How the refrigerator, its structure and principle of operation

A clear idea about the product and about the processes occurring inside the refrigeration unit, helping to extend the life and ensure the safe operation of equipment in the home. Understand the operation of the refrigerator is easy.

In either model, it is the formation of a cold environment by absorbing heat in the interior of the object and its subsequent transfer outside the device.

The content of the article:

  • The principle of operation of the main types of refrigeration equipment
    • The functioning of the absorption technique
    • The operating principle of thermoelectric models
    • Highlights on the Vortex
  • Overview of compressor equipment
    • Features internal device
    • Constituent elements of construction
    • The sequence of the operating cycle
  • Tips & Care
  • Conclusions and useful videos on the topic

The principle of operation of the main types of refrigeration equipment

Refrigeration equipment is used in many fields of activity. It is indispensable in everyday life and it is impossible to fully operational production departments at the enterprises, commercial areas, catering establishments.

Depending on the desired purpose and scope are several main types of devices: absorption, vortex, thermoelectric and compressor. The last type is the most common, so it is a closer look at in more detail in the next section. Now, let us denote the main differences between all 4 designs.

The functioning of the absorption technique

The system settings absorption type circulating two substances - the refrigerant and absorbent. refrigerant performs functions typically ammonia, at least - acetylene, methanol, freon, lithium bromide solution.

The absorbent is a liquid which has sufficient absorptive capacity. This may be sulfuric acid, water and others.

The design of an absorption refrigerator

All work equipment based on the absorption principle, implying the absorption of other substances. The design consists of several major components - the evaporator, absorber, condenser, expansion valves, a generator, a pump

Elements of the system are connected by tubes, through which is formed a single closed loop. Cooling chambers occurs due to thermal energy.

The process is carried out as follows:

  • refrigerant dissolved in the liquid permeates into the evaporator;
  • stand out from the concentrated solution boiling at 33 degrees ammonia vapor, cooling the object;
  • substance passes into the absorber, wherein the absorbent is absorbed again;
  • pump pumps the solution into the generator, Heatable certain heat source;
  • substance secreted boils and ammonia vapors leaving the condenser;
  • refrigerant cools and is converted to a liquid;
  • the working fluid passes through the expansion valve, compressed and sent to the evaporator.

As a result, ammonia circulating in the closed loop takes heat from the cooling chamber, entering the evaporator. And gave it to the external environment, while in the condenser. Cycles are played without interruption.

Since the unit can not be shut down, it is not very economical and has a high energy consumption. If such equipment is out of order, repair it, most likely, will not work.

Benefits absorption units

The dependence of absorption devices from power surges, power and other electrical parameters is minimal. The compact dimensions make it easy to install them at any convenient site

In the construction of devices have bulky and moving the friction elements, so they have a low noise level.

The devices are relevant for buildings, electricity network which is subject to constant peak loads, and places where no permanent power supply.

Absorption principle is implemented in industrial refrigeration systems, small refrigerators to cars and office space. Sometimes it is found in some domestic models, operating on natural gas.

The operating principle of thermoelectric models

Lowering the temperature in the chamber of a thermoelectric cooler is achieved by using a special system which pumps heat according to the Peltier effect. It involves the absorption of heat at the junction of two different conductors at the time of passage of electric current therethrough.

refrigerators construction consists of thermoelectric elements in the form of a cube made of metal. They combine the same electrical circuit. Together with the movement of current from one element to the other, and heat moves.

The aluminum plate absorbs it from the inner compartment, and then transmits the cubic working parts which, in turn, operate to redirect stabilizer. There, thanks to the fan, it is thrown out. According to this principle operate portable cooler bags.

thermoelectric refrigerator

Most models of thermoelectric refrigeration appliances when you can receive switching power supply polarity is not only cold, but the heat - up to 60 degrees Celsius. This function is used for heating products

This equipment is used in the camping industry, cars and motorboats, often It puts on summer residences and in other places where it is possible to provide the power supply unit with mains voltage 12 V.

The thermoelectric products provides a special emergency mechanism that disables them in the event of overheating or failure of the working parts of the ventilation system.

The advantages of this method of work are high reliability and relatively low noise level during operation of the equipment. Among the disadvantages - high cost, sensitivity to external temperatures.

Highlights on the Vortex

The devices in this category present compressor. It compresses the air, which subsequently expands in the installed blocks vortex coolers. The object is cooled due to the sharp expansion of compressed air.

The principle of operation of the vortex equipment

Vortex device durability and safety: they do not need electricity, have no moving parts, do not contain hazardous chemical compounds in the internal structure of the system

Widespread method of vortex coolers are not received, and confined himself to the test sample.

