Very similar in appearance to broccoli cauliflower has no less valuable qualities and benefits to the human body. Therefore, the agrotechnology of the vegetable is mastered by an increasing number of gardeners, replenishing winter stocks with a “vitamin bomb”.With proper care, growing vegetables in the open field is easy and simple.
A table of contentsBroccoli is also called asparagus cabbage .The historical trace of the vegetable can be traced in the manuscripts of the XVI century, but it is reliably known that the hybrid was bred in the 6th-5th centuries BC.
For many centuries, the fruits were grown exclusively in the northeastern Mediterranean( modern territory of Italy).And only at the beginning of the XVIII century cabbage falls in England and other European countries.
Later, exotic dishes with green buds began to appear overseas. Slavs liked the product immediately due to the delicate taste and rich vitamin composition.
The plant is annual, the fruiting period depends on the growing and maintenance conditions. The edible part is considered to be unopened inflorescences of , and not the leaves.
The appearance of the plant is similar to cauliflower, but has a rich green color. The vegetable grows and bears fruits for several months to a row.
With a fairly high stem( 60-90 cm), ripe buds of the tops are cut off, and then the lateral buds begin to actively develop. Among the advantages of culture is a simple agrotechnical, for the cultivation of fruits a minimum of effort will be required.
Proper growing conditions at the cottage or garden
Broccoli is grown by .This allows you to cultivate vegetables in central Russia and the southern regions. Even the capricious Ural weather does not interfere with getting a good harvest.
The plant tolerates a sharp temperature drop, drought, and high humidity. Experts advise against using late-ripening varieties for regions with cool and short summers. If you plant in such conditions, then inflorescences in such conditions simply do not have time.
Sowing seeds of cabbage
broccoli seeds Planted for the first half of March .For phased harvesting, it is recommended to sow in a conveyor way with an interval of 2 weeks.
From the 20th of April, seeds can be planted in open ground, thereby making seedless broccoli not to grow seedlings at home.
Before planting, seeds are sorted, discarding small or with signs of illness. The treatment of the seed includes the soaking procedure in hot water( temperature 50 degrees) for 15–20 minutes. After warming up, the seeds should be immediately immersed in cold water for 3-4 minutes.
To stimulate growth and strengthen protective functions, it is recommended to immerse the kernels for 15 minutes in Appin solution, then rinse under running water and dry to a flowability state.
Fill them with drainage and loose fertile soil of neutral or weakly acidic environment.
are well suited. In the box with the substrate, you need to make grooves with a depth of 1-1.5 cm. Seeds spread out at a distance of 3 cm from each other .You can cover up with peat or used soil. It is not necessary to press down the surface unnecessarily.
- the air temperature in the room should be about 20 degrees, the humidity is not below average;
- moisturize is moderate with a spray bottle if necessary;
- lighting requirements are not imposed.
After 6-8 days, shoots will appear on the surface of the ground.
seedlings After the appearance of sprouts, the temperature regime should be reduced to to 8-10 degrees .A week later, the indicators increase to 15-20 degrees .Special care for the seedlings is not necessary, as well as there are no special secrets, it is important to follow the generally accepted rules:
- regular watering so that the soil does not dry out;
- good lighting( in March, the day is not long enough, so you can highlight the fluorescent light);
- lack of drafts.
Picking seedlings of
The process of picking creates a stressful situation for plants, so it is recommended to raise the room temperature by 21 degrees for several days, and to build shading out of paper from the sun. So shoots easier to settle down in the new environment.
A week later, the temperature regime is set:
- in the afternoon - 17 degrees;
- at night - 9 degrees.
needs to be fed , including important for the development of broccoli microelements: boron, molybdenum, potassium, etc. 5–7 days after the picking. To do this, the seedlings are taken out every day for several hours to adapt to the new habitat. Expose the plants do not need a deep shadow and under the open sunlight.
Scheme and distance when planted in open ground
This period falls more often on mid-May .Place under the bed is selected on the sunny side of the garden. Good predecessors are:
A landing area will also be suitable for planting after growing sideratov. But after a turnip, radish, tomatoes, beets planted broccoli is not worth it.
The soil under the cabbage friable fertile neutral or weakly acidic is suitable. If acidification is observed, dolomite flour or crushed quicklime must be added.
The annual use of land drains it, therefore, every autumn it is fed with manure or compost( 4-5 kg per 1 m2).In spring, it is enough to enrich the bed with complex mineral fertilizers, which include nitrogen.
Before planting the soil is leveled with a rake. It is ideal to perform work in the evening or in the afternoon in cloudy weather, so that the seedlings will quickly start in a new place. It is recommended to place the holes for seedlings according to the scheme: 35x60 cm .
The pits are first watered, then filled with fertilizer( 5-7 grams of mineral substances, half a glass of wood ash, a glass of peat).Formed beds watered with warm water. If there is a threat of night frost, you need to build supports and stretch the plastic film.
The rules of care
Care for broccoli is almost no different from cauliflower. The only feature considered is the risk of direct sunlight on young shoots. It will be necessary to pay attention to plants, having built simple shading by means of a cardboard or fabric.
Irrigation is carried out 1 time per week .In hot weather, you should not allow the soil to dry out, so the frequency of watering is increased up to 3 times a week. However, it is important to remember that waterlogging of the soil and stagnation of water in it can provoke root rot.
Moistening is done through the roots and by spraying the plant. Procedures should be carried out in the early morning or in the evening when the sun is already setting.
After watering or precipitation, you need to flush the ground on a bed. Soil enrichment with oxygen will benefit not only the root system, but also the setting of inflorescences.
Simultaneously with loosening, weeds are being removed at the site of .They create many problems for vegetable crops, attracting insect pests and increasing humidity, and as a result, fungal diseases develop.
Intensively developing culture requires regular regular feeding .During the growing season, they are brought in at least 3 times. :
- for the first time 2 weeks after transplanting seedlings( 1 cup of mullein solution per 10 liters of water, a teaspoonful of urea);
- second feed is administered 2-3 weeks after the first( matchbox saltpeter to 10 liters of water);
- the third time the plants feed at the end of summer( 40 g. Of superphosphate, 10 g. Of potassium sulfate, 20 g. Of ammonium nitrate, 10 l of water).
When the inflorescences grow on the main stem, the culture weakens. To stimulate the development of lateral shoots, it is recommended to fertilize each cut bush with a nutrient fluid( 40 grams. Superphosphate, 20 grams ammonium nitrate, 10 grams. Potassium sulfate, 10 liters of water).
As a top dressing and disease prevention, you can powder a bed of wood ash( 1 cup per m2).
Harvesting and storing the crop.
Remove the cabbage from before the flowers open to .This moment is easy to miss, so you should pay attention.
In determining the readiness of a vegetable for pruning, you can focus on the following characteristics:
- mature head has a diameter of 12-14 cm;
- color - dark green;
- buds should be closed( a signal for quick cleaning is the yellowing of buds).
Usually the inflorescences reach the desired degree of maturity after 60-65 days after the germination of the seedlings of .And you can harvest until the cold, and in the Urals, and in Siberia, and in the suburbs.
To cut cabbage you need in the early morning .Cutting off, twisting the stem, is not allowed, side shoots are damaged, which precludes further fruiting broccoli.
Heads are stored for approximately for 3 months .For this, the most favorable conditions are created: coolness and lack of sunlight. At home, it is ideal to use for this purpose the cellar or vegetable compartment in the refrigerator.
All trace elements useful for the human body and vitamins are found in broccoli in the most digestible form. In addition, agricultural technology is affordable. Therefore, it is simply necessary to grow a unique vegetable on your property, much less to take care of it.