Tomatoes are unpretentious plants that are easy to care for, but in order not to get small or diseased fruits, you will need to pay a little attention to the culture. The plant responds very well to regular watering and fertilizing, rewarding gardeners with a generous harvest. In this review we will talk about the proper care of tomatoes after planting in open ground.
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- and timely care, you can get a good crop of tomatoes
. After selecting a variety and planting seedlings on a tomato garden, it is necessary to provide timely care, whichNutritional and moisture supply. In addition to basic needs, there are others that have no less impact on the growing season. The details of the work can be found in this article.
Tomatoes react equally to the lack and excess of moisture, so irrigation is carried out as the soil dries. Before flowering, the periodicity is 1 once a week, when fruit is formed, watering is increased to 2-3 once a week.In hot weather with high daytime temperatures, you will need to water the soil every other day or even daily( focus on the degree of dryness of the soil).Procedures should be carried out only in the early morning or late evening. The evening is preferable, since the moisture will last longer in the ground, which means the plant will be more comfortable.
. While improving irrigation system, should be preferred for drip or underground variant. Sprinkling moisturizes the tops, while increasing the risk of developing fungal diseases, in particular, vertex rot. Irrigation can also be carried out under the root or along the grooves. For the prevention of diseases, it is recommended to add wood ash to the settled water. And when the ovaries appear, ash powder is sprinkled around the bushes for better fruiting.
It is not recommended to use tap water for wetting. A well-settled and heated well option is more suitable. The rate of fluid per bush is 8-10 liters.Periodically watering combined with the introduction of foliar dressings. To do this, mineral fertilizers are dissolved in the water used for irrigation. Thus, the time spent on both procedures is reduced.
Pastage of tomatoes
Some gardeners underestimate the procedure of staving tomatoes, considering that a branchy shrub and a large number of shoots increase yield. In fact, the plant does not have enough strength for all ovaries, , therefore, the fruits are more often formed small or simply do not have time to mature. The problem is solved by removing useless shoots. This should be done while they are still small( 3-5 cm).If time is lost, and they have already gained growth, then it does not make sense to carry out a pasynkovanie
The procedure is carried out in early August. Remove all stepchildren from the bush, leaving 2-3 leaves on the above the fruits. Sometimes it becomes a pity to tear off the inflorescences, but this will benefit the ripening fruits( they will be much larger).
Another way of pinching involves removing extra shoots every 10 days. In this case, one of the options for the formation of the bush is chosen: in one stem, in two or three. The choice is based on the brand.
Spraying against pests and dressing
Spray the beds with tomatoes should not only upon the detection of insects, but also for prevention, as among the solanaceous crops tomatoes are the most vulnerable. What do you ask to splash?
At the landing stage, the seedlings are soaked in insecticide solution( for example, Aktar) for protection against wireworm, cockchafer and aphid. Before the period of fruiting, the beds are periodically treated with fungicides( Kvadris, Ridomil Gold), which prevent the development of fungal diseases.
You can use folk remedies. Spraying the bushes with infusions of onion peel, wood ash, and garlic is considered quite effective. To scare off insects, decoctions from fragrant plants are suitable: pharmacy chamomile, wormwood, calendula, etc.
You need to feed tomatoes at least three times during the growing season. On nutrient-poor soils, this is done systematically every 2 weeks. Fertilizers are used both organic and mineral. The nitrogen content in them should be less than potassium and phosphorus. How much fertilizer to process? One of the options provides for the following composition:
If the inflorescences and ovaries fall, the plant lacks trace elements( boron).You can prepare a solution of boric acid( 1 gr.) And water( 1 l).Spray greens in the afternoon.
- 50-60 gr.superphosphate;
- 30-40 gr.potassium chloride;
- 15 gr.ammonium nitrate;
- 10 liters of water.
Culture responds well to the solution of bird droppings. It is preferable to use complex fertilizers that contain trace elements such as magnesium, boron, copper, zinc. Among the popular tools: Master NPK-17.6.18, Kristallon and others.
Hilling and loosening
After each watering, it is desirable to loosen the soil slightly( depth of immersion is about 3 cm).This contributes to the retention of moisture in the soil, provides access to oxygen. The first loosening can be done after the first irrigation of the seedlings. Regularity of procedures - 1 once a day in 10-14 . When the bushes grow and narrow the spacing, loosening can be stopped.The process of loosening is rational to combine with weeding. Weeds attract pests, create shading of tomatoes, so the fight against them is put in priority.
To stimulate the formation of additional adventitious roots, hilling of tomato bushes is recommended. They are formed from the bottom of the stem, but only in moist soil. Row the soil under the plant several times a season. The first procedure is carried out 2-3 weeks after planting the seedlings. The second time hilling in the beds is done after 2 weeks. In order not to injure the tomatoes, the event is combined with loosening and weeding.
bush. Forming tomato bushes and tearing off leaves
You need to form bushes only in those plants that are prone to branching. If a variety is characterized by the development of a single stem, then there is no need for a procedure.
There are several ways to form bushes:
- in one stem;
- in two stems;
- in three stalks.
When deciding on an option, it is worth considering the characteristics of the variety and the climatic conditions of the region. The south of the area, the more branches can be left on the tomato. It is important to note that the fruits that are not formed on the main stem will be smaller.
When choosing in a single stalk method, all stepchildren who have reached a length of 3-5 cm are to be removed. To prevent the tomato from dropping all the flowers and ovaries, it is recommended to cut off first of all the shoots grown under the brushes.
If a tomato is formed in two stems, , then you need to leave a side shoot that was formed near the first brush. And when choosing the third method, it is recommended to leave the strongest stepchild developing under the second brush.It is necessary to remove excess shoots regularly, the only limitation to the procedure is the heat. In such conditions, the plant does not tolerate any injuries.
Cut off sprouts very carefully, clasping them with your thumb and forefinger. Need to pull over yourself, and abruptly to the side. You can also use a knife with a sharp blade. When cutting the stepson, do not affect the main stem, is better to leave 1-2 mm of the escaped shoot.
Filling with mulch soil makes it possible to reduce the amount of watering, weeding and loosening. Such savings are simply necessary for summer residents visiting sites only on weekends. In addition to reducing the complexity of the process, the soil is protected from drying out.
The expediency of mulching can be assessed on the basis of the following advantages:
- reduction of weed growth ( reducing the amount of weed);
- stabilization of temperature regime and soil moisture;
- protection against moisture evaporation ;
- preventing the formation of bark on the soil surface;
- earthworms are better bred under a kind of fur coat, which increases the friability of the soil.
Peat, dry leaves or straw, sawdust are used as mulch. Also, fallen compost will do. In the garden departments of hypermarkets today you can buy artificial mulch, which differs by multiple use. The layer to be laid should be about 6-8 cm, for light to pass through it weakly. This will prevent the rapid growth of weeds.
Surrounding the garden bed with tomatoes attention, it is necessary to observe the measure when watering and fertilizing, otherwise you can get the opposite effect. The needs of plants experienced gardeners are determined by their appearance, so 2-3 once a week you just need to inspect the bushes. Then any identified problem will be easier to localize or eliminate.
- and timely care, you can get a good crop of tomatoes