Rose - a luxurious decoration of any garden or suburban area, so it was, it will always be, not without reason that she is called the queen of flowers. How to keep roses in the garden in winter, than to cover, so that with the onset of the new season they continue to please us? Consider ways to protect all the preparatory procedures in this article.
- Roses - how to prepare for winter?
- How to cover roses for the winter?
- Preparing roses for winter - pruning
Than shelter photo:
This is a rather delicate and capricious culture, if the bushes are not covered for the winter, the likelihood that they will die is very high. If the preparation of roses for the winter was conducted incorrectly, the plant was poorly insulated, the chances of freezing increase. Starting the process you need to take into account the variety of the flower, its frost resistance. The most "freezing" groups are tea, hybrid species, some climbing species. A number of Floribunda varieties, low species are more “hardened”, withstand the harsh climate in winter. But among the park representatives you can find the most real "walruses" who can spend the winter without shelter.
Autumn pruning of roses and shelter for the winter is perhaps one of the most important procedures, ensuring harmonious development, abundant flowering with the arrival of the new season. Densely planted bushes more easily tolerate the cold, it is more convenient to cover them with one cloth all at once. It is somewhat more difficult to wrap up upright tall representatives, and so are the climbing ones, but in any case the works will be justified.
Shelter of a climbing bush, photo:
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Roses - how to prepare for the winter?
It is worth thinking about this process as early as summer, or rather, at the end of summer, when alert gardeners stop feeding bushes with nitrogen fertilizers. With the arrival of autumn, small amounts of potash supplements will not interfere, they will help the plant to strengthen the branches, the trunk in front of the upcoming cold weather. By this time, it is also necessary to stop loosening the land near the tree trunk, in order not to provoke a new round of shoots growth.
Preparation of rose bushes for winter implies their obligatory pruning. This will be discussed in more detail below. It is necessary to scoop out from under the bushes all the excess: garbage, fallen leaves, remnants of grass. Cleaning is done not only to maintain cleanliness, but also to ensure that plant residues do not become a haven for harmful fungi. After this, it is recommended to spray the plants with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture or diluted with water with ferrous sulfate( 3%).
Preparation of roses for winter also provides for their hilling - this procedure improves the aeration of the root system. Even a small hillock of 20-30 cm will protect the roots from the cold, will help the soil to better hold the air.
You should think about hiding the bushes in October, towards the end of the month - when the first frosts in your area make themselves known. How to cover roses for the winter? It will be better if by this time the air temperature becomes relatively stable, about -5 ° C.The plant will survive a kind of "hardening", with a higher temperature index to insulate roses is not worth it, because the additional heat can provoke the growth of shoots. Moreover, earlier shelter is fraught with rotting of the root system, again, due to lack of air. To insulate the bushes, choose a dry frosty day, the ground should not be wet( this is important!) - in order to avoid the activation of fungi.
Which covering material for roses for winter is better to use? Here the choice is wide enough: dense polyethylene film, spunbond, geotextiles, lutrasil, dry leaves, burlap, cardboard, plywood, lapnik. The variety and characteristics of the species of roses determine the mode of shelterSome representatives have enough insulation from coniferous branches, and for others it is necessary to mount a hut made of cardboard or boards with plywood. There are many ways of warming, let's consider the most basic, "universal" options.
Shelter with spruce leaves, photo:содерж to content ↑
How to hide roses for the winter?
Whatever the material of the shelter, you should always leave free air space between it and the plant. Vypryanie no less dangerous than freezing, and with the onset of a thaw( with too dense shelter), plants are at risk to obscure or drench.
This method will provide high-quality aeration for the bushes, while the temperature under the shelter will be approximately the same. You will have to mount the skeleton( shed) over the plant, it can be made of plywood sheets or board fragments, after which the resulting structure is covered with a special covering material or plastic film. Covering material for roses for the winter should be fixed to the ground with something heavy( bricks, stones or metal brackets).Such a "house" should be very strong, because he will have to withstand the weight of snow masses. Its size, especially the height, should exceed the dimensions of the bush. With the onset of spring, you can recline material on one side( or lift it from the bottom), thereby airing the plant.
