Tomatoes, they are tomatoes, appeared in Europe in the 16th century, but they began to use fruits for food only at the end of the 18th century. Up to this point, the cultivation of tomatoes was carried out exclusively for decorative purposes.
In 1774, an article was published which warned that the fruits of tomatoes are capable of driving the mind of those who eat them.
How to grow tomatoes
Tomatoes are a nutritious and healthy vegetable crop. The proper cultivation of tomatoes is a laborious but fascinating occupation for any gardener. To collect a large crop you need to know the technology and methods of cultivation.
In warm areas, tomatoes are sown immediately in the ground; in other regions, seedlings are usually planted in greenhouses.
Any universal soil composition or a mixture of peat and sand is poured into a prepared container with drainage holes, watered abundantly. Then take up the seed treatment. Their first is heated in a warm place for several days .
After this procedure, the planting material is soaked in potassium permanganate solution for 30 minutes, then washed well with running water.
The finished seeds are sown in the ground and covered with a film before the first shoots, periodically aired and watered with water at room temperature. The optimal conditions for growth are 23 degrees of heat.
In early summer, tomatoes are transplanted into greenhouses or open ground to grow, depending on climatic conditions.
Planting seedlings in the ground
Tomatoes are planted in the first half of June. The distance between the bushes should be 30-40 centimeters .
At the very beginning, wells are made and poured abundantly with water. Then the seedlings removed from the tank or greenhouse are immediately placed in the pits and carefully sprinkled with earth. Throughout the growth, the soil around the tomato bush is regularly loosened and spud, as the stem quickly rises to the top and can fall.
Proper care for tomatoes on the bed
The best conditions for healthy growth are average daily temperature from 17 to 26 degrees .When the heat is lowered, the plant ceases to develop, and in a strong heat it quickly fades. During the period of active flowering is important bright and diffused sunlight.
Apart from the climatic conditions, tomatoes are demanding for fertilizers and fertilizers. In order to harvest a rich harvest, it is necessary several times per season to give the plant minerals and organic matter. After the appearance of the fruit, the main emphasis should be placed on potash fertilizers. They will help grow large and juicy tomatoes.
How Tomatoes Grow
Tomatoes are annual plants with a straight or slumbering stem. Outwardly, the flowers are a simple, slightly complex or complex curl. There are large and small sizes, usually yellow.
Vegetable fruits can also be different in shape, size and color. contain many beneficial trace elements for the human body.
In particular, they have:
- Soluble sugars.
- Organic Acids.
- Pectic substances.
- Mineral substances.
How to choose a variety for planting
In order to grow a lot of tasty tomatoes, requires high-quality seeds.
Gardeners recommend paying attention to large-fruited varieties. It is they who, in temperate climates, will have time to ripen and will be able to bring a good harvest.
Tomatoes with small ones will have to be cut off immature and “grow” at home. Such vegetables from the long maturation become dry and tasteless.
Selection of a section
A well-lit area or greenhouse is required for planting tomatoes. The nursery is pre-disinfected and equipped with bright and diffused light. In addition, the room for tomatoes should be well ventilated, but not allowed inside strong drafts.
If cassettes are used for planting seedlings, they must have holes for outflow of excess moisture .Best for tomatoes suitable soil consisting of peat and sand in equal parts.
The soil should be light and loose , with good drainage layer. Land on the site before planting is pre-moistened, loosened and removed excess weed.
Plants love the soil, consisting of porous and light rocks with good moisture permeability .Preparing the substrate for planting is recommended in the fall. Compost, ash and egg shells are added to the soil.
During the winter, all elements rot and digest. In the spring, before planting, the bed should warm up well, otherwise the tomatoes will not develop in the cold ground.
. Preparing Seeds
After purchasing the seeds, they must be processed before planting. To do this, it is necessary to soak them in a solution of manganese for several minutes. This procedure will disinfect the planting material.
The seeds are then washed with warm running water and laid out on a cloth moistened with a growth promoter. After several hours, tomatoes can be sown in the prepared and moistened soil.
They land their in the first decade of June , when the risk of frost disappears completely.
Seedlings are placed in the wells at a distance from each other not less than 30 centimeters .After that, it is plentifully watered with warm water. Ideal if the tomatoes are planted in rows. So the light falls evenly on all bushes.
Tomatoes require abundant but infrequent hydration. .It is enough to hold the event 1-2 times a week, with water at room temperature. Waterlogging threatens tomatoes with diseases, and the lack of water adversely affects the development of the root system and the formation of fruits.
It is important not to wet the leaves when watering, as this may contribute to the fungal spread and death of the plant.
For a good harvest, nutrients and vitamin complexes are needed. To grow a lot of tasty tomatoes, you should follow some simple rules:
- During the picking period of tomatoes, requires the mineralization of mineral fertilizers.
- During active fruit formation, tomatoes are waiting for potash fertilizers. During the season 1-2 recommended feeding.
- When tomatoes grow and begin to ripen, they continue to need fertilizer. At this time you can not use chemical compounds. It is enough to add organic matter .
Diseases and pests
Diseases often affect plants throughout their growth, especially those grown in open ground.
The most common diseases of tomatoes:
- Late blight, externally manifested as black spots on fruits and leaves.
- Fungal lesions.
- Brown spot, in the form of red-brown spots.
- Vertex rot.
- Tobacco Mosaic.
To avoid unpleasant consequences, there are preventive measures:
- It is necessary to use seeds of proven manufacturers of for planting , high-quality and without visible damage.
- If possible, tomatoes are recommended in greenhouses, and not in open ground.
- Diseased and damaged tomato bushes should be removed from the area immediately to avoid further infection.
- You can not plant tomatoes and potatoes in one area.
- It is not recommended to carry out any work with tomatoes if they are wet.
Despite the fact that tomatoes are a capricious crop and require a lot of time and effort from the gardener, they are able to meet all the expectations and works of their taste and wealth of the crop.