A healthy diet involves eating healthy foods rich in vitamins and microelements. These include cauliflower, so many gardeners practice growing vegetables in their backyards in the open field. With proper care it is not difficult.
If you follow the correct pattern of planting, you can plant cauliflower in the country and in the suburbs. Sowing seeds for seedlings is necessary at home, following the step-by-step instructions for the care and feeding to ensure germination.
- Proper watering
- Features of loosening and weeding
- Susceptibility to diseases and pests
- Harvesting and storing crops - step by step tooltion
What is cauliflower
Understanding does not apply to cabbage color varieties, although it also belongs to the family of crucifers. The plant has fibrous roots located close to the ground surface. The heads are formed round and semicircular in shape. The edible part is represented by dense flowering brushes, the length of which varies from 2 to 15 cm .
Cauliflower refers to annual crops with a growing season 90-120 days after germination. The plant loves the light , so you need to plant seedlings in well-lit areas.
. The taste has a soft inflorescence with shades of milk, it is known that it is called vegetable curd. When cooking with the help of spices, it is possible to give the vegetable unusual notes that are not typical of cabbage.
The history of the origin of
It is believed that cauliflower was bred in the Mediterranean. Previously, it was called as Syrian. In those days, the vegetable was late-ripening, had a bitter taste and a creamy-green inflorescence. For the first time, the culture was described by the Arab botanist Ib el Beytar.
Culture got into Russia only 2 centuries ago, but it was possible to grow a heat-loving plant only in the southern regions. After the famous scientist Bolotov brought out the northern variant of the cabbage , it became possible to cultivate the vegetable in the northern part of the country.
Useful properties of
The cabbage contains many valuable vitamins and minerals that have a beneficial effect on the human body:
- calcium improves the condition of hair, nail platinum and teeth;
- vitamin C helps to strengthen the immune system;
- potassium has a positive effect on the work of the cardiovascular system;
- Magnesium and Iron improves blood flow in the tissues;
- vitamins of group B activate brain activity.
diet dishes. Many diet tables include cauliflower dishes. This is due to the ability of to restore metabolic processes, adjusting the work of the digestive system. The active ingredients cleanse the body of toxins and other toxic substances, and the rich vitamin composition( A, D, E, K, H, PP, etc.) strengthens the protective function.
How to grow cauliflower from seeds in the area
The inflorescences are grown seed and seedling methods .Of course, you can buy ready-made seedlings and plant them around the garden. However, it is impossible to be sure of the quality of the used seed and the conditions of seedling germination. Therefore, it is rational to grow seedlings on their own.
Sowing time at home
Seeds are sown 40-50 days before planting seedlings on an open garden bed, this period falls approximately on end of February .
The early varieties are first planted, after 2 weeks they are medium-ripening cabbage, and only a month later they start planting the seeds of late varieties.
The material for sowing is first sorted, then prepared before planting. Processing is done using a thermos with water, the temperature of which is 50 degrees. After 15 minutes of steaming, the seeds are immersed for a minute in cold water, after which they spend 12 hours in a solution of microelements that stimulate growth.
After the shoots appear on the ground surface, the temperature drops to 6-8 degrees. Days after 6-7 degrees should be increased to the daily indicator of 15-18 and 6-8 at night.
Caring for seedlings
Caring for seedlings does not contain secrets or cardinal features and consists in moderate watering( using spraying), loosening the soil, observing the temperature.
After forming 2-3 leaves of the plant at the shoot, should be sprayed with a solution of boric acid ( 2 g per 1 l of water).After 1-2 weeks, the treatment is repeated, but with a solution of ammonium molybdate ammonium ( 5 g. Per bucket of water).
Pickup Usually cauliflower seedlings are not picked at all because of the underdeveloped root system .But if the seeds were sown in a common box, then when sowing grain at a great distance, and the soil depth in the container should be at least 15 cm. Then the seedling can be removed from the box along with the soil.
at the age of 2 weeks is recommended for planting individual plants. Before the seedlings finally take root in a new place, the temperature in the room, at home or where the seedlings are stored must be between 19-21 degrees.
Planting seedlings in open ground - scheme and agricultural machinery
Early ripening varieties are planted in open ground in late April-mid-May .A week before the start of planting, seedlings are fed with superphosphate( 3 g), potassium chloride( 3 g), diluted in a liter of water. This will increase the cold resistance of the shoots. You also need to carry out hardening, accustoming the plants to a new habitat.
The soil prepared in the fall is planted before planting. In each well make a mixture of compost( humus), wood ash, superphosphate, urea( 1 bucket / 2 cups / 2 tbsp. L / 1h. L.).All components are mixed with fertile soil.
The seedlings are deepened into the soil to the first sheets , after which it is well compacted with earth. Immediately after the landing, watering is carried out. Spring weather often presents surprises in the form of night frosts. To protect the bed from them, it should be covered with agrofibre or film.
