In place of a miniature halogen illuminators come saving fellow - G4 LED bulbs 12V, providing full coverage. LED-products have many advantages and are the most promising light sources.
However, to fully realize the potential of the intended capsule bulbs should be competently approach the issue of choice, given the characteristics of their operation.
We will help you solve this problem. The article describes the features and usage of low-voltage lamps is presented step by step algorithm fixture selection, as well as designated manufacturers of the best LED-lamps.
The content of the article:
- Structure and working principle G4 lamps
- Features low voltage lighting
selection of miniature LEDs algorithm
- Variety of designs
- Accounting light characteristics
- Additional selection criteria
- Review of the best producers of goods
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Structure and working principle G4 lamps
among the total diversity diode bulbs G4 modifications are allocated a minimum size, shape of the base and the power supply of 12 V. Due to the appearance of these fixtures are often called capsular.
Design of LED lamps in general, and G4 diodes, in particular, is completely different from the analog to the filament or fluorescent product. There is no fragile glass and unreliable moving parts.
The main elements of LED-illuminator: transparent bulb, LED module, heat sink, and the driver pin base.
In the center of the board is placed coil chip with the leads and the resistor. On the reverse side of the bulb seen capacitor (yellow rectangle - 107D)
Mini light bulb operates on a standard scheme of LEDs fabricated from semiconductors.
When electric current charged particles of different materials move actively and in contact emit photons - light emission occurs.
Crystal size is very small, so to get sufficient luminous diodes are grouped and placed on the board with conductive tracks
An important condition for work lights on 12 - Connection step-down transformer. The device is connected to the light source.
Furthermore correction voltage to the desired value, the power supply converts AC power to DC.
Features low voltage lighting
For G4 lamps 12V characterized by all of the major advantages of LEDs: economical power consumption, durability, ecological compatibility and slight heat. Moreover, due to structural differences capsular illuminators have additional advantages.
One of the significant advantages can be considered their versatility. Compact dimensions, can be installed in a miniature lamp fixtures used to illuminate the ceiling structures, stairs, furniture, decoration and interior zoning.
High demand for "capsule" among auto and motor-fans - diodes are involved in the transport system of lighting.
Pin base allows you to replace halogen lamps to more efficient LED. This gives considerable savings in energy - electricity consumption is reduced by two to three times
Despite the high upfront investment, LED bulbs completely pay off - they are 15 times longer with respect to the halogen counterparts.
Additional advantages of low-voltage LED-lighting:
- electrical safety. It is believed that the electric current at 12 V does not cause damage to a person. Therefore, low-voltage light bulbs are allowed to be installed in hazardous areas: swimming pools, saunas, cellars, etc...
- Instant inclusion. LED configuration eliminates the ignition stage - LED-lamp immediately generates a wide light beam.
- Reliability. Capsule models resistant to damage mechanical nature: scratches and chips.
LED socket G4 are available with different luminous shades - from a neutral pale yellow to cool white with blue.
If we talk about the disadvantages of capsular models, there are several important drawbacks:
- High price. For ensuring long-term operation will have to pay a lot. To save on quality definitely not worth it - the parameters of cheap Chinese counterparts from unknown manufacturers do not comply with the published specifications. Furthermore, by using lamps with a small-capacity capacitor is, the risk of rupture.
- The increased value of current - a consequence of the low voltage. It is necessary to adjust the length of the conductors. With increasing length wire resistance increases, and the quality of the illumination is degraded.
To avoid tarnishing light bulbs, it is necessary to check that the length of the power supply to the lamps was approximately equal, the margin of error - 2-3%.
The most significant negative mikrolampochek - the use of a stabilization power supply, brownouts of up to 12 V. The device complicates installation, lot size is sometimes difficult to hide a body chandelier or ceiling
Place in the power supply it is necessary to think in advance, you may have to create a kind of niche for the equipment. In addition, the device has an efficiency, due to which the effectiveness of lighting may be reduced.
The very presence in the scheme of the additional level increases the risk of release failure of the whole chain.
selection of miniature LEDs algorithm
G4 range of LED bulbs 12 V is very diverse. Defining appropriate option must be understood the purpose and operational features of different types, as well as intelligently assess the basic characteristics of illuminators.
