In the garden one of the most popular root crops is beets, which even a beginning cottager will cope with growing. This vegetable is used in many dishes. It contains vitamins and other useful elements not only in the root, but also in the leaves, which the store does not purchase.
To grow a vegetable in the country you need to know the secrets of fruitful farming, to love the plant and care for it properly.. Contentsdiseases
How to get a good harvest of beets in the country or in the garden
Beetroot is an cold-resistant and unpretentious culture .In comparison with other vegetables, its cultivation does not cause trouble. But although the cultivation agrotechnology is simple, it does not mean that it is enough to sow the seeds in the ground and get excellent results.
To avoid reducing the quality and quantity of the crop, there are a number of nuances that should be taken into account:
- good illumination and drainage of the plot;
- neutral acidity level of soil;
- composting during soil preparation before sowing;
- pre-soaking of seeds to disinfect and accelerate germination;
- warming soil for sowing, to avoid the release of the arrow;
- sowing in the period when there are significant moisture reserves in the soil;
- respecting the depth of seed embedding and distance between rows;
- at least twice thinning;
- timeliness weeding and irrigation ;
- top dressing with mineral fertilizers and microelements.
seeds. beets cannot be sown after small-seed crops( beets, carrots, dill) and cruciferous ( cabbage).Good forerunners will be representatives of solanaceous and pumpkin crops( cucumber, potatoes, tomato), then the vegetable will grow well.
Agrotechnique of sowing and cultivation
The sowing of beets is carried out in two ways: the most common is sowing seeds in open ground, and the second involves the forcing of seedlings.
Any crop has a certain growing season, the determining factor of which is the variety. For example, if a medium beet is planted, it will be necessary to wait 100 days before harvesting. The count is since the emergence of shoots .
Sowing seeds in open ground
Beetroot is a crop that is resistant to cold, but it is not worthwhile to plant it before the air temperature reaches 6-8 degrees .This will eliminate the coincidence of the timing of emergence of shoots and return frost, in which the plant is shot at the expense of increasing the mass of the root.
Recommended steps for sowing seeds:
- To speed up seed germination, they are placed for 24 hours in cold water or kept for half an hour in warm water.
- Seeding is done to the depth of up to 4 cm. .
- The width of the aisle depends on the variety and ambitions of the gardener: when cultivating small vegetables, it is enough to leave 7 cm , and for large ones, the distance to is 30 cm .
- The distance between the roots in a row for small specimens is 6 cm , for large ones - 10 cm .
When sowing germinated seeds, sprouts may appear after three days, and in the case of dry seed, after a week.
If no care measures are taken after sowing, and the air has not yet warmed up, the emergence of shoots is noted after a two-week interval.
Planting beet seedlings
There is a seedling method for planting root vegetables, which will be an excellent option for those who are not eager to thin out the beds in the future. Planted seedlings begin in advance - a month before the planned planting in open ground .
To use this method, the following steps should be taken:
- In the mini-greenhouse make grooves with an distance of 5 cm .
- Place the seeds in them with a distance in 3 cm .
- Moisten the soil well.
- After the appearance of sprouts, it is worthwhile to air the greenhouse, tempering the seedlings.
- When the has four leaves on the shoots, it is necessary to plant the seedlings at a permanent place of growth, following the scheme of sowing seeds in open ground.
Caring for the Root
The friendly appearance of the sprouts will require the gardener to take good care of the crop.
Weeding and loosening
Simultaneously with the first shoots, weed will also begin to grow. Weed control should be carried out regularly so that the nutrients in the soil remain for root growth.
At the same time, should be loosened in the row spacing after rain or watering in order to provide air access to the root crop.
When the third leaf is formed on the plant , thin the seedlings for the first time. When the appears, the fifth leaf of the , the beet crops will need to be twisted again.
As a result of the first procedure, the distance between shoots will be 4 cm , after the second - 6-10 cm .Sprouts that are removed after the formation of two pairs of leaves can be planted in a free area, and they will take root.
During the period of intensive growth, when a root crop is formed, soil moistening is very important. Watering should be systematic and abundant - once a week under normal weather conditions.
The introduction of
macro- and micronutrient fertilizers To feed the root crop nitrate carefully. This culture has the ability to accumulate nitrogen at the root, the consumption of which in food can adversely affect health. If the gardener is convinced of the lack of this macro element, then two additional feedings for the entire growing season will suffice.
It is better to make potash phosphate fertilizers with irrigation two weeks after sowing. To improve the quality and quantity of the crop, foliar dressing should be carried out with such microelements as boron, manganese and calcium .
Protection against pests and diseasesfungicides
The lack of trace elements, the presence of fungal infections and pathogenic microorganisms in the soil can lead to a number of diseases: fomoz, peronosporoz, decay, root and other. And also beets are often affected by various pests.
The main protective measures include: , maintaining crop rotation, timely removing weeds near the crop, and treatment with insecticidal fungicidal action.