This is due to the large air volume, a very noisy operation and relatively low cooling capacity. Sometimes devices are used in industrial plants.

Overview of compressor equipment

Compressor refrigerators - the most common type of equipment in the home. They have almost every home - do not consume too much energy and are safe to operate.

The most successful model of reliable manufacturers serve their owners for over 10 years. Consider their structure and the principles on which they work.

Features internal device

Classic household refrigerator - a vertically oriented cabinet, equipped with one or two doors. Its body is made of rigid sheet metal thickness of about 0.6 mm or durable plastic, facilitating weight bearing structure.

For quality sealing paste used products with a high content of vinyl chloride resin. The surface is primed and coated with enamel quality of spray guns.

In the production of domestic metal branches employ the so-called method of stamping, plastic cabinets made by the method of vacuum forming.

Door device unit

appliance door consists of steel sheet. Inserted along the edges tight rubber seal, not passing the outside air. In some modifications of inserted magnetic valves

Between the inner and outer wall of the product is required to pave the insulation layer which protects the camera from heat, trying to enter from the environment and prevents loss generated inside cold. For this purpose, suitable mineral or glass wool, expanded polystyrene, polyurethane foam.

The interior space is traditionally divided into two functional areas: refrigeration and freezing.

According to the layout of the form are distinguished:

  • single;
  • two;
  • multi-chamber devices.

In a separate type of allocated units Side-by-SideIncluding two cameras.

Single-chamber units are provided with one door. At the top of the equipment housed the freezer compartment with its own door with folding or opening mechanism at the bottom - the refrigeration department with height-adjustable shelves.

The cameras mounted lighting with LED or conventional bulb to see that, in fact, lies in the refrigerator.

Type refrigerator side by side

Instruments made by the type of "side by side", a much bigger and wider counterparts. Both compartments in them take up space across the height of the equipment. They are arranged parallel to each other

The two-chamber units inside cabinets are insulated and separated by each of its door. Location of departments in them can be a European and an Asian. The first embodiment assumes a lower arrangement of the freezing chamber, the second - the top one.

Constituent elements of construction

Refrigeration plants and compressor type do not produce cold. They cool the object, the internal heat absorbing and revising its outside.

cold formation procedure takes place with the participation of the following components:

  • a cooling agent;
  • capacitor;
  • evaporative cooler;
  • a compressor unit;
  • thermostatic expansion valve.

In the role of refrigerantWhich fill the refrigerator system often serves freon - a mixture of gases with high yield and relatively low indices of boiling / evaporation temperature.

He moves in a closed circuit, transferring heat in various parts of the cycle.

Refrigerant - Freon12

In most cases, as the operating element for household refrigeration equipment manufacturers use Freon 12. This colorless gas with a barely perceptible characteristic odor is not toxic to humans and do not affect the flavor and properties stored in the chambers of products

Compressor - the central part of the structure of any refrigerator. This inverter or a linear motor, provoking the forced circulation of the gas in the system, forcing pressure. Simply put, it compresses the Freon vapors and causing them to move in the right direction.

The technique can be equipped with one or two compressors. The vibrations arising during operation, absorbs external or internal suspension. In dvuhkompressionnyh models for each chamber corresponds to a separate device.

Classification of compressors provided two subtypes:

  1. Dynamic. Forcing the refrigerant to move by the force of motion of the blades of the centrifugal or axial fan. It has a simple structure, but because of the low efficiency and rapid wear under the influence of torque in the household equipment is rarely used.
  2. Volume. It compresses the working fluid by means of a special mechanical device which starts the motor. It is a piston and rotary. Basically, refrigerators are established just such compressors.

piston unit represented as an electric motor with a vertical shaft encased in a one-piece metal casing. When the start relay connects the power supply, it activates the crank shaft and the piston attached to it, begins to move.

Started Connecting the system opening and closing valves. As a result, freon vapors are drawn from the evaporator and pumped to the condenser.

Piston compressor refrigerator

In case of breakage of the piston compressor repair is only possible with the application of specialized professional equipment. Any dismantling in the household environment is fraught with the loss of tightness and inability to further operation

In rotary mechanisms necessary pressure is supported by two rotors moving towards each other.

Freon enters the upper pocket located at the beginning of the shaft is compressed and exits through the lower opening of small diameter. In order to reduce friction in the oil space is introduced between the rolls.

capacitors performed in a lattice-coil which is fixed on the rear or side wall of the equipment. They are different designs, but always responsible for one task: cooling hot gas vapors to a temperature set by condensation and heat dissipation substance in a room. There panel board or finned tubular.