Variety of designs
The primary task - to pick up the necessary form bulbs.
Among the low-voltage LED-models with pin socket 4 mm, in the home used mainly five types:
The most in demand first group. The housing has a cylindrical shape and is covered with a transparent or opaque bulb - diffuser. Such products are often protruding substitute halogen bulbs.
Forms of execution of miniature lighting. Legend to the photo 1 - capsule 2 - corn without flask, 3 - petal 4 - candle 5 - circular lamp or "pill"
In corn, all the diodes are arranged in an open cylindrical platform. Absence of the bulb contributes to a bright light and eliminates the possibility of overheating. As well as the traditional capsule, corn installed in chandeliers and lamps.
The main disadvantage - an unattractive appearance when turned off. Maize is chosen so that the ceiling lamp bulb overlaps itself.
Models "tab" and "candle" is more often used in vehicle lighting. However, in light of domestic organizations they have been applied - is spot lighting, creating a ceiling or wall of luminous patterns.
The flat disk-shaped fixtures are used in lamps designed to create a directional light flux. Lighting angle "tablets" - not more than 120 °.
Apart form factor, low voltage bulb differ inner filling - type LEDs.
SMD. Individual semiconductor chips coated with a phosphor. Diodes are arranged on the heat sink PCB.
Visible emission angle of one crystal - 20-140 °. The main advantage of SMD-LEDs - Intense heat dissipation and hence durability.
COB. Structurally, the COB-matrix - is a set of crystals on the same platform, filled with phosphor. bright luminescence is achieved through abutment density SMD-diodes. COB-order light lamps 180-220 °.
Key to photos: 1 - SMD-LEDs, 2 - lighting with COB-panel. Models of the second embodiment more prone to intense heat, and upon failure of one diode of the matrix, attenuated whole lamp
Filament. It has the most efficient lighting options. In the glass yarn is established a plurality of crystals, which are then covered with a fluorescent solution. The main achievement of technology - Illumination by 360 °.
Filament LEDs always have clear bulb, and their glow is similar to the operation of incandescent lamps. This variant is suitable for creating a non-directional light uniformly
Accounting light characteristics
Having defined the appropriate form, should evaluate the basic parameters of LED-lamps:
- equivalent power;
- light flow;
- glow temperature;
- color quality;
- degree of pulsation.
brightness LED bulbs is characterized by two parameters: the equivalent power and luminous flux. The parameters are interrelated with each other.
According to the summary table can be determined achieved a certain level of the luminous flux, expressed in lumens at a different power lamps.
For example, an incandescent bulb of 40 watts provides illumination of 470 lumens. For a substitute suitable analog LED 6 W or 32 W halogen (+)
If a comparative table was not at hand, you can rely on the manufacturer's data - often on the packaging contains the luminous flux and power analog.
In the absence of information suitable exemplary landmark: 10 W incandescent lamp correspond to 1.5 W LED illuminator.
glow temperature. An important parameter defining the light sensing comfort and quality of illumination of the surrounding space. Low-voltage LED-lamps operate in the 3000-4500 K range, which corresponds to the neutral and daylight.
familiar incandescent lamp creates a soft, slightly yellowish tint, LED models give a colder tone.
By decreasing the color temperature in illumination red tones predominate, with increasing - begin to dominate and greenish blue shades (+)
selection color temperature It depends on the purpose of the bulb and its location. The bedroom is better to choose the product with the indicator less than 3000 K, suitable for children's LED on the 3000-3200 K, and for the design workspace - 3500 K or more.
Color reproduction. Unfortunately, this feature is rarely specified by manufacturers of capsule lamps. And it was largely determines the color rendering index of perception of the reality of the surroundings and their own reflection in the mirror.
This parameter is expressed in absolute units between 100 and designated - CRI. Benchmark has sunlight, CRI = 1. Good results give and incandescent lamps - CRI = 97.
