well and bring abundant and annual crops, it is necessary to choose the right place for planting so that the bushes are comfortable:
- it is not recommended to plant currants on the places where the old bushes of this crop or gooseberry grew before;
- the groundwater level should be no higher than 1.5 meters, otherwise the root system may rot or even die;
- is also not recommended to plant currants in lowland places where rainwater or melting snow accumulates;
- health and yield of shrubs directly depends on the amount of sunlight. In the absence of these indicators, the plant begins to hurt and ceases to resist pests, the berries become less or disappear altogether;
- gusty winds have the same effect on currants, so the place should be not only not shaded, but also protected from the north and east winds. For the cultivation of the bushes do not need a special agricultural technology. Everything can be done by hand.
Currants grow well on almost any soil, exceptions are:
- sandy soil;
- rocky ground;
- swampy areas.
Also, this crop prefers neutral soil, therefore, in the presence of acid soil, it is necessary to preliminate it. To do this, 400 grams of crushed limestone or 300 grams of hydrated lime are added to one square meter of land.
Timing for planting at the dacha
Currants can be planted both in spring( late March - early April) and in autumn( mid-September - early October).But experienced gardeners recommend to perform exactly the autumn planting, because it has a large number of advantages:
- The seedlings have time to take root before the onset of cold weather and tolerate winter frosts well. And during the spring carrying out of this procedure, the shrub actively develops the root system, but also spends forces on growing foliage and leaves to spend the winter in a weakened form, due to which it can not survive frosty weather and simply die;
- Plants also planted in the fall move faster to grow and, accordingly, begin to bear fruit faster.
Planting and growing currants
The initial stage of currant planting is the timely preparation of the soil:
- When carrying out the autumn planting, the pit is prepared approximately 3-4 weeks before the procedure itself, and during the spring planting, the hole must be dug in September. Preliminary preparation is needed to make the soil more fertile;
- Considering the biological structure of the red currant root system, the depth and width of the pit is usually 40-50 centimeters;
- While digging a hole, the bottom layer is folded separately from the top one. After that, the fertile( upper) land is mixed with:
- 2 buckets of compost, humus or rotted compost;
- 100 grams of superphosphate;
- 90 grams of potassium sulfate.
- In this form, the landing pit is left until the seedling is planted.
. Planting methods.
. Single planting.
. With such planting, currants bring the greatest amount of harvest and live much longer than with other methods. Experienced gardeners recommend planting plants at a distance of at least two meters from other trees and shrubs.
This method is suitable for those gardeners who want to pick the maximum number of berries from minimal areas. Usually ordinary landing is used in commercial cultivation of red currants. The only disadvantage is the rapid deterioration of plants and, accordingly, their rapid death.
Using this method, you should take into account the characteristics of each variety and shrubs with a lush crown should be planted at a distance of 120-150 centimeters, and plants with a more compact arrangement of shoots at a distance of 70-110 centimeters.
Landing on the trellis
To achieve the desired effect, shrubs are planted at a distance of 50-100 centimeters from each other. After 2-3 years, the currant branches are fixed on the installed trellis. In this case, you can get a continuous fruiting plane.
The technology of planting black currants is as follows:
- It is best to have a seedling in a hole at an angle of 45 degrees, but also vertical planting, which is much simpler and more familiar;
- The root neck should be 5-6 centimeters deep in the ground;
- burying a hole, you should periodically shake the seedling to avoid the formation of air pockets between the roots of the plant;
- At the next stage, the ground must be carefully tamped.
- In order for a plant to stick well in a new place, it is not enough just to plant it .It is necessary to provide proper care for a young bush:
- Immediately after planting, a small groove is dug around the currant, into which you need to gradually pour a bucket of water. Such a procedure will not only moisten the soil, but also improve the contact of the roots with the soil;
- After the water dries, the groove is filled with humus, peat, or simply dry earth;
- The ground around the bush can also be mulched to a height of 5-10 centimeters;
- To accelerate the formation of the crown of the shrub and avoid the appearance of weak growth immediately after planting all the branches of the plant are shortened to 2-4 buds.
Proper planting procedures are the key to success in growing a healthy shrub and producing a rich harvest.
In order for the shrub to give as much harvest as possible, it is necessary to properly care for it and not to neglect even the most insignificant procedures.
The earth around the shrub needs to be periodically loosened in order for the root system to receive the required amount of moisture and oxygen. In the root zone, loosening is carried out to a depth of 5-6 centimeters, gradually increasing to a depth of 15 centimeters as it recedes from the base of the plant.
Currant can tolerate short-term drought, but to obtain abundant crops, it is necessary to maintain 80 percent soil moisture.
During the irrigation, you need to soak the ground with moisture for 40-50 centimeters, for this the young bushes will need 2 buckets of water, and an adult 4-5.There are several ways to irrigate:
- can dig a groove around the plant and gently pour water into it;
- for large landings tear up a trench and install a hose with water in it.
In order for a bush to start a bountiful crop and a large crop, it is necessary to make various top dressings that feed the soil in a timely manner. In the first 2 years after planting, it is not necessary to fertilize the land with , the plant will have enough nutrients introduced during planting.
. Prevention of diseases and pests.
. To avoid the appearance of diseases and pests, the shrub must be treated with special preparations and sanitary and thinning pruning should be carried out.
- Currants are watered once at the beginning of May, but if the winter is not enough snow and spring is dry, then this procedure is postponed to April;
- Immediately after the snow has melted, it is necessary to thoroughly gnash the ground;
- In the spring, trees are treated for diseases and pests with the help of special preparations or Brodsky fluids;
- During this period, it is necessary to carry out thinning pruning, removing all frozen, damaged or excessively thickening crown branches.
At the beginning of leaf blooming, currants are fertilized with 50 grams of urea and 500 grams of wood ash. Scatter feed dressing under a bush, and then gently bury. It is worth remembering that moisture is needed to dissolve fertilizers, so if the ground is dry and no precipitation has occurred for a long time, the procedure should be carried out after abundant watering.
During flowering, red currants are fertilized with complex mineral fertilizer and bird droppings.
Also, in spring the shrub needs to be fed with organic fertilizers( humus, compost, manure, etc.).On fertile soils, this procedure is carried out 1 time in 3 years, but on poor lands it will have to be repeated annually.
In the summer:
- In summer, the shrub needs to be watered as the soil dries, in normal weather and no drought, the procedure is carried out 1 time in 2 weeks;
- Experienced gardeners recommend slightly loosening the ground after each watering;
- Also in the summer, you need to monitor the cleanliness of the root zone and remove all weeds.
- During the formation and pouring of fruits currants can be sprayed with growth stimulants, but the most safe and effective method is the introduction of liquid fertilizers after flowering. Such fertilizers include liquid fertilizer with extract of mullein, bird droppings or slurry.
- Many gardeners use infusions made from various herbs, fruit peels, etc., as a summer dressing. These tools can be used continuously and make with each watering.
In the Autumn:
- In the autumn, the amount of watering is reduced to zero, it will be mandatory to add copious amounts of moisture when preparing the shrub for winter;
- Also in the autumn it is recommended to break through the ground so that the roots receive as much oxygen as possible during the winter period;
- It is very important to carry out sanitary pruning in the fall, during which all dry, diseased and damaged branches will be removed. This is necessary in order to get rid of diseases and pests;
- After harvesting, make a shrub:
- 50 grams of superphosphate;
- 20 grams of potassium sulfate;
- Organic fertilizers( on fertile soils 1 time in 2 years).
Preparing for the winter at the cottage
Although black currant is a rather winter-hardy crop, it still needs additional protection in the winter. To do this, you can use one of the following methods:
All branches of the shrub need to be carefully bent down to the ground and you need to put on top of the number of bricks that will serve as a load. When carrying out such a procedure it is very important not to damage the branches of the plant. Snow is a natural defense against harsh temperatures, so this method can only be used during a snowy winter.
. It is also possible to wrap each branch of a bush in a special agrofibre, while it is desirable to add insulation in the form of mineral wool. Such a tool perfectly helps with severe frosts or at a time when there is no snow cover.
Red and black currants are a wonderful berry, juice or compote from which can easily quench your thirst on a hot day, and jam made using these fruits has a pleasant and unusual acidity. Currant brings abundant crops, and growing it in the country will allow collecting a huge amount of ingredients for processing from one bush.
And at the end of a small video on how to grow currants: