The most important soil types, their properties, advantages and disadvantages

  • warms up quickly,
  • has a good air condition,
  • absorbs precipitation well,
  • can be processed.


  • cools rapidly,
  • has low water capacity,
  • has the ability of subsoil capillary irrigation,
  • manure decomposes very quickly;
  • mineral fertilizers are washed into the deeper layers of the earth,
  • plants need frequent watering.

How to fix:

  • use only cow or pig manure, use
  • mineral fertilizers in small quantities, but often, do not mix
  • decomposed manure or peat with the ground, but lay it flat on the surface.

Soil type: sand, humus


  • heats up quickly,
  • cooled slowly,
  • easy to handle,
  • good air properties,
  • well absorb fertilizers,
  • good water-holding capacity,
  • considered very good for growing vegetables.


  • , in dry weather, clay particles are blown out of it, which is very harmful for plants;
  • the surface of the earth quickly dries out.

How to fix:

  • use only manure, make mineral fertilizers in small quantities, but often;
  • do not deposit decomposed manure or peat into the ground, but lay it flat on the surface.

Soil type: sandy( medium connected)


  • is suitable for almost any vegetables,
  • has good moisture capacity and sub-irrigation ability, & gt;
  • mineral, organic fertilizers are used by plants to the fullest.


  • heats up more slowly than sand-humus;
  • low moisture content.

How to fix:

  • is better to use cow or horse manure; & gt;
  • is very important mulching, limiting water loss due to capillary evaporation.

Soil type: loamy( medium connected)


  • is suitable for almost any vegetables,
  • has good moisture capacity and sub-irrigation ability,
  • aeration is sufficient,
  • manure is used well.


  • if regular application of humus is ensured, there are no significant drawbacks.

How to fix:

  • mulching is recommended, which saves labor on irrigation, loosening;
  • for liming is better to use hydrated lime.

Soil type: clay


  • moisture capacity and subsoil irrigation ability are very good,
  • mineral fertilizers are washed out of the earth slightly,
  • manure is used very well,
  • with a high content of humus is the best garden that is the best vegetable fertilizer - this is the best garden that is used for humus;


  • weak aeration,
  • tendency to form a crust on the surface,
  • warms up rather slowly in the spring,
  • is difficult to process,
  • requires intensive loosening.

How to fix:

  • mulch can limit the tendency to form a crust, thereby improving aeration;
  • manure is best used by horse;
  • regular use of quicklime also improves aeration.

Soil type: peat


  • absorbs water very well,
  • is especially suitable for plants growing on peatlands;
  • mineral fertilizers are not washed out of it,
  • manure use is unnecessary.


  • is often acidic,
  • is poorly ventilated,
  • is often very cold, especially when it is clayey subsoil.

How to fix:

  • to dig up or plow the shovels with three bayonets in order to improve the structure of the subsoil layers;
  • add a lot of lime,
  • add coarse sand to the top of the ground.

There are three main types of soil: loamy, loamy, sandy. Loamy is considered ideal for agriculture. Knowing what types of soils exist, their properties, advantages, and disadvantages are one of the main conditions for the proper cultivation of vegetables and fruits in your area, as well as increasing their productivity.

Soils, at least, most consist of a combination of three main components: sand, silt, clay. It all depends on what percentage of clay, sand, silt is present in it. Depending on the size of the particles present in it, it is divided into various types. The soil is the top layer of our planet. This is the environment from which plants receive nutrients. Below is a classification of soil types, their characteristics.

Soil type: sandy


Thus, any soil can be suitable for growing garden crops. Within 10-15 years of intensive processing, the introduction of humus, liming, proper alternation of crops, the earth will completely lose its original properties and acquire the characteristics necessary for growing garden crops.

The type of soil in the garden can be relatively accurately determined by the “finger method”( manually) according to the following scheme.

Scheme of determining the soil type by the “finger method” in the

field Step 1. Try to roll it manually into a sausage as thick as a pencil. ..

  • if it does not roll, it belongs to the sand group,
  • if it rolls, then it falls into the „sandy loam and clay.

Step 2. Viscosity test with your thumb and forefinger:

  • if not viscous, i.e.not smeared between fingers - go to step 3;
  • if viscous, i.e.smeared between the fingers, it contains 14-18% clay and is of the type: loamy sandstone.

Step 3. Rubbing the soil in the palm of the hand:

  • if there is nothing left on the palm lines, it contains 0-9% clay and is of the type: sand;
  • if there are traces of it on the lines of the palms, then it contains 10-13% clay and is of the type: lightly loamy sandstone.

Step 4. Attempt to manually roll the soil into a sausage with half a pencil:

  • , if it does not roll, it contains 19-24% clay and is of the type: strongly sandy loam;
  • if rolling down, then go to step 5.

Step 5. Rub the sample with your thumb and forefinger near the ear:

  • if you hear a strong crunch, then the soil contains 25-30% clay and belongs to the type: sandy loam;
  • if there is a weak crunch or there is no crunch, go to step 6.

Step 6. Slip evaluation when crushing the sample with your fingers:

  • if the slip surface is matte, then it contains 30-44% clay and is of the type:
  • loam if the surface is shiny, go to step 7.

Step 7. Checking the soil with your teeth:

  • if it crunches on the teeth, then it contains 45-65% clay and is of the type: loamy clay
  • if there is no crunch, and the soil has an oily texture, then itcontains more than 65% clay and refers to tpu: clay.

The “Finger Method” is a method that is used to conduct analysis not only in garden plots, but also in laboratories. For more accurate analysis, screening and analysis of the clay fraction is carried out.

Every gardener is interested in obtaining sustainable yields. Good to those who have already mastered the alphabet of agriculture. And if the plot is first received? Watch the video. It will help to solve many soil problems not only for beginner gardeners and gardeners.

How to improve the soil in your area, improve fertility, if the type of loam or loamy clay? This soil needs cultivation.

To do this, you can use manure, compost, humus, sawdust, chopped bark. But be patient, it will take a lot of time, not one year.

If heavy soils are not submerged by groundwater, the reclamation process consists in gradually increasing the thickness of the arable layer due to the underlying layers and adding organic and mineral fertilizers.

The addition of sawdust or crushed bark to heavy soils requires the introduction of nitrogen fertilizers, since the decomposition of these materials occurs under the influence of microorganisms that absorb nitrogen. Sawdust is good to make not fresh, but one or two years that have lain in a heap. Better yet, pass them through the compost pile.

Clay soils have a good absorbing complex, that is, they contain a sufficient amount of nutrients. In terms of fertility, they are better than light, sandy. On the territory of the Krasnodar Territory there are all types of soils characteristic of the European part of Russia, ranging from the primitive alpine soils of the Caucasus Mountains, to the most fertile heavy-duty black soils of the Azov-Kuban lowland. These are soils of plain steppes( chernozem), foothill forest-steppe( gray forest-steppe), foothills and mountains( gray forest, brown forest, podzolic-brown forest, sod-calcareous, brown, meadow-forest gray, mountainous meadows)deltas and valleys( meadow chernozem, meadow, meadow marsh, alluvial), saline( salt marshes, salt marshes, solods), rice fields( rice), humid subtropics of the Black Sea coast( yellow earth).

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