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Which fruit and berry crops are most often interested gardeners? How do you like plants located on the site and find them the right neighborhood?
Fruit trees and shrubs: photos and names of popular crops
Due to the length of the country, which lies in several natural areas, it is almost impossible to identify a single list of trees and shrubs. And yet there are species that gardeners necessarily try to find a suitable place. The photos and names of these fruit trees and shrubs are well known even to those who are far from gardening.
Among fruit trees, the undisputed leaders are apple trees of different varieties and ripening terms. Next are pears and the most common stone fruits: cherries and plums.
Raspberries, various types of currants, gooseberries are among the fruit and berry bushes that are found almost everywhere. Today is actively gaining popularity:
- healing sea buckthorn;
- felted cherry;
- early honeysuckle.
Moves to the Blackberry orchard, more and more often, aronia, irgu and other crops, which some time ago were perceived as secondary or planted only for landscaping, can be found in the plots.
The list of shrubs for the garden is much broader than the above list of trees. No wonder. A fruit garden exclusively from trees will give the first harvest no sooner than in 5–7 years, and the shrubs are ready to please the gardener already in the second or third year after planting.
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An additional advantage of shrubs is their relatively small size and less complexity in care. However, no one will succeed in replacing the currant with a pear. Therefore, without trees, the garden will never be complete.
It is believed that in the northern regions gardeners are limited in their choice of harsh climate, but the further south, the more diverse the population of garden plots.
Indeed, since the Central Black Earth region, in the ranks of fruit crops, it is not uncommon:
- various types of walnut;
- sweet cherry and its hybrid with cherry.
The list of shrubs is replenished with grapes, yoshta, dogwood and perennial fruiting vines.
But if recently gardeners from the middle belt and more northern areas were forced to be content with a very modest list of fruit crops, today things are radically changing.
Nurseries have long and successfully offered fruit trees and shrubs for the Moscow Region that were not previously available in the Non-Black Earth Region. The boundaries of the spread of southern cultures seriously moved to the north not only because of climate change, but also due to the directional work of breeders.
It is precisely this lure that inexperienced gardeners come across who want, by all means, to get a “paradise garden” in a limited area. You can understand them! But it is not enough to purchase seedlings, it is important to plant them properly and grow them, taking into account all the demands of plants and the characteristics of the territory.
Rules for the placement of fruit trees and shrubs in the garden plot
The young saplings planted in the garden increase in height year after year. After a few years, when it is time for fruiting, the crowns grow 1.5–2 meters. And mature trees take up even more space.
It is not enough to select the most winter-hardy, productive varieties, it is necessary to accurately plan the future orchard.
Do it better on a sheet of paper, based on measurements of the distance from the landing zone to the nearest buildings, roads, fences of neighboring possessions. When planting fruit trees and shrubs in the garden plot, one must take into account not only the aesthetic preferences of the owner, but also the mandatory norms. They regulate the distance from large plants to residential and farm buildings, transport routes, communications, and passing between the land survey line.
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variety. For example, from an apple or pear tree to a residential building or a garage should be at least 3.5–4 meters. This distance is due to the safety of the structure and the need for constant care of a large garden crop. For shrubs, the distance is smaller and is one and a half meters, which makes it possible:
- to easily maintain the walls, windows and other structures and communications;
- not to be afraid of excessive moisture with close contact with vegetation;
- to take care of fruit crops, harvest, trim and transplant them.
In addition to the mandatory restrictions dictated by common sense and safety, there are other rules that should be considered when planning an orchard.
It is extremely important to adhere to the distances between seedlings in rows, and also to take into account the deadline for growing one or another crop in one place.
Useful and harmful neighborhood of fruit trees and shrubs in the garden plot.
Knowledge of the needs of individual plant species and their characteristics is of considerable importance for the future of planting:
- Some cultures prefer to grow in the sun, others easily adapt to shade.
- For some of the fruit trees and shrubs in the garden, an open, windy place will do, and another will have to find shelter.
- Plant requirements for fertility and watering vary.
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It is unlikely that in a limited area of the plot it will be possible to cater to all the demands of green pets. Inevitably, in a small dacha garden, some shrubs are under the canopy of growing trees. So that this neighborhood does not affect the yield, the meta for planting shady fruit trees and shrubs in the garden is determined in advance.
These crops include black currants, honeysuckle, undersized, berry bushes, such as cranberries, blueberries and lingonberries. If the shady corner of the garden is well ventilated, viburnum will live well here. In the partial shade grow blackberries and raspberries.
Gardeners have long noticed that even in comfortable conditions, garden plants sometimes refuse to bear fruit in full force, look depressed and grow poorly. It turns out that the reason for this behavior is an incorrectly chosen neighborhood. As in nature, in the orchard, trees, shrubs and grassy plants form close communities. The above options for a successful and dangerous neighborhood of fruit trees and shrubs in the table will help create the best conditions for each species and get the most out of it.
You can arrange the planting so that closely related plants are nearby. Such a solution would be extremely useful, for example, for cherries and petioles, many of which are self-productive, and they need a pollinator to get a crop. A similar pattern is observed when growing sea buckthorn. True, there is necessarily one male bush for several female plants.
In addition, for sea buckthorn, readily propagated by root layers, blackberries and raspberries, it is better to find a place away from the rest of the garden plantations; otherwise, powerful shoots of these crops will cultivate half of the garden in a year.
Fruit Trees and Berry Bushes - Video