Secrets of the care and growing
Cauliflower grows well in warm climates. It transfers the conditions of the middle lane only through reverent care, therefore the quality and quantity of the crop depends only on the efforts made.
Moisture is necessary for the normal growing season of the plant, so watering is carried out regularly with a frequency of 1-2 times a week .
The water consumption rate of per 1m2 of beds with young shoots is 6-8 l .Over time, the indicator increases to 9-11 liters per 1 m2.
In hot weather, the regularity of irrigation increases up to 3-4 times a week , but in any case it is worth focusing on the degree of soil moisture, because over-wetting is also dangerous for the plant, as drying out.
Features of loosening and weeding
Weed grass thickens the beds, causing the development of various diseases. In addition, it obscures the culture, resulting in dark spots on the inflorescences.
Weeding should be combined with soil loosening, it is also recommended to mulch the bed with peat or dry grass .This will prevent drying out of the soil and rapid germination of the weeds.
top dressing During the growing season the cabbage needs to be fed 3-4 times .The first portion is introduced 3 weeks after transplanting seedlings. The best food for the culture is the solution of mullein( dissolve a liter of liquid composition in a bucket of water). is added to each bush with at least 500 ml of fertilizer.
The second feed is introduced 10 days later. In a solution of mullein recommended to add 1 tablespoon of Kristalina. For each plant use 1 liter of the workpiece.
Mineral fertilizers( 10 liters of water, 2 tablespoons of nitrophosphate, consumption rate per 1 m2 of 6-8 liters) are introduced in 10-14 days.
The advantage of cauliflower agrotechnics lies in the possibility of using biological agents without the use of toxic chemicals. Effective dusting of wood ash or tobacco , spraying infusions of onion peel or burdock sprays will be effective.
ash. Susceptibility to diseases and pests.
Cauliflower is susceptible to various diseases and pest attacks. Therefore, during the growing period, it is necessary to regularly inspect the plants to identify the problem at an early stage.
The development of harmful microorganisms often begins as a result of the resulting in a violation of the watering regime or due to the presence of the pathogen in the seed.
The following diseases are considered the most dangerous:
- mucous bacteriosis - the first signs appear on the head in the form of watery spots, for localization you need to cut off the affected area, capturing some healthy tissue;
- black leg - blackening and softening of the root collar and stem base, before sowing the soil and seeds are disinfected, when lesions are detected, the plant is removed from the bed;
- mosaic - spots of various shapes and colors appear on the leaves, do not give way to the treatment of the diseased bushes, they must be destroyed if they are found;
- keel - a fungal disease affecting the root system of a plant, manifests itself as growths on the roots, when a bush is detected, it is removed, protection is created by preventive measures;
- Persporosis - the fungus appears on the leaves as yellow spots with white bloom, the treatment consists in spraying the beds with a solution of Bordeaux liquid( 1%) or polycarbocin( 0.4%).
Harmful insects can also reduce crop yields or destroy the beds:
- cruciferous fleas;
- cabbage fly;
If pests or signs of the presence of larvae are found, it is necessary to treat the beds using the following means:
- Spark M and others.
Chemical and biological products are used upon detection of signs of invasion of parasites.
But it is more effective to carry out prevention, which prevents the destruction of crops by pests.
- thorough cleaning of plant waste in the autumn;
- removal from the beds of damaged shoots to localize the problem;
- soil and seed disinfection;
- spraying with biological solutions;
- pollination of beds with wood ash.
Harvesting and storing the crop - a step-by-step instruction
The ripening time of the inflorescences indicated on the seed packaging is approximate, so you need to be guided by the on external signs of .If the harvest is collected sooner or later, the heads will quickly deteriorate or germinate.
The vegetable maturity depends primarily on the growing conditions, in particular on the temperature conditions. In the second half of July, collection of mid-seasoned varieties will begin. From the end of August and all of September, heads are cut off with late-ripened cabbage, which has a long shelf life( from 5 months and up).
The inflorescences are cut together with 2-3 sheets at the base of the stem. Vegetable does not lose its properties for 40-50 days. In determining maturity, the following features are taken into account:
- head diameter reaches 10-12 cm ;
- inflorescence has a light green or cream color;
- dense structure.
To increase the shelf life, remove the cauliflower along with the root system. This method is suitable for slightly unripe vegetables that reach maturity in boxes of soil.
Harvest storage rules:
- heads, folded in a cardboard or plastic container, are installed in an room with a high humidity level up to 95% and a temperature of 0-2 degrees ;
- cleared of excess leaves inflorescences can be stored in the refrigerator, after wrapping them with cling film;
- washed and separated into fragments fragments long stored in the freezer.
It is also allowed to store cabbage in the basement, hanging its head down on the wooden stick .
Agronomy cultivation of cauliflower is not fundamentally different from the cultivation of other varieties. Therefore, you can safely replenish the range of crops in your own garden. If you care according to the instructions, you can get a great harvest of vegetables.