Warming with the help of a spruce branch
Lapnik( branches of coniferous crops) is an excellent natural covering material for roses for the winter, which will cost you absolutely free. Around the beginning of November, you should stock up with spruce branches. After harvesting, trimming bushes, coniferous branches should cover the ground around the trunk circle. The shoots that remain after pruning should be carefully wrapped with a wide fabric rope. If a plant has long branches, then after tying, they should be carefully bent down to the ground, as far as their flexibility allows( without the threat of kink).Fasten the branches with wide metal clips( bend thick pieces of wire according to the type of stud), throw over with spruce branches. The main thing - do not forget to lay the ground with the lap branches in the place where the ground part of the bush will lie. This especially applies to climbing grades.
Fastening a climbing variety, photo:
If you have doubts, you can additionally cover the flower with non-woven material directly on top of a spruce leaf; fasten the ends of the shelter with heavy objects. In the spring you will be able to lift them, thereby ensuring proper ventilation to the bush. Low-growing roses how to prepare for winter? Such bushes should be pre-tuber( you can use peat), and cover it from above with plenty of the same broom tree. After the snow falls, over the branches it will be possible to form a snowdrift
Shelter of a small bush, photo:
Using agrofiber, spunbond, geotextile
This material is widely used in various fields related to plants. Covering bushes for the winter with them is an excellent solution, as it is well breathable, at the same time it protects from frost and prevents condensation from accumulating during the thaw. How to use this covering material for roses for the winter? Again, it is better to make a skeleton: metal arcs or fragments of a chain-link mesh are suitable for creating a “visor” above the bushes. The ends of such a frame are securely fastened in the soil, the covering material is folded in half( this is an important point!) And the structure is covered. The edges of the coating are fixed in the ways described above - with the help of heavy objects or a long board( it will be convenient to lift in the spring for ventilation).
Frame over a small bush, photo:
Than to cover roses for the winter, if they are small( for example, dwarf varieties)?For these purposes, cardboard boxes can be used as a frame, having previously made holes in them. Plastic vegetable containers or worn out baskets can also be quite successfully used. Any of these structures can be covered on top with agrofibre, fixed in the ways described above. To protect standard crops, you can use jute bags: cut off the bottom of them, put them on the plant, tie them up( where the crown starts), fill them with dry foliage, or better with lapnik, tie them up again, but on top. The trunk can also be wrapped with sacking, and then re-wrapped up the resulting cocoon with lutrasil( for reliability).
Which roses should not be covered for the winter? Park crops have sufficient winter hardiness to do without protective cover in winter. In fact, some experts argue that the classification of "park" as such does not exist, supposedly this definition of the most unpretentious varieties.
According to reviews in relevant forums, these are: “Alba Mediland”, a hybrid of Rugosa, Spinozissima( wild rose), winter-hardy varieties of Canadian and American roses, etc. The so-called winter hardiness scale of these colors has three levels, which are determined by numbers: absolute winter hardiness( 3zone), winter hardiness( zone 4), average winter hardiness( zone 4-5).If you buy seedlings, then the figure will necessarily be on the label.содерж to content ↑
Preparation of roses for winter - pruning
This procedure is mandatory for most varieties. The exception is made by climbing small-flowered species, park, ground cover, as well as those representatives who give color once a year. Formative spring pruning recommended for all varieties, but at the moment we are talking about the autumn procedure. Pruning roses in the fall is aimed at maintaining the plant's vitality, strengthening it, increasing frost resistance. Properly conducted removal of old branches contributes to the formation of healthy, strong shoots, as well as the formation of new buds in the next season.
How to cut roses in the fall? This procedure should be subjected to both old bushes and new young bushes. Insecure shoots, blooming flowers, weak or diseased branches are subject to cutting. All of these vegetable parts, if not removed, can be a source of rot, fungi, various diseases. After autumn pruning on the bush should be 3 or 5 of the strongest healthy shoots. All removed parts must be destroyed immediately. Also to be removed old branches, stems, which have already turned 3 years old, multiple lateral processes, shoots with dry bark. Pruning is relevant before the shelter of plants for the winter - under the warming structure, the trimmed bush will be much more comfortable.
