Hawthorn grows in the form of high altitude bushes. The plant received its wide distribution in decorative design.
Also hawthorn is used for medical purposes , due to its beneficial properties. Hawthorn berries are eaten.
This article will describe hawthorn varieties and its beneficial qualities. Consider tips for planting, growing and caring for this plant and more.
Table of contents
- Useful properties of hawthorn
- How to plant and grow: autumn or spring, choosing a place for growing
- Shrub care after planting and transplanting: fertilizer, pruning, how to water
- properties of hawthorn
The berries and flowers of this plant are very useful for human health. They are used either for preventive or therapeutic purposes.Hawthorn components normalize blood pressure and digestive processes, prevent fatigue, reduce the risk of nervous diseases. Hawthorn should be used by those who suffer from cardiovascular diseases.
Back in ancient times, berries of different varieties of hawthorn were used for medicinal purposes in Asian countries. In the sixteenth century, various species and varieties of plants were grown.
To begin with, hawthorn was used to combat diarrhea. And only then this plant was used to improve the performance of the cardiovascular system.
The main advantage of hawthorn is that contains carotene in its berries, which is necessary for strengthening immunity.
Also they contain a huge amount of calcium, magnesium, iron and many other chemical elements that are needed to improve the functioning of the circulatory system.
When eating hawthorn fruit as a decoction or infusion, it benefits each organ separately.
How to plant and grow: in autumn or spring, choosing a place to grow
This plant needs clay soil , but which contains a lot of minerals andrich in humus. After you have dug a hole( its depth should be 65 centimeters), you need to prepare a planting mixture.
It should consist of humus, sand and peat. At the very bottom of the dug pit, pour rubble about 20 centimeters high.
It is important to plant the plant in a sunny place , or it will not be able to produce a bountiful harvest.Adult hawthorn has very long roots. Therefore, it is possible to do transplantation only at a young age of the plant, that is, up to five years. After this, it is not necessary to replant it anymore, since the hawthorn will acquire a strong and durable root system.
The landing of hawthorn should be done in the spring or autumn of .Regardless of the planting period, the plant will produce the same fruit yield. Until the plant is two years old, you need to decide the usual place where the hawthorn will grow.
After planting, the soil should be poured over and covered with peat or ordinary earth for about seven centimeters. When planting you need to take into account the distance between the rest of the plants in the garden, it should be two or three meters.
The hawthorn begins to bring a huge harvest five years after planting. The greatest number of hawthorn fruits will bring ten years after planting.
Expert will tell you about hawthorn, its features, planting and care:
Shrub care after planting and transplanting: fertilizer, pruning, how to water
One of the main advantages of hawthorn is easy care. You are required attentiveness. It is important to cut branches or shoots that have dried or become sick in time.
In order for the plant to look neat, it should be trimmed constantly. It is necessary to cut the plant during the spring period of , and the removal of dried and sick parts can be done at any time of the year.
There is a need to constantly remove weeds and loosen the soil cover. Fertilize hawthorn can be ordinary manure just before the flowering period of the plant.
It is necessary to water abundantly in the summer and spring periods. is necessary only once a month. On one bush should pour 12 liters of purified water. But if the summer period is dry, then watering is important to increase to three times.
Propagation by seed( seed) at home.The reproduction of seeds or seeds of a given plant at home is a rather difficult process, because the stratification of a plant lasts about one year, and the first seeds sprout after a long period. Many seeds cannot germinate at all.
Prepare the seeds in advance and run the following algorithm:
- They should stand in purified water for 72 hours in a room at room temperature( 23 degrees Celsius).
- Then they just need to thoroughly wipe.
- Prepare potassium nitrate( combined mineral fertilizer) and lower seeds there for 48 hours.
- Plant seeds in the ground. Landing should be carried out in the last month of the autumn period( November).
- As soon as the sapling reaches a height of 60 centimeters, it must be cut. The shortening pruning involves removal of three buds. Also there is a reduction of shoots, there should be two of them - this is necessary for further proper growth of the plant.
Varieties and species
Crimean hawthorn .Crimean Hawthorn - the species looks like a tree of low height and grows in the Crimea. The plant is almost impossible to meet alone, it is planted in a group with other bushes.
The berries of the plant have a cherry color with a dark shade, and the bark of the tree is brown with a dark shade. Leaf color is green. This variety grows on rocky slopes.
Chinese Hawthorn are among the varieties of boyarshnik. Since it most often grows in China, this species received such a name. Chinese hawthorn is grown in other countries on the banks of various rivers. In Europe, the plant appeared in the nineteenth century.
This species loves the sun's rays, but can be grown in partial shade. The height of the tree reaches more than five meters. The bark of the trunk is gray with a dark shade.
The main feature of Chinese hawthorn is that it has almost no spines. The leaves have a green color with a bright shade. The inflorescences of plants on average have a diameter of seven centimeters.
The color of the berries is red with a very bright tone, almost. The berries themselves are shaped like a regular ball. The diameter of the berries - an average of 16 millimeters.
Softish Hawthorn .This species is most common in areas of the United States of America. Forest edges are the main distribution area of soft hawthorn. It tolerates low air temperatures and can grow on soil that is not rich in minerals.
The tree has a powerful trunk, and its height reaches nine meters. The spines of the plant are chestnut in color, and their length is ten centimeters. The length of the leaves - 6 or 7 centimeters. The flowers, which have a diameter of three centimeters, create inflorescences consisting of 12 flowers.
Berries - an orange flower with a red tinge. The flowering period begins at the end of the spring period( May), and the soft hawthorn begins to bear fruit at the beginning of the autumn period( September).
Arnold Hawthorn .Homeland of this variety is North America. Distinctive features: thick shoots and large leaves that reach four centimeters in diameter, and their length is ten centimeters.
The flowering period begins either at the end of spring( May) or at the beginning of summer( June).In general, the plant begins to flower only eight years after planting.
Arnold Hawthorn brings early harvest. Berries can be collected almost every year.
Hawthorn "Maksimovich" .This variety is given such a name due to its discoverer from Russia. The fruits are small in size, have the shape of a ball, and their diameter is only one centimeter. One kilogram contains an average of 1,800 berries.
The flowering period begins in the last month of spring( May), and this hawthorn variety begins to bear fruit at the end of summer( August) or early autumn( September).
At the beginning of the twentieth century, the plant began to spread in other parts of the world. The leaves are diamond-shaped with a pointed end.
This is only a small part of hawthorn species and varieties.Hawthorn is a very useful plant. Also this tree will look great in your garden.
You may be interested in our publications:
- Popular varieties and types of hawthorn.
- Description and healing properties of blood-red hawthorn.
Each species and variety has its own distinctive features. The main advantage of hawthorn is unpretentious care for him. Certain varieties can produce a huge harvest.
In the future, you can eat berries for preventive or medical purposes. If you suffer from any cardiovascular diseases, then this plant is suitable for you.
Remember: hawthorn can bring you many benefits of and joy.