The evaporator of the compression device

The evaporator consists of a thin aluminum pipe, welded steel plates. It contacts the internal compartments of the refrigerator, efficiently transfers the absorbed heat from the device and significantly lowers the temperature in the cabinet

Thermostatic valve needed in order to maintain the working fluid pressure at a certain level. Large aggregate nodes interrelate tubing forming a hermetic closed ring.

The sequence of the operating cycle

The optimum temperature for long-term storage of provisions in the compression devices is created during the operating cycles performed one after the other.

They proceed as follows:

  • when connected to an electrical motor-compressor starts compressing the refrigerant pairs, synchronously increasing their pressure and temperature;
  • under overpressure action force hot working fluid in the gaseous aggregate state, gets into the condenser vessel;
  • moving on a long metal tube, the steam ejects the accumulated heat into the external environment, gradually cools to room temperature, and values ​​converted to liquid;
  • liquid working fluid passes through the filter dehydrator that absorbs excess moisture;
  • coolant enters through a narrow capillary tube, the outlet of which is reduced in pressure;
  • material cools and is converted into a gas;
  • cooled steam reaches the evaporator and passing through its channels, takes heat from the interior compartments of the refrigeration unit;
  • refrigerant temperature is increased, and it is again sent to the compressor.

In simple terms about how the refrigerator compressor, the process is as follows: the refrigerant compressor surpass on a vicious circle. Which, in turn, changes the physical state through a special device collects heat from escaping and transfers it outside.

The circuit device of the refrigerator compressor

Duty Cycle in the system repeats as long as the temperature values ​​specified by the system programs will be achieved, and resumed again when they rise fixed

After cooling to relevant parameters of the thermostat stops the motor, opening the electric circuit.

When the temperature in the chamber begins to rise, the contacts are closed again and the compressor motor actuated trigger protective relay. That is why it appears constantly in the process of operation of the refrigerator, then again falls silent hum of the motor.

Tips & Care

In operation there is nothing complicated equipment: it works automatically around the clock. The only thing to do when you first start and periodically adjusted during operation - set the optimum in specific circumstances, the temperature regime.

The desired temperature is set thermoregulator. The electromechanical system of values ​​exhibited by eye or with the recommendations specified in the manufacturer's instructions. It should take into account the type and quantity of food stored in the refrigerator.

The knob is usually is a circular gear with multiple divisions or, in more modern and more expensive models, can be controlled via the touch panel.

The mechanical temperature control in the refrigerator

In order to assess the degree of freezing, experts advise to put the first regulator in the center position, and after a while, if necessary, adjusting it to the right or to the left

Each such mark on the handle corresponds to a specific temperature regime: the larger the division, the lower the temperature. The electronic unit also allows to set the temperature as accurately as possible to 1 degree via rotary dial or buttons. For example, the set value of the freezer compartment -14 degrees. All programmed data will be displayed on the digital display.

To maximize the life of a household refrigerator, it should be not only to understand its structure, but also to care for him properly.

Lack of proper service and improper use can lead to rapid wear of critical parts and defective functioning.

Avoid undesirable consequences can be, adhering to a set of rules:

  1. Regularly clean the condenser from dirt, dust, and web patterns in an open metal grid on the back wall. To do this, use the usual slightly damp cloth or a vacuum cleaner with a small nozzle.
  2. Properly install equipment. Ensure that the distance between the condenser and the wall of the room was no less than 10 cm. Such a measure will help ensure smooth circulation of air masses.
  3. timely defrostedBy preventing the formation of excessive snow layer on the chamber walls. At the same time to remove the ice crusts forbidden to indulge in knives and other sharp objects that can easily damage and damage the evaporator.

Also keep in mind that the refrigerator should not be placed near a heat source, and in places where there may be direct contact with sunlight.

Excessive influence of external heat has a bad effect on the basic components and general performance of the instrument.

The cleaning process of the refrigerator

Only special tools suitable for cleaning product pieces, made of stainless steel, recommended by the manufacturer in the instructions to the device

If you plan to transport from place to place, it is best to transport the equipment to the truck with a high wagon, locking it in the upright position.

Thus, it is possible to prevent breakage of the motor, the oil leakage from the compressor, entering directly into the circulation loop of the cooling agent.

Conclusions and useful videos on the topic

How does the cooling unit:

Detailed explanation compression refrigerator unit:

Information about the work of absorption machines:

While refrigeration equipment is functioning properly, consumers are rarely interested in his device. However, this knowledge should not be neglected. They are very valuable because they allow to quickly identify the cause of failure and to detect problem areas, to prevent serious trouble.

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