How to properly cut roses in autumn? There are several rules that are best followed - for example, the cutting tool must be very sharp. A blunted knife or pruner will leave a torn cut, injure the bark, and a damaged area can be a source of pathogens. Rough old branches are best removed with a hacksaw with a new sharp blade. The cut should be made over the kidney( which has not yet had time to germinate), retreating from it about 1 cm. Pay attention to the presence of healthy white wood at the cut point, the cut itself should be made as if tilted. The approximate time for cutting is the beginning of November, for this choose a sunny, fine day.
Short pruning, photo:
Before you cut the roses for the winter, you must disinfect the cutting tools( you can even with a solution of potassium permanganate).Grease the cut with garden pitch. And yet - do not forget about the "balance", do not get too carried away with circumcision. Ideally, the dimensions of the root system should correspond to the volumes of the remaining ground part after trimming! Otherwise, the plant will have a broken food system, it will get sick or even die. Starting the procedure, consider the varietal characteristics, specificity, the rate of its growth. Thus, one of the three types of pruning can be applied to each individual bush.
How to properly cut roses in the fall:
- Short pruning( strong) is recommended for varieties of multi-flowered polyanthus roses, miniature species, tea and hybrid representatives. Climbing cultures ramblers should also be pruned shortly with the arrival of autumn. After the procedure, only the base of the bush with a couple of sleeping buds remains, all the shoots, the branches are removed.
- The average pruning( moderate) is aimed at activating the growth of fresh shoots with the arrival of spring. With this method, pruning the branches of a plant is shortened by 1.2 part of their length. Weak stems are removed completely, at the base of the bush leave short shoots( about 30 cm) with four or five buds. This procedure is suitable for many varieties of medium size, tea-hybrid species, as well as for pernevian roses.
- Long pruning( weak) allows you to leave on the bushes high branches, shortened about two-thirds of the original length( only the upper segment is removed).About 8–9 buds are left on each shoot. This method of pruning is recommended for tall hybrid-tea species, old English roses, individual species, gentle Bengali representatives. This procedure contributes to early flowering, but with its regular holding roses start to lose shape, the buds become smaller, the number of flowers decreases.
Do I need to trim climbing roses for the winter? Since this category of plants is a favorite of many gardeners, gardeners, they are worth mentioning separately. The shortening of climbing shoots should be approached individually, taking into account the peculiarities of their species subgroup.
They need to be cut very carefully, moderately, choosing the longest branches. As for dry, weakened, diseased or damaged shoots, as well as the remaining flowers or fruits - they are all subject to radical removal. Note that the active shortening of branches in climbing representatives leads to the growth of multiple “empty”( non-flowering) shoots.
Now you will know how to cut roses correctly for the winter. Summing up, it is worth clarifying that in Central Russia this procedure is best carried out from about the 20th of November. If there were no frosts yet, do not even think about pruning, because otherwise buds will begin to grow on the bushes. Frosts will come - then get down to business. Do not forget about the removal of young green stems that have not yet become covered with bark. At the first frost, they will die, and with the onset of heat they will begin to rot, spread bacteria and fungi in the insulating cocoon. Put on a rough garden glove, be sure to remove all foliage from the branches - it will be easier for the bush to "breathe".
It is not so important what kind of variety you grow on the site. The specificity of preparing this crop for winter is the same for all species: cleansing the soil from plant debris and debris, hilling( covering) the root collar, laying the ground around the tree with foliage or lapnik, laying the plant on the ground. How to save roses in the winter in the garden, how to cover - you now know. Lapnik, lutrasil or spunbond, durable polyethylene will not allow this delicate culture to freeze with the arrival of frost. Sheltering and pruning roses for the winter is an important agrotechnical event, on which their health and beauty depend.
It would not be superfluous to see the so-called visual aid - how to cut roses in the autumn, video: