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Millions of amateur gardeners regularly replenish their collections with exquisite shrubs. Therefore, blueberry garden, planting and caring for which requires special knowledge, is worthy of becoming an exclusive exhibit of the dacha. To do this, you need to successfully pick a variety and prepare the soil. In the period of intensive growth it is important to fertilize the soil, and also to cut off the branches. An important role is played by the procedure of reproduction of culture. All these subtleties must be considered.
Where does it grow?
In the natural environment, water-drinking (one of the names of blueberries) is most often found in swampy places and in the tundra. Next to her, often stupefying rosemary and blueberry. A characteristic feature of these territories is a sufficiently moistened earth, although in summer it should be heated by the sun. The most common regions where blueberries grow in Russia are:
- The Urals;
- Far East;
As this northern berry is in great demand, its plantations in the wild are thinning out. In this regard, residents of the Arkhangelsk, Moscow, Vologda and Leningrad regions, as well as in the Republic of Komi and Karelia, are trying to grow durnhiyu on their household plots. Yet not all varieties are suitable for some regions. Planting blueberries in the suburbs and caring for it has specific features.
On each bed it is necessary to plant from two or more varieties. Then you can achieve the highest yields.
Variety choice depending on region
The main condition for prosperity for the plant is a successful wintering. In addition, the variety of water booze should be resistant to diseases, as well as possible droughts. When choosing it is important to consider the maturity of berries (early or middle). This will allow harvesting as early as possible (July, August). Therefore, the following species of blueberry are suitable for the Moscow region:
- Blue Ray.
Spring is a good time for planting a seedling at a dacha near Moscow. The fact that the kidneys did not have time to swell, eventually contributes to the adaptation of the seedling to the new environment. It is in this season, planting and care for blueberry garden will be the most optimal. Of course, the landing can be carried out in the fall. However, it should be done in the first half of October (one month before the start of frosts) so that the plant does not freeze.
A recently planted shrub should be protected from freezing. It is better to gently wrap it with burlap when the temperature decreases. Actual for the autumn landing.
Although the berry grows in the tundra, the place for it is to choose sunny and open. Under the trees or near tall bushes - not the best option for growing blueberries. As a result, the fruits are ground, the taste will become more acidic, and the yield will drop 3 times.
The site should not be chosen with a very deep occurrence of groundwater - about half a meter. So, the land will be relatively wet. The soil must be acidic. To do this, you need to measure the pH level. The norm is the limits from, to,. The neutral earth should be acidified so that the bush can develop.
As an oxidizer, use colloidal sulfur (up to 60 g), orthophosphoric or citric acid. Sometimes ammonium sulphate is used. The substrate is filled up 6 months before planting and compacted.
Moreover, it is important to choose areas protected from the wind. A shelter is either a fence or a hedge from ornamental plants. The ground for planting shrubs should be properly loosened, saturating it with oxygen. Then it is important to properly distribute the blueberry seedlings in the garden to ensure their intensive growth and reproduction. Gardeners recommend adhering to the following:
- The distance between the bushes is 75 or 130 cm.
- Remoteness of beds from each other 2-3 m. Free land can be laid with sawdust.
- The depth of the pit is 50 cm. It should be done in the form of a square with a side of 60 cm.
For clay soil, drainage is always necessary. The bushes are planted on the ridges from the prepared substrate. You can dig trenches (width m, depth 0 m) and cover them with a film: completely or just the walls. If the material is settled to the bottom, cuts for the drain are made at a distance of half a meter. This system provides the top layer of soil with moisture. Also, when growing a dove at the dacha, it is necessary to create natural habitats for it. Watering in the morning and in the evening will bring an iota of bog bush to his homeland. But in this case, you need to be balanced, so that moisture does not stagnate.
Container with seedlings before planting place for 15-30 minutes in water to soften the ground. This will help to extract the plant without injuring the root system.
Soil and landing specificity
A native of the marshy tundra does not like ordinary soil in the garden or in the vegetable garden near Moscow. However, it settles unproblematically on the depleted land and does not need organic fertilizer, humus or compost. Meanwhile, gardeners still have to make the ground for blueberries with their own hands, which differs in composition from the usual vegetable garden.
