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video If you do not need to harvest a decent harvest, draw a cherrytry to grow in the garden a variety of cherry Shpanka. This cherry appeared due to the Ukrainian national selection as a result of the crossing of sweet cherry and cherry, therefore in the description of the variety of cherries Shpanka and in the photo there are common signs of both. Most often Shpanku can be found in the Ukrainian gardens, but in Russia and Moldova the variety also received recognition.
Description of the variety Shpanka cherries, photos of its subspecies
The cherry tree itself grows rather high - up to 6 meters, the crown of average density. The main trunk and old branches have a rich brown bark, and young twigs are light brown. Due to the fact that Shpanki branches grow at right angles to the maternal shoot, they often break as a result of weather conditions, under an abundant amount of fruit or when harvesting.
Hybrid leaves( as opposed to ordinary cherries) are pointed, rather long as cherry, grow up to 8 cm in length. They have a rolling double coloring: from the green base to the dark green top of the leaf. The stalks themselves are pink. During the flowering period, the cherry ejects inflorescences with 2-3 large flowers with five petals each.
Berries Patchy pretty large, up to 5 grams, burgundy brilliant color, there are also with a brown tint. As can be seen in the photographs describing the variety of Shpanka cherries, they look more like a sweet cherry - slightly flattened, 1 cm in diameter, almost invisible groove in the middle. The flesh of the fruit, yellow and juicy, is also similar to sweet cherry - the same dense homogeneous structure, which is not found in cherries. Accordingly, the juice from such cherries does not have a rich red color. But, on the abolition of cherries, a small stone moves away from the berries well.
beds Fruit ripening is uneven, occurs in June and early July. The arrangement of cherries of this variety is akin to sweet cherries - the entire length of the one-year sprout or a dense garland surrounds the branch. For this reason, shoots need periodic pruning. But unlike cherries, the attachment to the branch of the berries is fragile, so mature cherries often fall off.
A variety of cherries Shpanka abundantly fruits from only 6 years of age. However, on the rootstocks a small amount of the first berries can be collected in the third year of the seedling's life. With each subsequent year, the amount of harvest increases, and after 15 years, up to 50 kg of berries are removed from one tree.
The variety doesn’t tolerate transportation, so it’s better to use it immediately for making jam, stewed fruit, wine, jam or in cooking.
Cherry Shpanka has several subspecies, photos of which are provided below:
- Dwarf shpanka( no more than 3 meters high).
- Shpanka Bryansk( average from 3 to 4 meters).
- Shpanka Kurskaya( 4 meters).
- Shpanka Shimskaya( medium frost resistant variety for the northern regions).
- Shpanka Donetsk( early hybrid of sweet cherry Valery Chkalov and Donchanka cherry).
- Shpanka large-fruited.
- Shpanka early( harvest harvested in early summer).
Despite the fact that Shpanka is considered a self-fertile variety, it needs additional pollinators. They are other varieties of cherries and cherries. Not bad effect on the productivity of Pellet cherries Griot Ostheim, cherry Resistant.
The Shpanka variety is excellent for enduring both dry summer, and severe frosts, and is also resistant to coccomycosis. For active growth and fruiting variety needs light and nutritious soil. If the soil is poor in useful elements, the tree will begin to "cry" - burn marks and inclusions similar to resin will appear on the main trunk and side branches.
Features of planting seedlings
Cherry Shpanka has its own characteristics of planting and care. As for planting, the most suitable place for planting a seedling will be a sunny place by the fence - it will protect the cherry from the gusts of wind destroying it. Even better if it is a hill, especially with close groundwater availability. In the case of planting a whole garden between seedlings need to leave a distance of 4 meters.
As already mentioned, the variety of cherries Shpanka loves loose, nutritious soil. In case of high acidity of the soil, it is necessary to add lime at the rate of:
- for sandy lands - 500 g per 1 sq. M;
- for heavy loamy - 800 g per 1 sq.m.
In the presence of heavy clay soil, sand is added to it.
In order not to burn the roots of the seedling, when lime is introduced into the soil, it is well ground with the ground.
For the southern regions, autumn planting( September) is more suitable, but in the east it is better to plant the Pile in the spring. When planting cherries in the fall, dig a hole and fertilize two weeks before planting. A feature of the spring planting is that the planting hole( size 50x100 cm) should be prepared in the fall. The soil from the pit is mixed with fertilizers. For one seedling( that is, for one planting hole) it is recommended to apply the following proportions of fertilizers:
- 1 humus bucket;
- 500 g reverse ash;
- 200 g of superphosphate;
- 100 g of potash fertilizer.
Cherry saplings before planting should be inspected for damage. If there are broken roots, they need to be cut. When revealing dry roots, a sapling is recommended to be put in warm water, in which add some honey.
Watering a tree planted with warm water( 3 buckets), while paying attention to the location of the root collar. According to the rules of landing it should be on a par with the ground.
Cherry care stages: watering, feeding, pruning
Despite the fact that the variety is drought-resistant, it is necessary to water the cherries during the growing season. The first time - during flowering( April-May), the second - during the ripening of berries( the second decade of June).If you do not pour out two or three buckets of water under each seedling during these periods, the fruits can change their taste. To prevent the loss of moisture, the soil around the seedling should be mulched with compost or sawdust. The earth under the tree periodically loosen and clean from weeds.
In spring, trees are fed with nitrogen fertilizers, Bordeaux acid, and in the fall - with potassium and phosphorus. In conditions of a long and cold spring, gardeners practicing folk fertilizer methods recommend spraying cherries with a solution of boiled water and honey. A similar solution is used to attract insects during the flowering period. In general, the tree during the year must be fertilized three times: twice during the growing season and one - in the fall when digging.
In the fall, you also need to prepare the cherry for the winter: remove leaves and grass under a tree, dig, whitewash the trunk. For whitewash in lime, add soap and bluestone. When snow appears, cover the tree trunk circle with it, trample well, cover it with sawdust. Such manipulations will allow to hold the beginning of flowering and prevent the death of inflorescences from spring frosts.
So that the crown of the cherry does not become thick over time, and the branches do not break under the crop, it is periodically cleaned. The first branches begin to dry out approximately 7 years after planting the tree.