Inexpensive LED-illuminators can distort the color spectrum, they are sometimes not CRI reaches 70. For residential premises, this figure should not be less than 80
If the data is not displayed on the packaging, the color quality is verified experimentally. Under the light bulb to substitute palm, if it appears greyish, the product is clearly of dubious quality.
glimmer. Another characteristic, which producers are not in a hurry to share - the degree of pulsation. at work LEDs may flickerCreating a significant strain on the eyes.
Immediately after the pulsation is not felt, but with such a glow person gets tired quickly, and vision may be impaired.
To diagnose the fault, it is necessary to look at included the capsule through the smartphone camera. The presence of distinct bands indicates an unacceptable intensity flicker.
Strong pulsation noticeable peripheral vision. To confirm the speculation, you can pencil test. Flex circuits of the plurality of light flicker demonstrates
According to the rules snip ripple Housing should be within 30%, when covering workplace - up to 20%.
For smoothing flicker low voltage LED responds capacitor. It will deal with the problem element, depending on its capacity. For LED-lamps with a capacity of 1.2-2 W need a capacitor at least 100 microfarads.
Calculate the actual cell capacity can be from its labeling. The first two digits multiplied by the number encoded in the third (6 denotes a 1 microfarad, 7 - 10 uF). Code letter - the operating voltage of the capacitor.
Example of calculation module 476 C: 47 * 1 = 47 uF. This capacitor does not fully block the pulsation of even 1 watt LEDs in
Additional selection criteria
Comparing the light bulb with the same characteristics, should pay attention to their options.
angle of dispersion. The quantity used depends on the type and shape of the LED lamp itself. Maximum light yield of 360 ° Filament model, minimum - diodes on flat disks. When choosing a need to build on the appointment of the fixture.
bulb type. The sale includes models with matte and transparent diffuser. First create a soft glow and concealed lamps stuffing.
Frosted bulb suitable for luminaires with open shades. The clear lens provides a bright glow.
housing material. For models with capacity of over 2.5-3 W is mainly used thick silicone. Mini lights with frosted cap made of polymer - polycarbonate and durable plastic.
The period of service of low voltage LED-illuminator is about 15-30 thousand hours. When selecting a diode experts recommend to consider an unwritten rule: the higher the warranty period from the manufacturer, the product life.
Additional information about the characteristics of LED light bulbs is presented in this article.
Review of the best producers of goods
The position of market leader in LED bulbs is divided between two global brands: Philips (Netherlands) and Osram (Germany). Actual performance lighting European companies meet the specs, and their life is a competition.
Mini bulbs both brands compared to similar benefit on many points: design, high color rendering, the virtual absence of pulsations.
A worthy representative of Philips - CorePro Ledcapsule 2,2 watt. Features: luminous flux - 200 lm, diodes type - SMD, diameter - 14.3 mm, the glow temperature - 2700 K. Estimated price - $ 5
Similar parameters and have a mini-lamp from Osram - Star Pin G4.
LED feature - negative lens concave shape. This solution directs the light beam in a certain direction, and laterally radiates a less intense light (+)
On the market, in addition to the brand of light bulbs, a wide range of worthy counterparts at a reasonable price.
Among the recommended manufacturers include:
- Gauss (Russia) - the company is constantly improving products, using the latest technology and implementing design solutions;
- Maxus (China) - LED-lamp power 1-2 W, the firm offers a 2 year warranty;
- Biom (China) - a wide range of different forms of low voltage lighting, excellent price / quality ratio;
- foton Lighting (UK) - Offers lamps of European quality at a reasonable cost;
- Navigator (Russia) - in the models used by the driver and a high-performance planar LEDs with CRI> 80 light transmission; manufacturer offers ceramic, silicone and polycarbonate housing.
Definitely should avoid products of anonymous producers. Rely on the quality, durability and safety of their lamps is not necessary.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The video report on the audit of various low-voltage LED G4:
Review of mini-bulbs corn from Foton:
LED-fixtures with G4 socket - a worthy alternative to halogen bulbs. Their use can significantly reduce power consumption while maintaining high performance illumination.
To make the transition to LEDs had very positive aspects, you need to carefully approach the selection of mini-bulbs.
Got something to complement, or have any questions regarding the low-voltage LED-lamps? You can leave comments to the publication, participate in discussions and share their experiences in the use of such lamps. Contact form is in the lower block.