At the bottom of the formed fossa, it is necessary to lay drainage from chips or pine branches. Then a substrate is prepared, consisting of the following:
- a mixture of sphagnum (moss, wood, and plant remains) and peat;
- humus of needles;
- forest land.
Half of this planting material falls on the peat mixture. All other components are added in equal amounts and mixed. The substrate is poured into the trench and filled with a small amount of water.The bush is planted in the ground, preliminarily straightening the roots. The root neck should sit in the ground for 6-10 cm.
Buy seedlings are those that have reached two or three years of age.
In the end, the soil around the bush is slightly rammed and poured. It is necessary to lay mulch from coniferous sawdust around the trunk.The height of the layer is about 10 cm. The rows are also covered with grass. This prevents overheating and drying of plants, as mulch does not allow moisture to evaporate. It is desirable to treat stems and crown with fungicidal agents, as a prophylaxis against pests (fungi and bacteria).
Thinness of care
The first time the seedlings should be regularly watered and weeded, so that the crust does not form. The reason for this is the surface root system.
An important place in care is always pruning. It is needed for a stable and large harvest. Start it is on the 5th year after planting, and spend every spring. To cut off branches, which are necessary:
- thicken the bush (they are near the basal neck);
- reached the age of 6;
- were frozen in winter (most often it is shoots).
Of course, in the spring it is important to cultivate shrubs with fungicides (against fungi and diseases) and insecticides (against insects). During this period, gardeners fertilize the soil using such acidic mineral fertilizers as:
- potassium sulfate;
- ammonium salt of sulphate acid.
These funds must be diluted with water. At 10 liters of fluid, 50-100 g of one of the fertilizers is needed. However, it is better to read the instruction of each of them.
Before buying a plant, you need to inspect the seedling. The branches and bark should be without damage, and the roots - completely closed (in a bag or container).
Many blueberry varieties are frost-hardy, but experts advise to conduct proper care of the crop in autumn, providing it with decent preparation for the winter. As soon as the first frosts passed:
- tilt shoots to the ground;
- fix the branches with staples or wire;
- to wrap up with agrofiber or burlap.
It is forbidden to use polyethylene materials for shelters. When the temperature rises, a wet microclimate is created under cover. Shoots preet and eventually die.
In summer blueberry needs an intensive irrigation system. For 7 days on one bush it is necessary to spend 20-30 liters of water, depending on the air temperature.It is extremely important to monitor the moisture of the soil throughout July and August, because in these months rudimentary shoots for the following year are laid. Deficiency of moisture reduces yield.
Thousands of gardeners practice growing blueberries from seeds at home, but this is a lengthy process. In the beginning, it is necessary to select ripe fruits without rot and defects. It is desirable that they were as large as possible. Then they act according to this algorithm:
- dried and stored at a temperature of 0 + 5 ° C;
- planted in spring in thawed soil (warm) to a depth of up to, cm;
- cover mulch - leaves, sawdust and peat;
- regularly watered, and also rinse the beds.
Top-dressing begins with the second year. When the shrubbery reaches the age of three, it must be transplanted to a permanent place.
In addition to all the reproduction of blueberries are carried by cuttings, but for this you need to watch specially prepared videos. This is a more rapid and reliable method. Prepare branches (length 8-15 cm) with shoots should be immediately after the bush discards the leaves. In spring they are cut before the buds awaken. The cut must be made even, the first kidney from the top is at a distance of 2 cm.
Before planting the cuttings are stored for 30 days in the refrigerator (t = 0 + 5 ° C). This will accelerate the development process. At an angle of 90 ° they are planted in the soil obliquely cut down, made immediately under the kidney. It is important not to forget to sprinkle the edge with powder for rooting. Such a preparation can also be made in a greenhouse.
Cuttings should be watered regularly. You can build a canopy of film covered with spunbond to create high humidity. After 2 months, remove the hut, and transplant the cuttings.
With such an arsenal of knowledge about planting and caring for blueberry garden you can get a rich harvest and please your family with such refined treats.